19 U.S. Code § 2171 - Structure, functions, powers, and personnel

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(a) Establishment within Executive Office of the President
There is established within the Executive Office of the President the Office of the United States Trade Representative (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “Office”).
(b) United States Trade Representative; Deputy United States Trade Representatives
(1) The Office shall be headed by the United States Trade Representative who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. As an exercise of the rulemaking power of the Senate, any nomination of the United States Trade Representative submitted to the Senate for confirmation, and referred to a committee, shall be referred to the Committee on Finance. The United States Trade Representative shall hold office at the pleasure of the President, shall be entitled to receive the same allowances as a chief of mission, and shall have the rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.
(2) There shall be in the Office three Deputy United States Trade Representatives and one Chief Agricultural Negotiator who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. As an exercise of the rulemaking power of the Senate, any nomination of a Deputy United States Trade Representative or the Chief Agricultural Negotiator submitted to the Senate for its advice and consent, and referred to a committee, shall be referred to the Committee on Finance. Each Deputy United States Trade Representative and the Chief Agricultural Negotiator shall hold office at the pleasure of the President and shall have the rank of Ambassador.
(3) A person who has directly represented, aided, or advised a foreign entity (as defined by section 207 (f)(3) of title 18) in any trade negotiation, or trade dispute, with the United States may not be appointed as United States Trade Representative or as a Deputy United States Trade Representative.
(c) Duties of United States Trade Representative and Deputy United States Trade Representatives
(1) The United States Trade Representative shall—
(A) have primary responsibility for developing, and for coordinating the implementation of, United States international trade policy, including commodity matters, and, to the extent they are related to international trade policy, direct investment matters;
(B) serve as the principal advisor to the President on international trade policy and shall advise the President on the impact of other policies of the United States Government on international trade;
(C) have lead responsibility for the conduct of, and shall be the chief representative of the United States for, international trade negotiations, including all negotiations on any matter considered under the auspices of the World Trade Organization, commodity and direct investment negotiations, in which the United States participates;
(D) issue and coordinate policy guidance to departments and agencies on basic issues of policy and interpretation arising in the exercise of international trade functions, including any matter considered under the auspices of the World Trade Organization, to the extent necessary to assure the coordination of international trade policy and consistent with any other law;
(E) act as the principal spokesman of the President on international trade;
(F) report directly to the President and the Congress regarding, and be responsible to the President and the Congress for the administration of, trade agreements programs;
(G) advise the President and Congress with respect to nontariff barriers to international trade, international commodity agreements, and other matters which are related to the trade agreements programs;
(H) be responsible for making reports to Congress with respect to matters referred to in subparagraphs (C) and (F);
(I) be chairman of the interagency trade organization established under section 1872 (a) of this title, and shall consult with and be advised by such organization in the performance of his functions; and
(J) in addition to those functions that are delegated to the United States Trade Representative as of August 23, 1988, be responsible for such other functions as the President may direct.
(2) It is the sense of Congress that the United States Trade Representative should—
(A) be the senior representative on any body that the President may establish for the purpose of providing to the President advice on overall economic policies in which international trade matters predominate; and
(B) be included as a participant in all economic summit and other international meetings at which international trade is a major topic.
(3) The United States Trade Representative may—
(A) delegate any of his functions, powers, and duties to such officers and employees of the Office as he may designate; and
(B) authorize such successive redelegations of such functions, powers, and duties to such officers and employees of the Office as he may deem appropriate.
(4) Each Deputy United States Trade Representative shall have as his principal function the conduct of trade negotiations under this chapter and shall have such other functions as the United States Trade Representative may direct.
(5) The principal function of the Chief Agricultural Negotiator shall be to conduct trade negotiations and to enforce trade agreements relating to United States agricultural products and services. The Chief Agricultural Negotiator shall be a vigorous advocate on behalf of United States agricultural interests. The Chief Agricultural Negotiator shall perform such other functions as the United States Trade Representative may direct.
(d) Unfair trade practices; additional duties of Representative; advisory committee; definition
(1) In carrying out subsection (c) of this section with respect to unfair trade practices, the United States Trade Representative shall—
(A) coordinate the application of interagency resources to specific unfair trade practice cases;
(B) identify, and refer to the appropriate Federal department or agency for consideration with respect to action, each act, policy, or practice referred to in the report required under section 2241 (b) of this title, or otherwise known to the United States Trade Representative on the basis of other available information, that may be an unfair trade practice that either—
(i) is considered to be inconsistent with the provisions of any trade agreement and has a significant adverse impact on United States commerce, or
(ii) has a significant adverse impact on domestic firms or industries that are either too small or financially weak to initiate proceedings under the trade laws;
(C) identify practices having a significant adverse impact on United States commerce that the attainment of United States negotiating objectives would eliminate; and
(D) identify, on a biennial basis, those United States Government policies and practices that, if engaged in by a foreign government, might constitute unfair trade practices under United States law.
(2) For purposes of carrying out paragraph (1), the United States Trade Representative shall be assisted by an interagency unfair trade practices advisory committee composed of the Trade Representative, who shall chair the committee, and senior representatives of the following agencies, appointed by the respective heads of those agencies:
(A) The Bureau of Economics and Business Affairs of the Department of State.
(B) The United States and Foreign Commercial Services of the Department of Commerce.
(C) The International Trade Administration (other than the United States and Foreign Commercial Service) of the Department of Commerce.
(D) The Foreign Agricultural Service of the Department of Agriculture.
The United States Trade Representative may also request the advice of the United States International Trade Commission regarding the carrying out of paragraph (1).
(3) For purposes of this subsection, the term “unfair trade practice” means any act, policy, or practice that—
(A) may be a subsidy with respect to which countervailing duties may be imposed under subtitle A of title VII [19 U.S.C. 1671 et seq.];
(B) may result in the sale or likely sale of foreign merchandise with respect to which antidumping duties may be imposed under subtitle B of title VII [19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq.];
(C) may be either an unfair method of competition, or an unfair act in the importation of articles into the United States, that is unlawful under section 337 [19 U.S.C. 1337]; or
(D) may be an act, policy, or practice of a kind with respect to which action may be taken under subchapter III of this chapter.
(e) Powers of United States Trade Representative
The United States Trade Representative may, for the purpose of carrying out his functions under this section—
(1) subject to the civil service and classification laws, select, appoint, employ, and fix the compensation of such officers and employees as are necessary and prescribe their authority and duties, except that not more than 20 individuals may be employed without regard to any provision of law regulating the employment or compensation at rates not to exceed the rate of pay for level IV of the Executive Schedule in section 5314  [1] of title 5;
(2) employ experts and consultants in accordance with section 3109 of title 5 and compensate individuals so employed for each day (including traveltime) at rates not in excess of the maximum rate of pay for grade GS–18 as provided in section 5332 of title 5 and while such experts and consultants are so serving away from their homes or regular place of business, to pay such employees travel expenses and per diem in lieu of subsistence at rates authorized by section 5703 of title 5 for persons in Government service employed intermittently;
(3) promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the functions, powers and duties vested in him;
(4) utilize, with their consent, the services, personnel, and facilities of other Federal agencies;
(5) enter into and perform such contracts, leases, cooperative agreements, or other transactions as may be necessary in the conduct of the work of the Office and on such terms as the United States Trade Representative may deem appropriate, with any agency or instrumentality of the United States, or with any public or private person, firm, association, corporation, or institution;
(6) accept voluntary and uncompensated services, notwithstanding the provisions of section 1342 of title 31;
(7) adopt an official seal, which shall be judicially noticed;
(8) pay for expenses approved by him for official travel without regard to the Federal Travel Regulations or to the provisions of subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5 (relating to rates of per diem allowances in lieu of subsistence expenses);
(9) accept, hold, administer, and utilize gifts, devises, and bequests of property, both real and personal, for the purpose of aiding or facilitating the work of the Office;
(10) acquire, by purchase or exchange, not more than two passenger motor vehicles for use abroad, except that no vehicle may be acquired at a cost exceeding $9,500; and
(11) provide, where authorized by law, copies of documents to persons at cost, except that any funds so received shall be credited to, and be available for use from, the account from which expenditures relating thereto were made.
(f) Use of other Federal agencies
The United States Trade Representative shall, to the extent he deems it necessary for the proper administration and execution of the trade agreements programs of the United States, draw upon the resources of, and consult with, Federal agencies in connection with the performance of his functions.
(g) Authorization of appropriations
(1)
(A) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Office for the purposes of carrying out its functions the following:
(i) $32,300,000 for fiscal year 2003.
(ii) $33,108,000 for fiscal year 2004.
(B) Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated under subparagraph (A) for any fiscal year—
(i) not to exceed $98,000 may be used for entertainment and representation expenses of the Office; and
(ii) not to exceed $1,000,000 shall remain available until expended.
(2) For the fiscal year beginning October 1, 1982, and for each fiscal year thereafter, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Office for the salaries of its officers and employees such additional sums as may be provided by law to reflect pay rate changes made in accordance with the Federal Pay Comparability Act of 1970.
(3) By not later than the date on which the President submits to Congress the budget of the United States Government for a fiscal year, the United States Trade Representative shall submit to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate the projected amount of funds for the succeeding fiscal year that will be necessary for the Office to carry out its functions.


