42 U.S. Code § 9858f - Criminal background checks

§ 9858f.
Criminal background checks
(a) In generalA State that receives funds to carry out this subchapter shall have in effect—
(1)
requirements, policies, and procedures to require and conduct criminal background checks for child care staff members (including prospective child care staff members) of child care providers described in subsection (c)(1); and
(2)
licensing, regulation, and registration requirements, as applicable, that prohibit the employment of child care staff members as described in subsection (c).
(b) RequirementsA criminal background check for a child care staff member under subsection (a) shall include—
(1)
a search of the State criminal and sex offender registry or repository in the State where the child care staff member resides, and each State where such staff member resided during the preceding 5 years;
(2)
a search of State-based child abuse and neglect registries and databases in the State where the child care staff member resides, and each State where such staff member resided during the preceding 5 years;
(3)
a search of the National Crime Information Center;
(4)
a Federal Bureau of Investigation fingerprint check using the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System; and
(5)
a search of the National Sex Offender Registry established under the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 (42 U.S.C. 16901 et seq.).
(c) Prohibitions
(1) Child care staff membersA child care staff member shall be ineligible for employment by a child care provider that is receiving assistance under this subchapter if such individual—
(A)
refuses to consent to the criminal background check described in subsection (b);
(B)
knowingly makes a materially false statement in connection with such criminal background check;
(C)
is registered, or is required to be registered, on a State sex offender registry or repository or the National Sex Offender Registry established under the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 (42 U.S.C. 16901 et seq.); or
(D) has been convicted of a felony consisting of—
(i)
murder, as described in section 1111 of title 18;
(ii)
child abuse or neglect;
(iii)
a crime against children, including child pornography;
(iv)
spousal abuse;
(v)
a crime involving rape or sexual assault;
(vi)
kidnapping;
(vii)
arson;
(viii)
physical assault or battery; or
(ix)
subject to subsection (e)(4), a drug-related offense committed during the preceding 5 years; or
(E)
has been convicted of a violent misdemeanor committed as an adult against a child, including the following crimes: child abuse, child endangerment, sexual assault, or of a misdemeanor involving child pornography.
(2) Child care providers

A child care provider described in subsection (i)(1) shall be ineligible for assistance provided in accordance with this subchapter if the provider employs a staff member who is ineligible for employment under paragraph (1).

(d) Submission of requests for background checks
(1) In general

A child care provider covered by subsection (c) shall submit a request, to the appropriate State agency designated by a State, for a criminal background check described in subsection (b), for each child care staff member (including prospective child care staff members) of the provider.

(2) Staff membersSubject to paragraph (4), in the case of an individual who became a child care staff member before November 19, 2014, the provider shall submit such a request—
(A)
prior to the last day described in subsection (j)(1); and
(B)
not less often than once during each 5-year period following the first submission date under this paragraph for that staff member.
(3) Prospective staff membersSubject to paragraph (4), in the case of an individual who is a prospective child care staff member on or after November 19, 2014, the provider shall submit such a request—
(A)
prior to the date the individual becomes a child care staff member of the provider; and
(B)
not less than once during each 5-year period following the first submission date under this paragraph for that staff member.
(4) Background check for another child care providerA child care provider shall not be required to submit a request under paragraph (2) or (3) for a child care staff member if—
(A) the staff member received a background check described in subsection (b)—
(i)
within 5 years before the latest date on which such a submission may be made; and
(ii)
while employed by or seeking employment by another child care provider within the State;
(B)
the State provided to the first provider a qualifying background check result, consistent with this subchapter, for the staff member; and
(C)
the staff member is employed by a child care provider within the State, or has been separated from employment from a child care provider within the State for a period of not more than 180 consecutive days.
(e) Background check results and appeals
(1) Background check results

The State shall carry out the request of a child care provider for a criminal background check as expeditiously as possible, but not to exceed 45 days after the date on which such request was submitted, and shall provide the results of the criminal background check to such provider and to the current or prospective staff member.

(2) Privacy
(A) In general

The State shall provide the results of the criminal background check to the provider in a statement that indicates whether a child care staff member (including a prospective child care staff member) is eligible or ineligible for employment described in subsection (c), without revealing any disqualifying crime or other related information regarding the individual.

