judicial administration

King's Bench


Historically, the highest court in England during the reign of a king (called the Queen's Bench during the reign of a queen). Also called Court of King's Bench and Coram Rege Court. Abbreviated as K.B.

Illustrative caselaw

See, e.g. Crawford v. Washington, 541 U.S. 36, 45 (2004) (discussing a 1696 King's Bench decision).

Marbury v. Madison (1803)

The Supreme Court case that established the power of judicial review. (Read the opinion here).

During President John Adams’ lame duck session of his presidency, he appointed Marbury as a justice of the peace and signed the commission. Soon thereafter, Thomas Jefferson became President of the United States and refused to allow Secretary of State James Madison to deliver the commission to Marbury. Marbury sued Madison in the Supreme Court to get his commission via a writ of mandamus.


offer of proof

At trial, an explanation to a judge by a party or the party's attorney as to how a proposed line of questioning, or a certain item of physical evidence, would be relevant to its case and admissible under the rules of evidence. Offers of proof arise when a party begins a line of questioning that the other side objects to as calling for irrelevant or inadmissible information. If the judge thinks that the questions might lead to proper evidence, the questioner will be give a chance to show how the expected answers will be both relevant and admissible. This explanation is usually presented out of the jurys hearing, but it does become part of the trial record.

off calendar

Refers to a court order to take a lawsuit, petition, or motion off the list of pending proceedings. The reasons might be that the lawyers agreed (stipulated) to drop or postpone the case, the moving party's lawyer failed to appear, the suit has been settled pending final documentation, or some other reason that the case should not proceed at that time. The matter can in most instances be put back "on calendar" by stipulation of the lawyers or upon motion of either party.



1. A local official whose authority is limited to whatever has been granted by statute or specified in the appointment.

2. In local or state courts, a justice of the peace or other judicial officer who has strictly limited authority and jurisdiction to hear certain cases, often criminal cases or small claims.

3. In U.S. federal courts, a judicial officer who has been appointed by a federal district judge to expedite the judicial process by conducting routine hearings and other proceedings.



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