[1]  So in original. Probably should be section “5315”.

Source

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, § 141,Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1999; Pub. L. 97–456, § 3(a)–(d)(2), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2504, 2505; Pub. L. 98–573, title III, § 304(d)(2)(A), title VII, § 703,Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3004, 3043; Pub. L. 99–272, title XIII, § 13023,Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 307; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, § 1887(a)(3), (4),Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2923; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, § 9504,Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–382; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, § 1601,Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1260; Pub. L. 101–207, § 1(a),Dec. 7, 1989, 103 Stat. 1833; Pub. L. 101–382, title I, § 103(a),Aug. 20, 1990, 104 Stat. 634; Pub. L. 103–465, title VI, § 621(a)(8),Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4993; Pub. L. 104–65, § 21(b),Dec. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 704; Pub. L. 104–295, § 20(f)(1),Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3529; Pub. L. 106–36, title I, § 1001(a)(2),June 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 130; Pub. L. 106–200, title IV, § 406,May 18, 2000, 114 Stat. 293; Pub. L. 107–210, div. A, title III, § 361(a), (b),Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 991; Pub. L. 108–429, title II, § 2004(a)(15),Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2591.)
References in Text

Subtitles A and B of title VII and section 337, referred to in subsec. (d)(3)(A) to (C), probably mean subtitles A and B of title VII and section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 which is act June 17, 1930, ch. 497, 46 Stat. 590. Subtitles A and B of title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930 are classified generally to parts I and II (§ 1671 et seq. and 1673 et seq., respectively) of subtitle IV of chapter 4 of this title. Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 is classified to section 1337 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1654 of this title and Tables.
Subchapter III of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (d)(3)(D), was in the original “title III of the Trade Act of 1974”, which is Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978. Chapter 1 of title III of the Trade Act of 1974 is classified generally to subchapter III (§ 2411 et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of title III to the Code, see Tables.
The Federal Pay Comparability Act of 1970, referred to in subsec. (g)(2), is Pub. L. 91–656, Jan. 8, 1971, 84 Stat. 1946, which enacted sections 5305 to 5308 and 5947 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, amended sections 5108, 5301, and 5942 of Title 5 and section 410 of Title 39, Postal Service, repealed section 5302 of Title 5, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 5303 and 5942 ofTitle 5, section 60a of Title 2, The Congress, and section 410 of Title 39. For complete classification of the Act to the Code see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of Title 5 and Tables.
Codification

Section is comprised of section 141 ofPub. L. 93–618. Section 141(b) ofPub. L. 93–618contains two pars. (3), the first of which amended sections 5312 and 5314 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.
Amendments

