In addition to the person causing or permitting the discharge, the owner or owners of the oil at the time the discharge occurs shall be jointly, severally, and strictly liable for the full amount of penalties assessed pursuant to this section, except that the United States and the several States, and political subdivisions thereof, shall not be liable under this section.
A civil penalty may be assessed and collected under this section only after notice and opportunity for a hearing on the record in accordance with section 554 of title 5. In any proceeding for the assessment of a civil penalty under this section, the Secretary may issue subpoenas for the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of relevant papers, books, and documents and may promulgate rules for discovery procedures. Any person who requested a hearing with respect to a civil penalty under this subsection and who is aggrieved by an order assessing the civil penalty may file a petition for judicial review of such order with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia circuit or for any other circuit in which such person resides or transacts business. Such a petition may only be filed within the 30-day period beginning on the date the order making such assessment was issued.