(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 755; Apr. 6, 1956, ch. 177, § 1,70 Stat. 100; Pub. L. 87–368, Oct. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 795; Pub. L. 91–452, title III, § 302,Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 932; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, § 7020(b),Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4396; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §§ 330004(19),
330016(1)(K),Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2142, 2147; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, § 607(e),Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3511.)
Historical and Revision Notes
Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 408e (May 18, 1934, ch. 302, 48 Stat. 782
; Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 735, 60 Stat. 789
408e was rewritten and the phrase “offenses as they are defined either at common law or by the laws of the place from which the fugitive flees” were inserted to remove the ambiguity discussed in the opinion of the Circuit Court of Appeals, Third Circuit, in Brandenburg v. U.S., decided September 6, 1944, not yet reported [144 F2d 656], reversing the conviction of the appellant. The court held that Congress intended the enumerated offenses to mean those as defined at common law. The effect of the rewritten section is to make the statute applicable whether the offense committed is one defined at common law or by the law of the state from which the fugitive flees.
The words “offense punishable by imprisonment in a penitentiary” were substituted for “felony” to make the statute uniformly applicable and to include crimes of the grade of felony even where, as in New Jersey, they are denominated as misdemeanor, high misdemeanor or otherwise.
Words “from any State, Territory, or possession of the United States or the District of Columbia” were omitted in view of definitive section
of this title.
Words “upon conviction thereof” were deleted as surplusage since punishment cannot be imposed until a conviction is secured.
Minor changes were made in phraseology.
1996—Pub. L. 104–294
inserted at end of first par. “For the purposes of clause (3) of this paragraph, the term ‘State’ includes a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States.”
1994—Pub. L. 103–322
, § 330016(1)(K), substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.
Pub. L. 103–322
, § 330004(19), struck out “or which, in the case of New Jersey, is a high misdemeanor under the laws of said State,” before “or (2) to avoid” and “or which in the case of New Jersey, is a high misdemeanor under the laws of said State,” before “is charged, or (3)”.
1988—Pub. L. 100–690
inserted “, the Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General,” after “the Attorney General”.
1970—Pub. L. 91–452
inserted cl. (3) and “, or in which an avoidance of service of process or a contempt referred to in clause (3) of the first paragraph of this section is alleged to have been committed,” after “in custody or confinement”.
1961—Pub. L. 87–368
substituted “a crime, or an attempt to commit a crime, punishable by death or which is a felony under the laws of the place from which the fugitive flees, or which, in the case of New Jersey, is a high misdemeanor under the laws of said State” for “murder, kidnaping, burglary, robbery, mayhem, rape, assault with a dangerous weapon, arson punishable as a felony, or extortion accompanied by threats of violence, or attempt to commit any of the foregoing offenses as they are defined either at common law or by the laws of the place from which the fugitive flees”, “death or which is a felony under the laws of such place, or which in the case of New Jersey, is a high misdemeanor under the laws of said State,” for “imprisonment in a penitentiary”, and required that prosecutions must be upon the formal written approval of the Attorney General or an Assistant Attorney General, which function may not be delegated.
1956—Act Apr. 6, 1956, inserted “, arson punishable as a felony” after “assault with a dangerous weapon”.
Effective Date of 1956 Amendment
Section 2 of act Apr. 6, 1956, provided that: “The amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall take effect on the thirtieth day after the date of enactment of this Act [April 6, 1956].”
Parental Kidnaping and Interstate or International Flight To Avoid Prosecution Under Applicable State Felony Statutes
Pub. L. 96–611
, § 10,Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3573
, provided that:
“(a) In view of the findings of the Congress and the purposes of sections 6 to 10 of this Act set forth in section
302 [probably means section 7 ofPub. L. 96–611
, set out as a note under section
, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure], the Congress hereby expressly declares its intent that section
, United States Code, apply to cases involving parental kidnaping and interstate or international flight to avoid prosecution under applicable State felony statutes.
“(b) The Attorney General of the United States, not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this section [Dec. 28, 1980] (and once every 6 months during the 3-year period following such 120-day period), shall submit a report to the Congress with respect to steps taken to comply with the intent of the Congress set forth in subsection (a). Each such report shall include—
“(1) data relating to the number of applications for complaints under section
, United States Code in cases involving parental kidnaping;
“(2) data relating to the number of complaints issued in such cases; and
“(3) such other information as may assist in describing the activities of the Department of Justice in conformance with such intent.”