42 U.S. Code § 300j–6 - Federal agencies
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(a) In general
Each department, agency, and instrumentality of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the Federal Government—
(2) engaged in any activity at such facility resulting, or which may result, in the contamination of water supplies in any such area;
(4) engaged in any activity resulting, or which may result in, underground injection which endangers drinking water (within the meaning of section 300h (d)(2) of this title),
shall be subject to, and comply with, all Federal, State, interstate, and local requirements, both substantive and procedural (including any requirement for permits or reporting or any provisions for injunctive relief and such sanctions as may be imposed by a court to enforce such relief), respecting the protection of such wellhead areas, respecting such public water systems, and respecting any underground injection in the same manner and to the same extent as any person is subject to such requirements, including the payment of reasonable service charges. The Federal, State, interstate, and local substantive and procedural requirements referred to in this subsection include, but are not limited to, all administrative orders and all civil and administrative penalties and fines, regardless of whether such penalties or fines are punitive or coercive in nature or are imposed for isolated, intermittent, or continuing violations. The United States hereby expressly waives any immunity otherwise applicable to the United States with respect to any such substantive or procedural requirement (including, but not limited to, any injunctive relief, administrative order or civil or administrative penalty or fine referred to in the preceding sentence, or reasonable service charge). The reasonable service charges referred to in this subsection include, but are not limited to, fees or charges assessed in connection with the processing and issuance of permits, renewal of permits, amendments to permits, review of plans, studies, and other documents, and inspection and monitoring of facilities, as well as any other nondiscriminatory charges that are assessed in connection with a Federal, State, interstate, or local regulatory program respecting the protection of wellhead areas or public water systems or respecting any underground injection. Neither the United States, nor any agent, employee, or officer thereof, shall be immune or exempt from any process or sanction of any State or Federal Court  with respect to the enforcement of any such injunctive relief. No agent, employee, or officer of the United States shall be personally liable for any civil penalty under any Federal, State, interstate, or local law concerning the protection of wellhead areas or public water systems or concerning underground injection with respect to any act or omission within the scope of the official duties of the agent, employee, or officer. An agent, employee, or officer of the United States shall be subject to any criminal sanction (including, but not limited to, any fine or imprisonment) under any Federal or State requirement adopted pursuant to this subchapter, but no department, agency, or instrumentality of the executive, legislative, or judicial branch of the Federal Government shall be subject to any such sanction. The President may exempt any facility of any department, agency, or instrumentality in the executive branch from compliance with such a requirement if he determines it to be in the paramount interest of the United States to do so. No such exemption shall be granted due to lack of appropriation unless the President shall have specifically requested such appropriation as a part of the budgetary process and the Congress shall have failed to make available such requested appropriation. Any exemption shall be for a period not in excess of 1 year, but additional exemptions may be granted for periods not to exceed 1 year upon the President’s making a new determination. The President shall report each January to the Congress all exemptions from the requirements of this section granted during the preceding calendar year, together with his reason for granting each such exemption.
(b) Administrative penalty orders
(1) In general
If the Administrator finds that a Federal agency has violated an applicable requirement under this subchapter, the Administrator may issue a penalty order assessing a penalty against the Federal agency.
The Administrator may, after notice to the agency, assess a civil penalty against the agency in an amount not to exceed $25,000 per day per violation.
Before an administrative penalty order issued under this subsection becomes final, the Administrator shall provide the agency an opportunity to confer with the Administrator and shall provide the agency notice and an opportunity for a hearing on the record in accordance with chapters 5 and 7 of title 5.
(4) Public review
(A) In general
Any interested person may obtain review of an administrative penalty order issued under this subsection. The review may be obtained in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or in the United States District Court for the district in which the violation is alleged to have occurred by the filing of a complaint with the court within the 30-day period beginning on the date the penalty order becomes final. The person filing the complaint shall simultaneously send a copy of the complaint by certified mail to the Administrator and the Attorney General.
The Administrator shall promptly file in the court a certified copy of the record on which the order was issued.
(C) Standard of review
The court shall not set aside or remand the order unless the court finds that there is not substantial evidence in the record, taken as a whole, to support the finding of a violation or that the assessment of the penalty by the Administrator constitutes an abuse of discretion.
(c) Limitation on State use of funds collected from Federal Government
Unless a State law in effect on August 6, 1996, or a State constitution requires the funds to be used in a different manner, all funds collected by a State from the Federal Government from penalties and fines imposed for violation of any substantive or procedural requirement referred to in subsection (a) of this section shall be used by the State only for projects designed to improve or protect the environment or to defray the costs of environmental protection or enforcement.
(d) Indian rights and sovereignty as unaffected; “Federal agency” defined
(1) Nothing in the Safe Drinking Water Amendments of 1977 shall be construed to alter or affect the status of American Indian lands or water rights nor to waive any sovereignty over Indian lands guaranteed by treaty or statute.
(e) Washington Aqueduct
The Secretary of the Army shall not pass the cost of any penalty assessed under this subchapter on to any customer, user, or other purchaser of drinking water from the Washington Aqueduct system, including finished water from the Dalecarlia or McMillan treatment plant.
 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.
Source(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title XIV, § 1447, as added Pub. L. 93–523, § 2(a),Dec. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1688; amended Pub. L. 95–190, § 8(a), (d),Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1396, 1397; Pub. L. 104–182, title I, § 129(a), (c),Aug. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 1660, 1662.)
References in Text
The Safe Drinking Water Amendments of 1977, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), is Pub. L. 95–190, Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1393. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note set out under section 201 of this title and Tables.
1996—Subsecs. (a) to (d). Pub. L. 104–182, § 129(a), added subsecs. (a) to (c), redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d), and struck out former subsecs. (a) and (b) which related to compliance by Federal agencies with Federal, State, and local requirements respecting provision of safe drinking water and respecting underground injection programs, liability for civil penalties, and waiver of compliance requirements when necessary in interest of national security.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–182, § 129(c), added subsec. (e).
1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–190, § 8(a), substituted provisions relating to compliance by Federal agencies having jurisdiction over federally owned or maintained public water systems, or engaged in underground injection activities with Federal, State, and local requirements, etc., for provisions relating to compliance by Federal agencies having jurisdiction over federally owned or maintained public water systems with national primary drinking water regulations.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–190, § 8(d), added subsec. (c).