Parol evidence

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Unwritten evidence provided orally by mouth. Under common law, the parol evidence rule governs the extent to which evidence of a claimed agreement, understanding, or negotiation prior to or contemporaneous with the written agreement may be introduced in court to explain, supplement, or vary that written agreement.

 See, e.g. Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. of Health, 497 U.S. 261 (1990).

See also