(B) Ineligible staff member

If the child care staff member is ineligible for such employment due to the background check, the State will, when providing the results of the background check, include information related to each disqualifying crime, in a report to the staff member or prospective staff member.

(C) Public release of results

No State shall publicly release or share the results of individual background checks, except States may release aggregated data by crime as listed under subsection (c)(1)(D) from background check results, as long as such data is not personally identifiable information.

(3) Appeals
(A) In general

The State shall provide for a process by which a child care staff member (including a prospective child care staff member) may appeal the results of a criminal background check conducted under this section to challenge the accuracy or completeness of the information contained in such member’s criminal background report.

(B) Appeals processThe State shall ensure that—
(i)
each child care staff member shall be given notice of the opportunity to appeal;
(ii)
a child care staff member will receive instructions about how to complete the appeals process if the child care staff member wishes to challenge the accuracy or completeness of the information contained in such member’s criminal background report; and
(iii)
the appeals process is completed in a timely manner for each child care staff member.
(4) Review

The State may allow for a review process through which the State may determine that a child care staff member (including a prospective child care staff member) disqualified for a crime specified in subsection (c)(1)(D)(ix) is eligible for employment described in subsection (c)(1), notwithstanding subsection (c). The review process shall be consistent with title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.).

(5) No private right of action

Nothing in this section shall be construed to create a private right of action if a provider has acted in accordance with this section.

(f) Fees for background checks

Fees that a State may charge for the costs of processing applications and administering a criminal background check as required by this section shall not exceed the actual costs to the State for the processing and administration.

(g) Transparency

The State must ensure that the policies and procedures under this section are published on the Web site (or otherwise publicly available venue in the absence of a Web site) of the State and the Web sites of local lead agencies.

(h) Construction
(1) Disqualification for other crimes

Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent a State from disqualifying individuals as child care staff members based on their conviction for crimes not specifically listed in this section that bear upon the fitness of an individual to provide care for and have responsibility for the safety and well-being of children.

(2) Rights and remedies

Nothing in this section shall be construed to alter or otherwise affect the rights and remedies provided for child care staff members residing in a State that disqualifies individuals as child care staff members for crimes not specifically provided for under this section.

(i) DefinitionsIn this section—
(1) the term “child care provider” means a center-based child care provider, a family child care provider, or another provider of child care services for compensation and on a regular basis that—
(A)
is not an individual who is related to all children for whom child care services are provided; and
(B)
is licensed, regulated, or registered under State law or receives assistance provided under this subchapter; and
(2) the term “child care staff member” means an individual (other than an individual who is related to all children for whom child care services are provided)—
(A)
who is employed by a child care provider for compensation; or
(B)
whose activities involve the care or supervision of children for a child care provider or unsupervised access to children who are cared for or supervised by a child care provider.
(j) Effective date
(1) In general

A State that receives funds under this subchapter shall meet the requirements of this section for the provision of criminal background checks for child care staff members described in subsection (d)(1) not later than the last day of the second full fiscal year after November 19, 2014.

(2) Extension

The Secretary may grant a State an extension of time, of not more than 1 fiscal year, to meet the requirements of this section if the State demonstrates a good faith effort to comply with the requirements of this section.

(3) Penalty for noncompliance

Except as provided in paragraphs (1) and (2), for any fiscal year that a State fails to comply substantially with the requirements of this section, the Secretary shall withhold 5 percent of the funds that would otherwise be allocated to that State in accordance with this subchapter for the following fiscal year.

References in Text

The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006, referred to in subsecs. (b)(5) and (c)(1)(C), is Pub. L. 109–248, July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 587, which enacted chapter 151 (§ 16901 et seq.) of this title and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 16901 of this title and Tables.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (e)(4), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241. Title VII of the Act is classified generally to subchapter VI (§ 2000e et seq.) of chapter 21 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 9858f, Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, § 658H, as added Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5082(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–241; amended Pub. L. 102–401, § 3(a), Oct. 7, 1992, 106 Stat. 1959; Pub. L. 102–586, § 8(c)(1), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5036, related to early childhood development and before- and after-school services, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–193, title VI, § 608, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2284.

 

LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.