2004—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 108–429realigned margins.
2002—Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 107–210, § 361(a)(1)(A), struck out “not to exceed” after “functions” in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (g)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 107–210, § 361(a)(1)(B), added cl. (i) and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: “$23,250,000 for fiscal year 1991.”
Subsec. (g)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 107–210, § 361(a)(1)(C), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: “$21,077,000 for fiscal year 1992.”
Subsec. (g)(1)(B). Pub. L. 107–210, § 361(a)(2), inserted “and” at end of cl. (i), redesignated cl. (iii) as (ii), and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: “not to exceed $2,050,000 may be used to pay the United States share of the expenses of binational panels and extraordinary challenge committees convened pursuant to chapter 19 of the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement; and”.
Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 107–210, § 361(b), added par. (3).
2000—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–200, § 406(1), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “There shall be in the Office three Deputy United States Trade Representatives who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. As an exercise of the rulemaking power of the Senate, any nomination of a Deputy United States Trade Representative submitted to the Senate for confirmation, and referred to a committee, shall be referred to the Committee on Finance. Each Deputy United States Trade Representative shall hold office at the pleasure of the President and shall have the rank of Ambassador.”
Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 106–200, § 406(2), added par. (5).
1999—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 106–36struck out “Limitation on appointments.—” after “(3)” and realigned margins.
1996—Subsec. (c)(1)(D). Pub. L. 104–295struck out comma after “World Trade Organization,”.
1995—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 104–65added par. (3).
1994—Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 103–465, § 621(a)(8)(A), inserted “all negotiations on any matter considered under the auspices of the World Trade Organization,” after “including”.
Subsec. (c)(1)(D). Pub. L. 103–465, § 621(a)(8)(B), inserted “, including any matter considered under the auspices of the World Trade Organization,” after “functions”.
1990—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 101–382amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows:
“(A) There are authorized to be appropriated for fiscal year 1990 to the Office for the purposes of carrying out its functions not to exceed $19,651,000.
“(B) Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated under subparagraph (A) for fiscal year 1990—
“(i) not to exceed $89,000 may be used for entertainment and representation expenses of the Office; and
“(ii) not to exceed $1,000,000 shall remain available until expended.”
1989—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 101–207, in subpar. (A), substituted “1990” for “1988” and “$19,651,000” for “$15,172,000”, and in subpar. (B), substituted “1990” for “1988” in introductory provisions, and “$89,000” for “$69,000” in cl. (i).
1988—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–418, § 1601(a)(1), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “The United States Trade Representative shall—
“(A) be the chief representative of the United States for each trade negotiation under this subchapter or section 2411 of this title;
“(B) report directly to the President and the Congress, and be responsible to the President and the Congress for the administration of trade agreements programs under this chapter, the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [19 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.], and section 1351 of this title;
“(C) advise the President and Congress with respect to nontariff barriers to international trade, international commodity agreements, and other matters which are related to the trade agreements programs;
“(D) be responsible for making reports to Congress with respect to the matter set forth in subparagraphs (A) and (B);
“(E) be chairman of the interagency trade organization established pursuant to section 242(a) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [19 U.S.C. 1872 (a)]; and
“(F) be responsible for such other functions as the President may direct.”
Subsec. (c)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 100–418, § 1601(a)(2), (3), added par. (2) and redesignated former pars. (2) and (3) as (3) and (4), respectively.
Subsecs. (d) to (g). Pub. L. 100–418, § 1601(b)(1), (2), added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsecs. (d) to (f) as (e) to (g), respectively.
1987—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 100–203amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “There are authorized to be appropriated to the Office for the purpose of carrying out its functions $13,582,000 for fiscal year 1986; of which not to exceed $80,000 may be used for entertainment and representation expenses.”
1986—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 99–272, § 13023(1), inserted provision that not more than 20 individuals may be employed without regard to any provision of law regulating the employment or compensation at rates not to exceed the rate of pay for level IV of the Executive Schedule.
Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 99–514, § 1887(a)(3), substituted “1342 of title 31” for “3679(b) of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 665(b))”.
Subsec. (d)(8), (11). Pub. L. 99–514, § 1887(a)(4), redesignated the par. (8) relating to the provision of copies of documents to persons at cost as par. (11).
Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 99–272, § 13023(2), substituted “$13,582,000 for fiscal year 1986” for “$14,179,000 for fiscal year 1985”.
1984—Subsec. (d)(6) to (8). Pub. L. 98–573, § 304(d)(2)(A), which directed that a new par. (8), relating to the provision of copies of documents to persons at cost, be added to subsec. (d) by striking out “and” at the end of par. (6), substituting “; and” for the period at the end of par. (7), and adding the new par. (8) at the end thereof, was executed by adding the new par. (8) following par. (10). Amendments to pars. (6) and (7) could not be executed.
Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 98–573, § 703, substituted provisions authorizing appropriations of $14,179,000 for fiscal year 1985, of which not more than $80,000 may be used for entertainment and representation for provisions authorizing appropriations of $11,100,000 for fiscal year 1983, of which not more than $65,000 could be used for entertainment and representation expenses.
1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–456, § 3(d)(1)(D), substituted “United States Trade Representative” for “Special Representative for Trade Negotiations”.
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–456, § 3(d)(1)(D), substituted “United States Trade Representative” for “Special Representative for Trade Negotiations” wherever appearing.
Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–456, § 3(c), (d)(2)(A), (B), substituted “three Deputy United States Trade Representatives” for “two Deputy Special Representatives for Trade Negotiations” after “in the Office”, “a Deputy United States Trade Representative” for “a Deputy Special Representative” after “any nomination of a”, and “Deputy United States Trade Representative” for “Deputy Special Representative for Trade Negotiations” after “Each”.
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 97–456, § 3(d)(1)(D), substituted “United States Trade Representative” for “Special Representative for Trade Negotiations” in provisions preceding subpar. (A).
Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 97–456, § 3(b)(1), added par. (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).
Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 97–456, § 3(b)(1), (d)(2)(C), (D), redesignated former par. (2) as (3) and substituted “Deputy United States Trade Representative” for “Deputy Special Representative for Trade Negotiations” after “Each” and “United States Trade Representative” for “Special Representative for Trade Negotiations” after “such other functions as the”.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–456, § 3(d)(1)(D), substituted “United States Trade Representative” for “Special Representative for Trade Negotiations” in provisions preceding par. (1).
Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 97–456, § 3(b)(2), inserted “, powers and duties” after “functions”.
Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 97–456, § 3(d)(1)(D), substituted “United States Trade Representative” for “Special Representative for Trade Negotiations”.
Subsec. (d)(8) to (10). Pub. L. 97–456, § 3(b)(3)–(5), added pars. (8) to (10).
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–456, § 3(d)(1)(D), substituted “United States Trade Representative” for “Special Representative for Trade Negotiations”.
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–456, § 3(a), substituted provisions authorizing for appropriation $11,100,000 for fiscal 1983, of which no more than $65,000 could be used for entertainment and representation expenses, and authorizing for appropriation such additional sums as might be provided in accordance with the Federal Pay Comparability Act of 1970, for provisions authorizing for appropriation necessary sums for fiscal 1976 and each fiscal year thereafter any part of which was within the five-year period beginning on Jan. 3, 1975.
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 97–456, § 3(d)(1), struck out subsec. (g) which abolished the Office of Special Representative for Trade Negotiations and transferred its assets and obligations to the Office of United States Trade Representative.
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–456, § 3(d)(1), struck out subsec. (h) which permitted any individual holding the position of Special Representative for Trade Negotiations or Deputy Special Representative for Trade Negotiations on Jan. 3, 1975, appointed with the advice and consent of the Senate, to continue to hold such position, and provided for the transfer of personnel employed by the Office of Special Representative for Trade Negotiations on Jan. 2, 1975, to the Office of United States Trade Representative.
Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–210applicable to petitions for certification filed under part 2 or 3 of subchapter II of this chapter on or after the date that is 90 days after Aug. 6, 2002, except as otherwise provided, see section 151 ofPub. L. 107–210, set out as a note preceding section 2271 of this title.
Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–65applicable with respect to an individual appointed as United States Trade Representative or as a Deputy United States Trade Representative on or after Dec. 19, 1995, see section 21(c) ofPub. L. 104–65, set out as a note under section 207 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.
Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465effective on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States [Jan. 1, 1995], see section 621(b) ofPub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1677k of this title.
Chief Negotiator for Intellectual Property Enforcement

Pub. L. 108–447, div. B, title II, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 2872, provided in part: “That there is established a position of Chief Negotiator for Intellectual Property Enforcement.”
Waiver of Provisions Limiting Appointment of Trade Representative

Pub. L. 105–5, Mar. 17, 1997, 111 Stat. 11, provided: “That notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (3) of section 141(b) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2171 (b)(3)) or any other provision of law, the President, acting by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, is authorized to appoint Charlene Barshefsky as the United States Trade Representative.”
References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, § 101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.
Senior Commercial Officers To Hold Title of Minister-Counselor; Maximum Number Designated

Provisions requiring the Secretary of State, upon the request of the Secretary of Commerce, to accord the diplomatic title of Minister-Counselor to the senior Commercial Officer assigned to any United States mission abroad with a limit on the number of Commercial Service officers accorded such diplomatic title at any time were contained in the following appropriation acts:
Pub. L. 102–395, title II, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1852.
Pub. L. 102–140, title II, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 802.
Pub. L. 101–515, title I, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2103.
Pub. L. 101–162, title I, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 991.
Pub. L. 100–459, title I, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2189.
Pub. L. 100–202, § 101(a) [title I], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329, 1329–3.
Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§ 1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§ 1801–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 ofPub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.
REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 3 OF 1979 44 F.R. 69273, 93 Stat. 1381, as amended Pub. L. 97–195, § 1(c)(6),June 16, 1982, 96 Stat. 115; Pub. L. 97–377, title I, § 122,Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1913 Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives in Congress assembled, September 25, 1979, pursuant to the provisions of chapter 9 of title 5 of the United States Code. REORGANIZATION OF FUNCTIONS RELATING TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE
Section 1. Office of the United States Trade Representative

