49 U.S. Code § 32309. Civil penalty for labeling violations

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(a) Definitions.—
The definitions in section 32304 of this title apply to this section.
(b) Penalties.—
A manufacturer of a passenger motor vehicle distributed in commerce for sale in the United States that willfully fails to attach the label required under section 32304 of this title to a new passenger motor vehicle that the manufacturer manufactures or imports, or a dealer that fails to maintain that label as required under section 32304, is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $1,000 for each violation. Each failure to attach or maintain that label for each vehicle is a separate violation.

Historical and Revision Notes

Pub. L. 103–272



Source (U.S. Code)

Source (Statutes at Large)


(no source).



Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L. 92–513, 86 Stat. 947, § 210(e); added Oct. 6, 1992, Pub. L. 102–388, § 355, 106 Stat. 1557.

Subsection (a) is added to ensure that the definitions in 15:1950(f), restated in section 32304 of the revised title, apply to the source provision restated in this section.

In subsection (b), the words “Each failure to attach or maintain that label” are substituted for “Such failure” for clarity.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends the catchline for 49:32309 to correct an error in the codification enacted by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 1042).


1994—Pub. L. 103–429 substituted “Civil” for “Criminal” in section catchline.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.