Generally, in the United States, Military Law is a body of law that oversees the members of the armed forces. Essentially, the usage of military law on the members of the armed forces was a recognition that military individuals are subjected to different rules and expectations than ordinary civilian citizens. Military Law functions as a system of government for military members. It should be noted though that Military Law is different from martial law.
The military legal system is codified in the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) which is applied to all branches of the military. All members of the armed forces, including but not limited to activated reservists, active duty personnel, guard members, and even retired members of the military, are subject to the UCMJ. Thus, even if a member of the armed forces commits a criminal act unrelated to military matters, they are still subjected to the UCMJ in addition to civilian penalties and will be accordingly disciplined. Generally, punishments for violating any of the rules of the UCMJ vary from a loss of privileges to confinement and discharge. Hence, all members within the scope of the military fall under the jurisdiction of military law regardless of whether they are actually in service or not.
The UCMJ covers offenses specific to military officials such as high crimes and misdemeanors, perjury of oath, abuse of authority, bribery, intimidation, misuse of assets, failure to supervise, dereliction of duty, etc. and also covers ordinary civilian crimes too but has a different standard of proof than civilian courts and a different set of punishments.
The origins of military law are directly from the United States Constitution itself which authorized the establishment of a justice system within the military. Specifically, Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution grants Congress to power to “make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces.” Then in 1806, Congress issued a new set of rules known as the Articles of War. Later, during the American Civil War, the 1863 Lieber Code governed military justice. Finally, in 1951 in the aftermath of World War II, Congress superseded the Articles of War and the Lieber Code with the Uniform Code of Military Justice.
Thus, the UCMJ is indeed federal law and is located in Title 10 United States Code Chapter 47, and is employed by the Manual for Courts-Martial, which is an executive order from the President of the United States acting as the Commander-in-Chief of the United States Armed Forces. Furthermore, it is through the military courts and the United States Court of Appeals of the Armed Forces (CAAF) that court-martial conviction can be appealed. The CAAF is a federal appellate court that is made up of five civilian judges that the President appoints. Decisions from the CAAF can be subjected to direct review by the United States Supreme Court.
menu of sources
U.S. Constitution and Federal Statutes
- U.S. Code:
- Uniform Code of Military Justice
- CRS Annotated Constitution
Federal Judicial Decisions
- U.S. Supreme Court:
- U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeals: Recent Military Law Decisions
- CRS Annotated Constitution: Article I: Care of the Armed Forces
State Judicial Decisions
Key Internet Sources
- Federal Agencies:
Useful Offnet (or Subscription - $) Sources
- Good Starting Point in Print: Shanor and Hogue, National Security Military Law in a Nutshell, West Group (2003)
- Category: Group Rights
- Category: Individual Rights
- Category: Governmental Organization, Power, and Procedure
[Last updated in July of 2020 by the Wex Definitions Team]