(a) The Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations is redesignated the Office of the United States Trade Representative.
(b)(1) The Special Representative for Trade Negotiations is redesignated the United States Trade Representative (hereinafter referred to as the “Trade Representative”). The Trade Representative shall have primary responsibility, with the advice of the interagency organization established under section 242 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1872) (hereinafter referred to as the “Committee”), for developing, and for coordinating the implementation of, United States international trade policy, including commodity matters and, to the extent they are related to international trade policy, direct investment matters. The Trade Representative shall serve as the principal advisor to the President on international trade policy and shall advise the President on the impact of other policies of the United States Government on international trade.
(2) The Trade Representative shall have lead responsibility for the conduct of international trade negotiations, including commodity and direct investment negotiations in which the United States participates.
(3) To the extent necessary to assure the coordination of international trade policy, and consistent with any other law, the Trade Representative, with the advice of the Committee, shall issue policy guidance to departments and agencies on basic issues of policy and interpretation arising in the exercise of the following international trade functions. Such guidance shall determine the policy of the United States with respect to international trade issues arising in the exercise of such functions:
(A) matters concerning the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, including implementation of the trade agreements set forth in section 2(c) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [19 U.S.C. 2503 (c)]; United States Government positions on trade and commodity matters dealt with by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, and other multilateral organizations; and the assertion and protection of the rights of the United States under bilateral and multilateral international trade and commodity agreements;
(B) expansion of exports from the United States;
(C) policy research on international trade, commodity, and direct investment matters;
(D) to the extent permitted by law, overall United States policy with regard to unfair trade practices, including enforcement of countervailing duties and antidumping functions under section 303 and title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1303, 1671 et seq.];
(E) bilateral trade and commodity issues, including East-West trade matters; and
(F) international trade issues involving energy.
(4) All functions of the Trade Representative shall be conducted under the direction of the President.
(c) The Deputy Special Representatives for Trade Negotiations are redesignated Deputy United States Trade Representatives.
Sec. 2. Department of Commerce

(a) The Secretary of Commerce (hereinafter referred to as the “Secretary”) shall have, in addition to any other functions assigned by law, general operational responsibility for major nonagricultural international trade functions of the United States Government, including export development, commercial representation abroad, the administration of the antidumping and countervailing duty laws, export controls, trade adjustment assistance to firms and communities, research and analysis, and monitoring compliance with international trade agreements to which the United States is a party.
(b)(1) There shall be in the Department of Commerce (hereinafter referred to as the “Department”) a Deputy Secretary appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Deputy Secretary shall receive compensation at the rate payable for Level II of the Executive Schedule [5 U.S.C. 5315], and shall perform such duties and exercise such powers as the Secretary may from time to time prescribe.
(2) The position of Under Secretary of Commerce established under section 1 of the Act of June 5, 1939 (ch. 180, 53 Stat. 808; 15 U.S.C. 1502) is abolished.
(c) There shall be in the Department an Under Secretary for International Trade appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Under Secretary for International Trade shall receive compensation at the rate payable for Level III of the Executive Schedule [5 U.S.C. 5314], and shall perform such duties and exercise such powers as the Secretary may from time to time prescribe.
(d) There shall be in the Department two additional Assistant Secretaries appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Each such Assistant Secretary shall perform such duties and exercise such powers as the Secretary may from time to time prescribe.
(e) There shall be in the Department of Commerce a Director General of the United States and Foreign Commercial Services who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall receive compensation at the rate prescribed by law for level IV of the Executive Schedule [5 U.S.C. 5315]. [As amended Pub. L. 97–195, § 1(c)(6),June 16, 1982, 96 Stat. 115; Pub. L. 97–377, title I, § 122,Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1913.]
Sec. 3. Export-Import Bank of the United States

The Trade Representative and the Secretary shall serve, ex officio and without vote, as additional members of the Board of Directors of the Export-Import Bank of the United States.
Sec. 4. Overseas Private Investment Corporation

(a) The Trade Representative shall serve, ex officio, as an additional voting member of the Board of Directors of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation. The Trade Representative shall be the Vice Chair of such Board.
(b) There shall be an additional member of the Board of Directors of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation who shall be appointed by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and who shall not be an official or employee of the Government of the United States. Such Director shall be appointed for a term of no more than three years.
Sec. 5. Transfer of Functions

(a)(1) There are transferred to the Secretary all functions of the Secretary of the Treasury, the General Counsel of the Department of the Treasury, or the Department of the Treasury pursuant to the following:
(A) section 305(b) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (19 U.S.C. 2515 (b)), to be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury;
(B) section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1862);
(C) section 303 and title VII (including section 771(1) [19 U.S.C. 1677 (1)] of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1303, 1671et seq.), except that the Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury shall accept such deposits, bonds, or other security as deemed appropriate by the Secretary, shall assess and collect such duties as may be directed by the Secretary, and shall furnish such of its important records or copies thereof as may be requested by the Secretary incident to the functions transferred by this subparagraph;
(D) sections 514, 515, and 516 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1514, 1515, and 1516) insofar as they relate to any protest, petition, or notice of desire to contest described in section 1002(b)(1) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [19 U.S.C. 1516a note];
(E) with respect to the functions transferred by subparagraph (C) of this paragraph, section 318 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1318), to be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury;
(F) with respect to the functions transferred by subparagraph (C) of this paragraph, section 502(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1502 (b)), and, insofar as it provides authority to issue regulations and disseminate information, to be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury to the extent that the Secretary of the Treasury has responsibility under subparagraph (C), section 502(a) of such Act (19 U.S.C. 1502 (a));
(G) with respect to the functions transferred by subparagraph (C) of this paragraph, section 617 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1617); and
(H) section 2632 (e) of title 28 of the United States Code, insofar as it relates to actions taken by the Secretary reviewable under section 516A of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1516 (a)) [19 U.S.C. 1516a].
(2) The Secretary shall consult with the Trade Representative regularly in exercising the functions transferred by subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) of this subsection, and shall consult with the Trade Representative regarding any substantive regulation proposed to be issued to enforce such functions.
(b)(1) There are transferred to the Secretary all trade promotion and commercial functions of the Secretary of State or the Department of State that are—
(A) performed in full-time overseas trade promotion and commercial positions; or
(B) performed in such countries as the President may from time to time prescribe.
(2) To carry out the functions transferred by paragraph (1) of this subsection, the President, to the extent he deems it necessary, may authorize the Secretary to utilize Foreign Service personnel authorities and to exercise the functions vested in the Secretary of State by the Foreign Service Act of 1946 (22 U.S.C. 801et seq.) [see 22 U.S.C. 3901 et seq.] and by any other laws with respect to personnel performing such functions.
(c) There are transferred to the President all functions of the East-West Foreign Trade Board under section 411(c) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2441 (c)).
(d) Appropriations available to the Department of State for Fiscal Year 1980 for representation of the United States concerning matters arising under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and trade and commodity matters dealt with under the auspices of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development are transferred to the Trade Representative.
(e) There are transferred to the interagency organization established under section 242 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1872) all functions of the East-West Foreign Trade Board under section 411(a) and (b) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2441 (a) and (b)).
Sec. 6. Abolition

The East-West Foreign Trade Board established under section 411 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2441) is abolished.
Sec. 7. Responsibility of the Secretary of State

