42 U.S. Code § 1962d–20 - Prohibition on Great Lakes diversions
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(a) Congressional findings and declarations
The Congress finds and declares that—
(1) the Great Lakes are a most important natural resource to the eight Great Lakes States and two Canadian provinces, providing water supply for domestic and industrial use, clean energy through hydropower production, an efficient transportation mode for moving products into and out of the Great Lakes region, and recreational uses for millions of United States and Canadian citizens;
(2) the Great Lakes need to be carefully managed and protected to meet current and future needs within the Great Lakes basin and Canadian provinces;
(3) any new diversions of Great Lakes water for use outside of the Great Lakes basin will have significant economic and environmental impacts, adversely affecting the use of this resource by the Great Lakes States and Canadian provinces; and
(4) four of the Great Lakes are international waters and are defined as boundary waters in the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 between the United States and Canada, and as such any new diversion of Great Lakes water in the United States would affect the relations of the Government of the United States with the Government of Canada.
(b) Congressional declaration of purpose and policy
It is therefore declared to be the purpose and policy of the Congress in this section—
(1) to take immediate action to protect the limited quantity of water available from the Great Lakes system for use by the Great Lakes States and in accordance with the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909;
(2) to encourage the Great Lakes States, in consultation with the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec, to develop and implement a mechanism that provides a common conservation standard embodying the principles of water conservation and resource improvement for making decisions concerning the withdrawal and use of water from the Great Lakes Basin;
(3) to prohibit any diversion of Great Lakes water by any State, Federal agency, or private entity for use outside the Great Lakes basin unless such diversion is approved by the Governor of each of the Great Lakes States; and
(c) “Great Lakes State” defined
As used in this section, the term “Great Lakes State” means each of the States of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, and Wisconsin.
(d) Approval by Governors for diversion of water
No water shall be diverted or exported from any portion of the Great Lakes within the United States, or from any tributary within the United States of any of the Great Lakes, for use outside the Great Lakes basin unless such diversion or export is approved by the Governor of each of the Great Lake  States.
(e) Approval of Governors for diversion studies
No Federal agency may undertake any study, or expend any Federal funds to contract for any study, of the feasibility of diverting water from any portion of the Great Lakes within the United States, or from any tributary within the United States of any of the Great Lakes, for use outside the Great Lakes basin, unless such study or expenditure is approved by the Governor of each of the Great Lakes States. The prohibition of the preceding sentence shall not apply to any study or data collection effort performed by the Corps of Engineers or other Federal agency under the direction of the International Joint Commission in accordance with the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909.
(f) Previously authorized diversions
This section shall not apply to any diversion of water from any of the Great Lakes which is authorized on November 17, 1986.
 So in original. Probably should be “Lakes”.
Source(Pub. L. 99–662, title XI, § 1109,Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4230; Pub. L. 106–541, title V, § 504(a), (b),Dec. 11, 2000, 114 Stat. 2644.)
Section was enacted as part of the Water Resources Development Act of 1986, and not as part of the Water Resources Planning Act which comprises this chapter.
2000—Subsec. (b)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 106–541, § 504(a), added par. (2) and redesignated former pars. (2) and (3) as (3) and (4), respectively.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–541, § 504(b), inserted “or exported” after “diverted” and “or export” after “diversion”.
Great Lakes Consumptive Use Study
Pub. L. 100–4, title V, § 521,Feb. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 88, provided that in recognition of the serious impacts on the Great Lakes environment that could occur as a result of increased consumption of Great Lakes water, including loss of wetlands and reduction of fish spawning and habitat areas, as well as serious economic losses to vital Great Lakes industries, the Secretary of the Army in cooperation with the Administrator, other interested departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States, and the eight Great Lakes States, was authorized to conduct a study of the effects of Great Lakes water consumption on economic growth and environmental quality in the Great Lakes region and of control measures that could be implemented to reduce the quantity of water consumed, and further provided an appropriation of $750,000 for fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1986, to carry out such study.
Similar provisions were contained in Pub. L. 99–662, title XI, § 1147,Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4253.
Measurements of Lake Michigan Diversions
Pub. L. 99–662, title XI, § 1142,Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4253, as amended by Pub. L. 106–53, title V, § 508,Aug. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 339; Pub. L. 106–541, title V, § 518,Dec. 11, 2000, 114 Stat. 2653, provided that:
“(a) Beginning October 1, 1987, the Secretary, in cooperation with the State of Illinois, shall carry out measurements and make necessary computations required by the decree of the United States Supreme Court (388 U.S. 426) relating to the diversion of water from Lake Michigan and shall coordinate the results with downstate interests. The measurements and computations shall consist of all flow measurements, gauge records, hydraulic and hydrologic computations, including periodic field investigations and measuring device calibrations, necessary to compute the amount of water diverted from Lake Michigan by the State of Illinois and its municipalities, political subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities, not including water diverted or used by Federal installations.
“(b) There are authorized to be appropriated $1,250,000 for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2003 and $800,000 for each fiscal year beginning after September 30, 2003, to carry out this section, including those funds necessary to maintain the measurements and computations, as well as necessary capital construction costs associated with the installation of new flow measurement devices or structures declared necessary and appropriate by the Secretary.”
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