A civil action authorized to be brought under this section shall be referred to the Attorney General for appropriate action, except that the Secretary is not required to refer to the Attorney General a violation of this subchapter, or any order or regulation issued under this subchapter, if the Secretary believes that the administration and enforcement of this subchapter would be adequately served by administrative action under subsection (c) or suitable written notice or warning to the person committing the violation.
Any person who willfully violates any provision of any order or regulation issued by the Secretary under this subchapter, or who fails or refuses to pay, collect, or remit any assessment or fee duly required of the person under the order or regulation, may be assessed a civil penalty by the Secretary of not less than $500 nor more than $5,000 for each such violation. Each violation shall be a separate offense.
A finding of the Secretary shall be set aside only if the finding is found to be unsupported by substantial evidence.
Any person who fails to obey a cease-and-desist order issued by the Secretary after the cease-and-desist order has become final and unappealable, or after the appropriate United States district court has entered a final judgment in favor of the Secretary, shall be subject to a civil penalty assessed by the Secretary, after opportunity for a hearing and for judicial review under the procedures specified in subsections (c) and (d), of not more than $500 for each offense. Each day during which the failure continues shall be considered a separate violation of the cease-and-desist order.
If a person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty after the assessment has become a final and unappealable order issued by the Secretary, or after the appropriate United States district court has entered final judgment in favor of the Secretary, the Secretary shall refer the matter to the Attorney General for recovery of the amount assessed in the district court of the United States for any district in which the person resides or carries on business. In an action for recovery, the validity and appropriateness of the final order imposing the civil penalty shall not be subject to review.