Nothing in this reorganization plan is intended to derogate from the responsibility of the Secretary of State for advising the President on foreign policy matters, including the foreign policy aspects of international trade and trade-related matters:
Sec. 8. Incidental Transfers; Interim Officers

(a) So much of the personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with the functions transferred under this reorganization plan as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall determine shall be transferred to the appropriate agency, organization, or component at such time or times as such Director shall provide, except that no such unexpended balances transferred shall be used for purposes other than those for which the appropriation originally was made. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall provide for terminating the affairs of any agency abolished herein and for such further measures and dispositions as such Director deems necessary to effectuate the purposes of the reorganization plan.
(b) Pending the assumption of office by the initial officers provided for in section 2 of this reorganization plan, the functions of each such office may be performed, for up to a total of 60 days, by such individuals as the President may designate. Any individual so designated shall be compensated at the rate provided herein for such position.
Sec. 9. Effective Date

The provisions of this reorganization plan shall take effect October 1, 1980, or at such earlier time or times as the President shall specify, but not sooner than the earliest time allowable under section 906 of title 5 of the United States Code.
[Pursuant to Ex. Ord. 12175, Dec. 7, 1979, 44 F.R. 70705, section 2(b)(1) of this Reorg. Plan is effective Dec. 7, 1979].
[Pursuant to Ex. Ord. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 989, sections 1, 2 (a), (b)(2), (c), (d), 3, 4, 5 (a), (b)(2), (c)–(e), 6–8 of this Reorg. Plan are effective Jan. 2, 1980, and section 5(b)(1) of this Reorg. Plan is effective Apr. 1, 1980].
Message of the President

To the Congress of the United States:
I transmit herewith Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1979, to consolidate trade functions of the United States Government. I am acting under the authority vested in me by the Reorganization Act of 1977, chapter 9 of title 5 of the United States Code, and pursuant to section 1109 of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [19 U.S.C. 2111 note] which directs that I transmit to the Congress a proposal to restructure the international trade functions of the Executive branch.
The goal of this reorganization is to improve the capacity of the Government to strengthen the export performance of United States industry and to assure fair international trade practices, taking into account the interests of all elements of our economy.
Recent developments, which have raised concern about the vitality of our international trade performance, have focused much attention on the way our trade machinery is organized. These developments include our negative trade balance, increasing dependence upon foreign oil, and international pressures on the dollar. New challenges, such as implementation of the Multilateral Trade Negotiation (MTN) agreements and trade with non-market economies, will further test our Government trade organization.
We must be prepared to apply domestically the MTN codes on procurement, subsidies, standards, and customs valuation. We also must monitor major implementation measures abroad, reporting back to American business on important developments and, where necessary, raising questions internationally about foreign implementation. MTN will work—will open new markets for U.S. labor, farmers, and business—only if we have adequate procedures for aggressively monitoring and enforcing it. We intend to meet our obligations, and we expect others to do the same.
The trade machinery we now have cannot do this job effectively. Although the Special Trade Representative (STR) takes the lead role in administering the trade agreements program, many issues are handled elsewhere and no agency has across-the-board leadership in trade. Aside from the Trade Representative and the Export-Import Bank, trade is not the primary concern of any Executive branch agency where trade functions are located. The current arrangements lack a central authority capable of planning a coherent trade strategy and assuring its vigorous implementation.
This reorganization is designed to correct such deficiencies and to prepare us for strong enforcement of the MTN codes. It aims to improve our export promotion activities so that United States exporters can take full advantage of trade opportunities in foreign markets. It provides for the timely and efficient administration of our unfair trade laws. It also establishes an efficient mechanism for shaping an effective, comprehensive United States trade policy.
To achieve these objectives, I propose to place policy coordination and negotiation—those international trade functions that most require comprehensiveness, influence, and Government-wide perspective—in the Executive Office of the President. I propose to place operational and implementation responsibilities, which are staff-intensive, in line departments that have the requisite resources and knowledge of the major sectors of our economy to handle them. I have concluded that building our trade structure on STR and Commerce, respectively, best satisfies these considerations.
I propose to enhance STR, to be renamed the Office of the United States Trade Representative, by centralizing in it international trade policy development, coordination and negotiation functions. The Commerce Department will become the focus of non-agricultural operational trade responsibilities by adding to its existing duties those for commercial representation abroad, antidumping and countervailing duty cases, the non-agricultural aspects of MTN implementation, national security investigations, and embargoes.
the united states trade representative

The Trade Representative, with the advice of the Trade Policy Committee, will be responsible for developing and coordinating our international trade and direct investment policy, including the following areas:
Import remedies.—The Trade Representative will exercise policy oversight of the application of import remedies, analyze long-term trends in import remedy cases and recommend any necessary legislative changes. For antidumping and countervailing duty matters, such coordination, to the extent legally permissible, will be directed toward the establishment of new precedents, negotiation of assurances, and coordination with other trade matters, rather than case-by-case fact finding and determinations.
East-West trade policy.—The Trade Representative will have lead responsibility for East-West trade negotiations and will coordinate East-West trade policy. The Trade Policy Committee will assume the responsibilities of the East-West Foreign Trade Board.
International investment policy.—The Trade Representative will have the policy lead regarding issues of direct foreign investment in the United States, direct investment by Americans abroad, operations of multinational enterprises, and multilateral agreements on international investment, insofar as such issues relate to international trade.
International commodity policy.—The Trade Representative will assume responsibility for commodity negotiations and also will coordinate commodity policy.
Energy trade.—While the Departments of Energy and State will continue to share responsibility for international energy issues, the Trade Representative will coordinate energy trade matters. The Department of Energy will become a member of the TPC.
Export-expansion policy.—To ensure a vigorous and coordinated Government-wide export expansion effort, policy oversight of our export expansion activities will be the responsibility of the Trade Representative.
The Trade Representative will have the lead role in bilateral and multilateral trade, commodity, and direct investment negotiations. The Trade Representative will represent the United States in General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) matters. Since the GATT will be the principal international forum for implementing and interpreting the MTN agreements and since GATT meetings, including committee and working group meetings, occur almost continuously, the Trade Representative will have a limited number of permanent staff in Geneva. In some cases, it may be necessary to assign a small number of USTR staff abroad to assist in oversight of MTN enforcement. In this event, appropriate positions will be authorized. In recognition of the responsibility of the Secretary of State regarding our foreign policy, the activities of overseas personnel of the Trade Representative and the Commerce Department will be fully coordinated with other elements of our diplomatic missions.
In addition to his role with regard to GATT matters, the Trade Representative will have the lead responsibility for trade and commodity matters considered in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) when such matters are the primary issues under negotiation. Because of the Secretary of State’s foreign policy responsibilities, and the responsibilities of the Director of the International Development Cooperation Agency as the President’s principal advisor on development, the Trade Representative will exercise his OECD and UNCTAD responsibilities in close cooperation with these officials.
To ensure that all trade negotiations are handled consistently and that our negotiating leverage is employed to the maximum, the Trade Representative will manage the negotiation of particular issues. Where appropriate, the Trade Representative may delegate responsibility for negotiations to other agencies with expertise on the issues under consideration. He will coordinate the operational aspects of negotiations through a Trade Negotiating Committee, chaired by the Trade Representative and including the Departments of Commerce, State, Treasury, Agriculture and Labor.
The Trade Representative will be concerned not only with ongoing negotiations and coordination of specific, immediate issues, but also—very importantly—with the development of long-term United States trade strategies and policies. He will oversee implementation of the MTN agreements, and will advise the President on the effects of other Government policies (e.g., antitrust, taxation) on U.S. trade. In order to participate more fully in oversight of international investment and export financing activities, the Trade Representative will become a member of the National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Policies and the Boards of the Export-Import Bank and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation.
In performing these functions, the Trade Representative will act as the principal trade spokesman of the President. To assure that our trade policies take into account the broadest range of perspectives, the Trade Representative will consult with the Trade Policy Committee, whose mandate and membership will be expanded. The Trade Representative will, as appropriate, invite agencies such as the Export-Import Bank and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation to participate in TPC meetings in addition to the permanent TPC members. When different departmental views on trade matters exist within the TPC as will be the case from time to time in this complex policy area, I will expect the Trade Representative to resolve policy disagreements in his best judgment, subject to appeal to the President.
the department of commerce

