All citizens of the United States shall have the same right, in every State and Territory, as is enjoyed by white citizens thereof to inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property.
42 U.S. Code § 1982 - Property rights of citizens
R.S. § 1978 derived from act Apr. 9, 1866, ch. 31, § 1, 14 Stat. 27.
Section was formerly classified to section 42 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.
WHEREAS the granting of Federal assistance for the provision, rehabilitation, or operation of housing and related facilities from which Americans are excluded because of their race, color, creed, or national origin is unfair, unjust, and inconsistent with the public policy of the United States as manifested in its Constitution and laws; and
WHEREAS the Congress in the Housing Act of 1949 [see Short Title note set out under section 1441 of this title] has declared that the general welfare and security of the Nation and the health and living standards of its people require the realization as soon as feasible of the goal of a decent home and a suitable living environment for every American family; and
WHEREAS discriminatory policies and practices based upon race, color, creed, or national origin now operate to deny many Americans the benefits of housing financed through Federal assistance and as a consequence prevent such assistance from providing them with an alternative to substandard, unsafe, unsanitary, and overcrowded housing; and
WHEREAS such discriminatory policies and practices result in segregated patterns of housing and necessarily produce other forms of discrimination and segregation which deprive many Americans of equal opportunity in the exercise of their unalienable rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; and
WHEREAS the executive branch of the Government, in faithfully executing the laws of the United States which authorize Federal financial assistance, directly or indirectly, for the provision, rehabilitation, and operation of housing and related facilities, is charged with an obligation and duty to assure that those laws are fairly administered and that benefits thereunder are made available to all Americans without regard to their race, color, creed, or national origin:
NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and laws of the United States, it is ordered as follows:
Section 101. I hereby direct all departments and agencies in the executive branch of the Federal Government, insofar as their functions relate to the provision, rehabilitation, or operation of housing and related facilities, to take all action necessary and appropriate to prevent discrimination because of race, color, religion (creed), sex, disability, familial status or national origin—
(a) in the sale, leasing, rental, or other disposition of residential property and related facilities (including land to be developed for residential use), or in the use or occupancy thereof, if such property and related facilities are—
(i) owned or operated by the Federal Government, or
(ii) provided in whole or in part with the aid of loans, advances, grants, or contributions hereafter agreed to be made by the Federal Government, or
(iii) provided in whole or in part by loans hereafter insured, guaranteed, or otherwise secured by the credit of the Federal Government, or
(iv) provided by the development or the redevelopment of real property purchased, leased, or otherwise obtained from a State or local public agency receiving Federal financial assistance for slum clearance or urban renewal with respect to such real property under a loan of grant contract hereafter entered into; and
(b) in the lending practices with respect to residential property and related facilities (including land to be developed for residential use) of lending institutions, insofar as such practices relate to loans hereafter insured or guaranteed by the Federal Government.
Sec. 102. I hereby direct the Department of Housing and Urban Development and all other executive departments and agencies to use their good offices and to take other appropriate action permitted by law, including the institution of appropriate litigation, if required, to promote the abandonment of discriminatory practices with respect to residential property and related facilities heretofore provided with Federal financial assistance of the types referred to in Section 101(a)(ii), (iii), and (iv).
Sec. 201. Each executive department and agency subject to this order is directed to submit to the President’s Committee on Equal Opportunity in Housing established pursuant to Part IV of this order (hereinafter sometimes referred to as the Committee), within thirty days from the date of this order, a report outlining all current programs administered by it which are affected by this order.
Sec. 202. Each such department and agency shall be primarily responsible for obtaining compliance with the purposes of this order as the order applies to programs administered by it; and is directed to cooperate with the Committee, to furnish it, in accordance with law, such information and assistance as it may request in the performance of its functions, and to report to it at such intervals as the Committee may require.
Sec. 203. Each such department and agency shall, within thirty days from the date of this order, issue such rules and regulations, adopt such procedures and policies, and make such exemptions and exceptions as may be consistent with law and necessary or appropriate to effectuate the purposes of this order. Each such department and agency shall consult with the Committee in order to achieve such consistency and uniformity as may be feasible.
Sec. 301. The Committee, any subcommittee thereof, and any officer or employee designated by any executive department or agency subject to this order may hold such hearings, public or private, as the Committee, department, or agency may deem advisable for compliance, enforcement, or educational purposes.
Sec. 302. If any executive department or agency subject to this order concludes that any person or firm (including but not limited to any individual, partnership, association, trust, or corporation) or any State or local public agency has violated any rule, regulation, or procedure issued or adopted pursuant to this order, or any nondiscrimination provision included in any agreement or contract pursuant to any such rule, regulation, or procedure, it shall endeavor to end and remedy such violation by informal means, including conference, conciliation, and persuasion unless similar efforts made by another Federal department or agency have been unsuccessful. In conformity with rules, regulations, procedures, or policies issued or adopted by it pursuant to Section 203 hereof, a department or agency may take such action as may be appropriate under its governing laws, including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) cancel or terminate in whole or in part any agreement or contract with such person, firm, or State or local public agency providing for a loan, grant, contribution, or other Federal aid, or for the payment of a commission or fee;
(b) refrain from extending any further aid under any program administered by it and affected by this order until it is satisfied that the affected person, firm, or State or local public agency will comply with the rules, regulations, and procedures issued or adopted pursuant to this order, and any nondiscrimination provisions included in any agreement or contract;
(c) refuse to approve a lending institution or any other lender as a beneficiary under any program administered by it which is affected by this order or revoke such approval if previously given.
Sec. 303. In appropriate cases executive departments and agencies shall refer to the Attorney General violations of any rules, regulations, or procedures issued or adopted pursuant to this order, or violations of any nondiscrimination provisions included in any agreement or contract, for such civil or criminal action as he may deem appropriate. The Attorney General is authorized to furnish legal advice concerning this order to the Committee and to any department or agency requesting such advice.
Sec. 304. Any executive department or agency affected by this order may also invoke the sanctions provided in Section 302 where any person or firm, including a lender, has violated the rules, regulations, or procedures issued or adopted pursuant to this order, or the nondiscrimination provisions included in any agreement or contract, with respect to any program affected by this order administered by any other executive department or agency.
Sec. 502. (a) The Committee shall take such steps as it deems necessary and appropriate to promote the coordination of the activities of departments and agencies under this order. In so doing, the Committee shall consider the overall objectives of Federal legislation relating to housing and the right of every individual to participate without discrimination because of race, color, religion (creed), sex, disability, familial status or national origin in the ultimate benefits of the Federal programs subject to this order.
(b) The Committee may confer with representatives of any department or agency, State or local public agency, civic, industry, or labor group, or any other group directly or indirectly affected by this order; examine the relevant rules, regulations, procedures, policies, and practices of any department or agency subject to this order and make such recommendations as may be necessary or desirable to achieve the purposes of this order.
(c) The Committee shall encourage educational programs by civic, educational, religious, industry, labor, and other nongovernmental groups to eliminate the basic causes of discrimination in housing and related facilities provided with Federal assistance.
Sec. 601. As used in this order, the term “departments and agencies” includes any wholly-owned or mixed-ownership Government corporation, and the term “State” includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the territories of the United States.
Sec. 602. This order shall become effective immediately.
[Functions of President’s Committee on Equal Opportunity in Housing under Ex. Ord. No. 11063 delegated to Secretary of Housing and Urban Development by Ex. Ord. No. 12892, § 6–604(a), Jan. 17, 1994, 59 F.R. 2939, set out as a note under section 3608 of this title.]
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