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Suitable for courts to hear and decide on the merits. If a case is not justiciable, the court must dismiss it.

The justiciability doctrines limit federal judicial power and include rules that the Supreme Court has crafted to determine (i) whether there is a sufficient “case or controversy” that the court may decide on under Article III of the Constitution; or (ii) whether there are prudential limits which bar courts from exercising judicial review. The doctrines encompass the prohibition against advisory opinions; standing; ripeness; mootness; and the political question doctrine.