The Department of Commerce, under this proposal, will become the focal point of operational responsibilities in the non-agricultural trade area. My reorganization plan will transfer to the Commerce Department important responsibilities for administration of countervailing and antidumping matters, foreign commercial representation, and MTN implementation support. Consolidating these trade functions in the Department of Commerce builds upon an agency with extensive trade experience. The Department will retain its operational responsibilities in such areas as export controls, East-West trade, trade adjustment assistance to firms and communities, trade policy analysis, and monitoring foreign compliance with trade agreements. The Department will be substantially reorganized to consolidate and reshape its trade functions under an Under Secretary for International Trade.
With this reorganization, trade functions will be strengthened within the Department of Commerce, and such related efforts in the Department as improvement of industrial innovation and the productivity, encouraging local and regional economic development, and sectoral analysis, will be closely linked to an aggressive trade program. Fostering the international competitiveness of American industry will become the principal mission of the Department of Commerce.
Import remedies
I propose to transfer to the Department of Commerce responsibility for administration of the countervailing duty and antidumping statutes. This function will be performed efficiently and effectively in an organizational setting where trade is the primary mission. This activity will be directed by a new Assistant Secretary for Trade Administration, subject to Senate confirmation. Although the plan permits its provisions to take effect as late as October 1, 1980, I intend to make this transfer effective by January 1, 1980, so that it will occur as the new MTN codes take effect. Commerce will continue its supportive role in the staffing of other unfair trade practice issues, such as cases arising under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2411].
Commercial representation
This reorganization plan will transfer to the Department of Commerce responsibility for commercial representation abroad. This transfer would place both domestic and overseas export promotion activities under a single organization, directed by an Assistant Secretary for Export Development, charged with aggressively expanding U.S. export opportunities. Placing this Foreign Commercial Service in the Commerce Department will allow commercial officers to concentrate on the promotion of U.S. exports as their principal activity.
Initially, the transfer of commercial representation from State to Commerce will involve all full-time overseas trade promotion and commercial positions (approximately 162), responsibility for this function in the countries (approximately 60) to which these individuals are assigned, and the associated foreign national employees in those countries. Over time, the Department of Commerce undoubtedly will review the deployment of commercial officers in light of changing trade circumstances and propose extensions or alterations of coverage of the Foreign Commercial Service.
MTN implementation
I am dedicated to the aggressive implementation of the Multilateral Trade Agreements. The United States must seize the opportunities and enforce the obligations created by these agreements. Under this proposal, the Department of Commerce will assign high priority to this task. The Department of Commerce will be responsible for the day-to-day implementation of non-agricultural aspects of the MTN agreements. Management of this function will be a principal assignment of an Assistant Secretary for Trade Policy and Programs. Implementation activities will include:
monitoring agreements and targeting problems for consultation and negotiation;
operating a Trade Complaint Center where the private sector can receive advice as to the recourse and remedies available;
aiding in the settlement of disputes, including staffing of formal complaint cases;
identifying problem areas for consideration by the Trade Representative and the Trade Policy Committee;
educational and promotion programs regarding the provisions of the agreements and the processes for dealing with problems that arise;
providing American business with basic information on foreign laws, regulations and procedures;
consultations with private sector advisory committees; and
general analytical support.
These responsibilities will be handled by a unit built around the staff from Commerce that provided essential analytical support to STR throughout the MTN negotiation process. Building implementation of MTN around this core group will assure that the government’s institutional memory and expertise on MTN is most effectively devoted to the challenge ahead. When American business needs information or encounters problems in the MTN area, it can turn to the Department of Commerce for knowledgeable assistance.
Matching the increased importance of trade in the Department’s mission will be a much strengthened trade organization within the Department. By creating a number of new senior level positions in the Department, we will ensure that trade policy implementation receives the kind of day-to-day top management attention that it both demands and requires.
With its new responsibilities and resources, the Department of Commerce will become a key participant in the formulation of our trade policies. Much of the analysis in support of trade policy formulation will be conducted by the Department of Commerce, which will be close to the operational aspects of the problems that raise policy issues.
To succeed in global competition, we must have a better understanding of the problems and prospects of U.S. industry, particularly in relation to the growing strength of industries abroad. This is the key reason why we will upgrade sectoral analysis capabilities throughout the Department of Commerce, including the creation of a new Bureau of Industrial Analysis. Commerce, with its ability to link trade to policies affecting industry, is uniquely suited to serve as the principal technical expert within the Government on special industry sector problems requiring international consultation, as well as to provide industry-specific information on how tax, regulatory and other Government policies affect the international competitiveness of the U.S. industries.
Commerce will also expand its traditional trade policy focus on industrial issues to deal with the international trade and investment problems of our growing services sector. Under the proposal, there will be comprehensive service industry representation in our industry advisory process, as well as a continuing effort to bring services under international discipline. I expect the Commerce Department to play a major role in developing new service sector initiatives for consideration within the Government.
After an investigation lasting over a year, I have found that this reorganization is necessary to carry out the policy set forth in section 901 (a) of title 5 of the United States Code. As described above, this reorganization will increase significantly our ability to implement the MTN agreements efficiently and effectively and will improve greatly the services of the government with regard to export development. These improvements will be achieved with no increase in personnel or expenditures, except for an annual expense of about $300,000 for the salaries and clerical support of the three additional senior Commerce Department officials and a non-recurring expense of approximately $600,000 in connection with the transfers of functions provided in the plan. I find that the reorganization made by this plan makes necessary the provisions for the appointment and pay of a Deputy Secretary, an Under Secretary for International Trade, and two additional Assistant Secretaries of the Department of Commerce, and additional members of the Boards of Directors of the Export-Import Bank and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation.
It is indeed appropriate that this proposal follows so soon after the overwhelming approval by the Congress of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [19 U.S.C. 2501 et seq.], for it will sharpen and unify trade policy direction, improve the efficiency of trade law enforcement, and enable us to negotiate abroad from a position of strength. The extensive discussions between Administration officials and the Congress on this plan have been a model of the kind of cooperation that can exist between the two branches. I look forward to our further cooperation in successfully implementing both this reorganization proposal and the MTN agreements.
Jimmy Carter.
The White House, September 25, 1979.
Executive Order No. 11143

Ex. Ord. No. 11143, Mar. 2, 1963, 29 F.R. 3127, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11159, June 23, 1964, 29 F.R. 8137, formerly set out under section 1871 of this title, which established the Public Advisory Committee for Trade Expansion, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11425, Aug. 30, 1968, 33 F.R. 12363, set out below.
Executive Order No. 11425

