The Secretary may make such investigations as the Secretary considers necessary for the effective administration of this chapter or to determine whether any person subject to this chapter has engaged or is engaging in any act that constitutes a violation of this chapter or of any order, rule, or regulation issued under this chapter.
For the purpose of an investigation made under subsection (a), the Secretary may administer oaths and affirmations and issue a subpoena to require the production of any records that are relevant to the inquiry. The production of any such records may be required from any place in the United States.
For the purpose of an administrative hearing held under section 6106 or 6107 of this title, the presiding officer is authorized to administer oaths and affirmations, subpoena witnesses, compel their attendance, take evidence, and require the production of any records that are relevant to the inquiry. Such attendance of witnesses and the production of any such records may be required from any place in the United States.
In case of contumacy by, or refusal to obey a subpoena issued to, any person, the Secretary may invoke the aid of any court of the United States within the jurisdiction of which such investigation or proceeding is carried on, or where such person resides or carries on business, in order to enforce a subpoena issued by the Secretary under subsection (b). The court may issue an order requiring such person to comply with such a subpoena.
Any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof.