42 U.S. Code § 1973aa–5 - Survey to compile registration and voting statistics
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(a) Elections to House of Representatives and elections designated by United States Commission on Civil Rights
Congress hereby directs the Director of the Census forthwith to conduct a survey to compile registration and voting statistics:
(i) in every State or political subdivision with respect to which the prohibitions of section 1973b (a) of this title are in effect, for every statewide general election for Members of the United States House of Representatives after January 1, 1974; and
(ii) in every State or political subdivision for any election designated by the United States Commission on Civil Rights. Such surveys shall only include a count of citizens of voting age, race or color, and national origin, and a determination of the extent to which such persons are registered to vote and have voted in the elections surveyed.
(b) Prohibition against compulsion to disclose personal data; advice of rights
In any survey under subsection (a) of this section no person shall be compelled to disclose his race, color, national origin, political party affiliation, or how he voted (or the reasons therefor), nor shall any penalty be imposed for his failure or refusal to make such disclosures. Every person interrogated orally, by written survey or questionnaire, or by any other means with respect to such information shall be fully advised of his right to fail or refuse to furnish such information.
(c) Report to Congress
The Director of the Census shall, at the earliest practicable time, report to the Congress the results of every survey conducted pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section.