Sections 3345 through 3349b shall not apply to—
(1) any member who is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate to any board, commission, or similar entity that—
is composed of multiple members; and
governs an independent establishment or Government corporation;
any member of the Surface Transportation Board; or
any judge appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to a court constituted under article I of the United States Constitution.