Ex. Ord. No. 11425, Aug. 30, 1968, 33 F.R. 12363, formerly set out under section 1871 of this title, which directed the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations (established by Ex. Ord. No. 11075, Jan. 15, 1963, 28 F.R. 473) to conduct a long range study of United States foreign trade policy and to consider the views of Congress, the Public Advisory Committee on Trade Policy, and other federal agencies; established the Public Advisory Committee on Trade Policy for purposes of this study; and abolished the Public Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations; was omitted in view of the revocation of Ex. Ord. No. 11075 by Ex. Ord. No. 11846, Mar. 27, 1975, 40 F.R. 14291, set out under section 2111 of this title, and in view of the abolition of the Office of Special Representative for Trade Negotiations (as established under Ex. Ord. No. 11075) by section 2171 (g) of this title.
Ex. Ord. No. 12175. Effective Date of Section 2(b)(1) of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1979 Respecting Reorganization of Functions Relating to International Trade

Ex. Ord. No. 12175, Dec. 7, 1979, 44 F.R. 70703, provided:
By the authority vested in me as President of the United States of America by Section 9 of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1979 (transmitted to the Congress on September 25, 1979) [set out as a note above], the time period prescribed by Section 906 of Title 5 of the United States Code having elapsed without the adoption of a resolution of disapproval by either House of Congress, it is hereby ordered that Section 2(b)(1) of that Plan, establishing the Office of Deputy Secretary of Commerce, is effective immediately.
Jimmy Carter.
Ex. Ord. No. 12188. Functions Relating to International Trade

Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 989, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12292, Feb. 23, 1981, 46 F.R. 13968; Ex. Ord. No. 13118, § 10(6), Mar. 31, 1999, 64 F.R. 16598; Ex. Ord. No. 13286, § 50, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10628, provided:
By the authority vested in me by the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [see 19 U.S.C. 2501], the Trade Act of 1974 [this chapter], the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of this title], section 350 of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1351], Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1979 [set out as a note above], and section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1–101. The United States Trade Representative.
(a) Except as may be otherwise expressly provided by law, the United States Trade Representative (hereinafter referred to as the “Trade Representative”) shall be chief representative of the United States for:
(1) all activities of, or under the auspices of, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade;
(2) discussions, meetings, and negotiations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development when trade or commodity issues are the primary issues under consideration;
(3) negotiations in the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and other multilateral institutions when trade or commodity issues are the primary issues under consideration;
(4) other bilateral or multilateral negotiations when trade, including East-West trade, or commodities is the primary issue under consideration;
(5) negotiations under sections 704 and 734 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1671c and 1673c); and
(6) negotiations concerning direct investment incentives and disincentives and bilateral investment issues concerning barriers to investment.
For purposes of this subsection, the term “negotiations” includes discussions and meetings with foreign governments and instrumentalities primarily concerning preparations for formal negotiations and policies regarding implementation of agreements resulting from such negotiations.
(b) The Trade Representative, in consultation with the Trade Negotiating Committee, shall invite such members of the Trade Negotiating Committee and representatives of other departments or agencies as may be appropriate to participate in the negotiations and other activities listed in subsection (a).
(c) The Trade Representative, in consultation with the Trade Negotiating Committee, may delegate to any member of the Trade Negotiating Committee, or to any other appropriate department or agency, primary responsibility for representing the United States in any of the negotiations and other activities set forth in subsection (a).
(d) The Trade Representative, or any department or agency to which responsibility for representing the United States in a negotiation or other activity has been delegated pursuant to subsection (c), shall consult with the Trade Policy Committee and with any affected regulatory agencies on the policy issues arising in connection with the negotiations and other activities listed in subsection (a).
Sec. 1–102. The Trade Policy Committee.
(a) As provided by section 242 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1872), the Trade Policy Committee (hereinafter referred to as the “Committee”) is continued. The Committee shall have the functions specified by law or by the President, including those specified in section 1(b)(3) of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1979 [set out as a note above].
(b) The Committee shall be composed of the following:
(1) The Trade Representative, who shall be Chair
(2) The Secretary of Commerce, who shall be Vice Chair
(3) The Secretary of State
(4) The Secretary of the Treasury
(5) The Secretary of Defense
(6) The Attorney General
(7) The Secretary of the Interior
(8) The Secretary of Agriculture
(9) The Secretary of Labor
(10) The Secretary of Transportation
(11) The Secretary of Energy
(12) The Secretary of Homeland Security
(13) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget
(14) The Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers
(15) The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs
(16) The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development.
The Chair and any member of the Committee may designate a subordinate officer whose status is not below that of an Assistant Secretary to serve in his stead when he is unable to attend any meetings of the Committee. The Chair may invite representatives from other agencies to attend the meetings of the Committee.
(c)(1) There is established, as a subcommittee of the Committee, a Trade Negotiating Committee which shall advise the Trade Representative on the management of negotiations referred to in section 1–101(a) of this order. The members of such subcommittee shall be the Trade Representative (Chair), the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Secretary of Labor.
(2) The Trade Representative, with the advice of the Committee, may create additional subcommittees thereof.
(d) In advising the President on international trade and related matters, the Trade Representative shall take into account and reflect the views of the members of the Committee and of other interested agencies.
Sec. 1–103. Delegation of Functions.
(a) The function vested in the President by section 412(b) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (19 U.S.C. 2542 (b)) is delegated to the Secretary of Commerce with regard to the technical office established under section 412(a)(1) of such Act [19 U.S.C. 2542 (a)(1)] and to the Secretary of Agriculture with regard to the technical office established under section 412(a)(2) of such Act [19 U.S.C. 2542 (a)(2)]. In prescribing the functions of each technical office, the Secretary concerned shall consult with the Trade Representative and with all affected regulatory agencies. The functions delegated by this section shall be exercised in coordination with the Trade Representative.
(b) The functions of the President under sections 2(b) and 303 of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (19 U.S.C. 2503 (b) and 2513) and section 701(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1671 (b)) are delegated to the Trade Representative, who shall exercise such authority with the advice of the Trade Policy Committee.
Sec. 1–104. Authority Under the Foreign Service Act and Related Laws.
(a) The Secretary of Commerce (hereinafter referred to as the “Secretary”) is authorized to establish a Foreign Commercial Service in the Department of Commerce, and a category of career officers of the Foreign Commercial Service to be known as Foreign Commercial Officers. For purposes of the utilization by the Secretary of the authorities granted to the Secretary under this section, the terms “Foreign Service” and “Foreign Service Officer” shall be construed to mean “Foreign Commercial Service” and “Foreign Commercial Officer,” respectively.
(b) [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12292, Feb. 23, 1981, 46 F.R. 13968.]
(c) The Board of the Foreign Service and the Board of Examiners for the Foreign Service established by Executive Order 11264 of December 31, 1965, as amended [22 U.S.C. 826 note], shall exercise with respect to Foreign Service personnel of the Department of Commerce the functions delegated to them by that order with respect to Foreign Service personnel of the Department of State. The Boards shall perform such additional functions with respect to Foreign Service personnel of the Department of Commerce as the Secretary may from time to time delegate or otherwise assign, consistent with the functions of such boards.
Sec. 1–105. Prior Executive Orders and Determination.
(a) Section 1(b) of Executive Order 11269 of February 14, 1966, as amended [22 U.S.C. 286b note], is amended by adding “the United States Trade Representative,” after “the Secretary of State,”.
(b)(1) Section 1 of Executive Order 11539 of June 30, 1970 [7 U.S.C. 1854 note], is amended to read as follows:
“Section 1. The United States Trade Representative, with the concurrence of the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of State, is authorized to negotiate bilateral agreements with representatives of governments of foreign countries limiting the export from the respective countries and the importation into the United States of—
“(1) fresh, chilled, or frozen cattle meat,
“(2) fresh, chilled, or frozen meat of goats and sheep (except lambs), and
“(3) prepared and preserved beef and veal (except sausage) if articles are prepared, whether fresh, chilled, or frozen, but not otherwise preserved, that are the products of such countries.”.
(2) Section 4 of such order is amended by striking out “the Secretary of State” and inserting in lieu thereof “the United States Trade Representative”.
(c) The last sentence of section 1(a) of Executive Order 11651 of March 3, 1972, as amended [7 U.S.C. 1854 note] is amended to read as follows: “The United States Trade Representative, or his designee, also shall be a member of the Committee.”.
(d) The first sentence of section 3 of Executive Order 11703 of February 7, 1973 [19 U.S.C. 1862 note], is amended to read as follows: “The Oil Policy Committee shall henceforth consist of the United States Trade Representative, chair, and the Secretaries of State, Treasury, Defense, the Interior, Commerce and Energy, the Attorney General, and the Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, as members.”.
(e) Sections 2 (b) and 3 (a), the first sentence of section 3 (c), andsections 3(e), 3(f), and 6 of Executive Order 11846 of March 27, 1975, as amended [19 U.S.C. 2111 note], are revoked.
(f)(1) Section 1(a)(5) of Executive Order 11858 of May 7, 1975 [50 App. U.S.C. 2170 note], is amended to read: “(5) The United States Trade Representative”.
(2) Section 1(a)(6) of such order is amended to read: “(6) The Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers”.
(g) Executive Order 12096 of November 2, 1978, is revoked.
(h) The last paragraph of the Presidential Determination Regarding the Acceptance and Application of Certain International Trade Agreements (dated December 14, 1979) (44 FR 74781, at 74784; December 18, 1979) [19 U.S.C. 2503 note], delegating functions under section 2(b) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [19 U.S.C. 2503 (b)] and section 701(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1671b], is revoked.
(i) Any reference to the Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations or to the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations in any Executive order, Proclamation, or other document shall be deemed to refer to the Office of the United States Trade Representative or to the United States Trade Representative, respectively.
Sec. 1–106. Incidental Transfers and Reassignments.
So much of the personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with functions transferred or reassigned by the provisions of this order as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall determine shall be transferred or reassigned for use in connection with such functions.
Sec. 1–107. Effective Dates.
(a) Sections 1, 2(a), 2(b)(2), 2(c), 2(d), 3, 4, 5(a), 5(b)(2), 5(c) through (e), and 6 through 8 of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1979 [set out as a note above] and the provisions of this order, shall take effect as of January 2, 1980.
(b) Section 5(b)(1) of such plan [set out as a note above] shall take effect as of April 1, 1980.
Ex. Ord. No. 13601. Establishment of the Interagency Trade Enforcement Center

