Peer review is the evaluation of someone’s work by a group of people in the same profession or field (peers). Peer review is mostly used to maintain the quality of the performance of professionals.
In medical field, peer-review is often being used to ensure the quality of patient care. In Rechsteiner v. Hazelden, 2008 WI 97 (2008), the Supreme Court of Wisconsin states that: “Medical peer review has become the principal method of evaluating the quality of patient care. … Peer review serves as one of medicine's most effective risk management and quality improvement tools and provides a safe forum in which medical professionals can review the quality of care and work to reduce medical errors.”
In academia, before a scholarly work, research, or idea is published on a journal or conference, the work, research, or idea will be scrutinized by peers. The peer review helps the published decide whether the work should be accepted, revised, or rejected.
[Last updated in September of 2020 by the Wex Definitions Team]