Ex. Ord. No. 13601, Feb. 28, 2012, 77 F.R. 12981, provided:
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to advance U.S. foreign policy and protect the national and economic security of the United States through strengthened and coordinated enforcement of U.S. trade rights under international trade agreements and enforcement of domestic trade laws, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Policy. Robust monitoring and enforcement of U.S. rights under international trade agreements, and enforcement of domestic trade laws, are crucial to expanding exports and ensuring U.S. workers, businesses, ranchers, and farmers are able to compete on a level playing field with foreign trade partners. To strengthen our capacity to monitor and enforce U.S. trade rights and domestic trade laws, and thereby enhance market access for U.S. exporters, executive departments and agencies (agencies) must coordinate and augment their efforts to identify and reduce or eliminate foreign trade barriers and unfair foreign trade practices to ensure that U.S. workers, businesses, ranchers, and farmers receive the maximum benefit from our international trade agreements and under domestic trade laws.
Sec. 2. Establishment. (a) There is established within the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) an Interagency Trade Enforcement Center (Center).
(b) The Center shall coordinate matters relating to enforcement of U.S. trade rights under international trade agreements and enforcement of domestic trade laws among USTR and the following agencies:
(i) the Department of State;
(ii) the Department of the Treasury;
(iii) the Department of Justice;
(iv) the Department of Agriculture;
(v) the Department of Commerce;
(vi) the Department of Homeland Security;
(vii) the Office of the Director of National Intelligence; and
(viii) other agencies as the President, or the United States Trade Representative, may designate.
In matters relating to the enforcement of U.S. trade rights involving intellectual property rights, the Center shall consult with the Intellectual Property Enforcement Coordinator.
(c) The Center shall have a Director, who shall be a full-time senior-level official of USTR, designated by and reporting to the United States Trade Representative. The Center shall have a Deputy Director, who shall be a full-time senior-level official of the Department of Commerce, designated by the Secretary of Commerce, detailed to the Center and reporting to the Director. The Center shall also have an Intelligence Community Liaison, who shall be a full-time senior-level official of the Federal Government recommended by the Director of National Intelligence and designated by his or her agency, as applicable, to be detailed or assigned to the Center.
(d) To the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of appropriations, and in consultation with the Director of the Center, agencies enumerated in subsection (b) of this section, and others in the Intelligence Community recommended by the Director of National Intelligence, are encouraged to detail or assign their employees to the Center without reimbursement to support the mission and functions of the Center as described in section 3 of this order.
Sec. 3. Mission and Functions. The Center shall:
(a) serve as the primary forum within the Federal Government for USTR and other agencies to coordinate enforcement of U.S. trade rights under international trade agreements and enforcement of domestic trade laws;
(b) coordinate among USTR, other agencies with trade related responsibilities, and the U.S. Intelligence Community the exchange of information related to potential violations of international trade agreements by our foreign trade partners; and
(c) conduct outreach to U.S. workers, businesses, and other interested persons to foster greater participation in the identification and reduction or elimination of foreign trade barriers and unfair foreign trade practices.
Sec. 4. Administration. (a) Funding and administrative support for the Center shall be provided by USTR to the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of appropriations.
(b) The United States Trade Representative, through the Director of the Center, shall direct the work of the Center in performing all of its functions under this order.
Sec. 5. Definitions. For the purposes of this order:
(a) the term “U.S. trade rights” means any right, benefit or advantage to which the United States is entitled under an international trade agreement and that could be effectuated through the use of a dispute settlement proceeding.
(b) the term “domestic trade laws” means any trade remedies available under U.S. law, including, but not limited to, sections 201, 301, 406, and 421 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2251, 2411, 2436, and 2451); sections 332 and 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1332 and 1337); section 281 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3571); and self-initiation of investigations under Title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1671 [et seq.]).
Sec. 6. General Provisions. (a) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.
(b) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:
(i) authority granted by law, regulation, Executive Order, or Presidential Directive to an executive department, agency, or head thereof; or
(ii) functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.
(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.
Barack Obama.

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