26 U.S. Code § 6672 - Failure to collect and pay over tax, or attempt to evade or defeat tax

(a) General rule
Any person required to collect, truthfully account for, and pay over any tax imposed by this title who willfully fails to collect such tax, or truthfully account for and pay over such tax, or willfully attempts in any manner to evade or defeat any such tax or the payment thereof, shall, in addition to other penalties provided by law, be liable to a penalty equal to the total amount of the tax evaded, or not collected, or not accounted for and paid over. No penalty shall be imposed under section 6653 or part II of subchapter A of chapter 68 for any offense to which this section is applicable.
(b) Preliminary notice requirement
(1) In general
No penalty shall be imposed under subsection (a) unless the Secretary notifies the taxpayer in writing by mail to an address as determined under section 6212 (b) or in person that the taxpayer shall be subject to an assessment of such penalty.
(2) Timing of notice
The mailing of the notice described in paragraph (1) (or, in the case of such a notice delivered in person, such delivery) shall precede any notice and demand of any penalty under subsection (a) by at least 60 days.
(3) Statute of limitations
If a notice described in paragraph (1) with respect to any penalty is mailed or delivered in person before the expiration of the period provided by section 6501 for the assessment of such penalty (determined without regard to this paragraph), the period provided by such section for the assessment of such penalty shall not expire before the later of—
(A) the date 90 days after the date on which such notice was mailed or delivered in person, or
(B) if there is a timely protest of the proposed assessment, the date 30 days after the Secretary makes a final administrative determination with respect to such protest.
(4) Exception for jeopardy
This subsection shall not apply if the Secretary finds that the collection of the penalty is in jeopardy.
(c) Extension of period of collection where bond is filed
(1) In general
If, within 30 days after the day on which notice and demand of any penalty under subsection (a) is made against any person, such person—
(A) pays an amount which is not less than the minimum amount required to commence a proceeding in court with respect to his liability for such penalty,
(B) files a claim for refund of the amount so paid, and
(C) furnishes a bond which meets the requirements of paragraph (3),
no levy or proceeding in court for the collection of the remainder of such penalty shall be made, begun, or prosecuted until a final resolution of a proceeding begun as provided in paragraph (2). Notwithstanding the provisions of section 7421 (a), the beginning of such proceeding or levy during the time such prohibition is in force may be enjoined by a proceeding in the proper court. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit any counterclaim for the remainder of such penalty in a proceeding begun as provided in paragraph (2).
(2) Suit must be brought to determine liability for penalty
If, within 30 days after the day on which his claim for refund with respect to any penalty under subsection (a) is denied, the person described in paragraph (1) fails to begin a proceeding in the appropriate United States district court (or in the Court of Claims)  [1] for the determination of his liability for such penalty, paragraph (1) shall cease to apply with respect to such penalty, effective on the day following the close of the 30-day period referred to in this paragraph.
(3) Bond
The bond referred to in paragraph (1) shall be in such form and with such sureties as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe and shall be in an amount equal to 11/2 times the amount of excess of the penalty assessed over the payment described in paragraph (1).
(4) Suspension of running of period of limitations on collection
The running of the period of limitations provided in section 6502 on the collection by levy or by a proceeding in court in respect of any penalty described in paragraph (1) shall be suspended for the period during which the Secretary is prohibited from collecting by levy or a proceeding in court.
(5) Jeopardy collection
If the Secretary makes a finding that the collection of the penalty is in jeopardy, nothing in this subsection shall prevent the immediate collection of such penalty.
(d) Right of contribution where more than 1 person liable for penalty
If more than 1 person is liable for the penalty under subsection (a) with respect to any tax, each person who paid such penalty shall be entitled to recover from other persons who are liable for such penalty an amount equal to the excess of the amount paid by such person over such person’s proportionate share of the penalty. Any claim for such a recovery may be made only in a proceeding which is separate from, and is not joined or consolidated with—
(1) an action for collection of such penalty brought by the United States, or
(2) a proceeding in which the United States files a counterclaim or third-party complaint for the collection of such penalty.
(e) Exception for voluntary board members of tax-exempt organizations
No penalty shall be imposed by subsection (a) on any unpaid, volunteer member of any board of trustees or directors of an organization exempt from tax under subtitle A if such member—
(1) is solely serving in an honorary capacity,
(2) does not participate in the day-to-day or financial operations of the organization, and
(3) does not have actual knowledge of the failure on which such penalty is imposed.
The preceding sentence shall not apply if it results in no person being liable for the penalty imposed by subsection (a).


[1]  See References in Text note below.

Source

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 828; Pub. L. 95–628, § 9(a),Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3633; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§ 7721(c)(9), 7737(a),Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2400, 2404; Pub. L. 104–168, title IX, §§ 901(a), 903 (a), 904 (a),July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1465–1467; Pub. L. 105–206, title III, § 3307(a), (b),July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 744.)
References in Text

The Court of Claims, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), and the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals were merged effective Oct. 1, 1982, into a new United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit by Pub. L. 97–164, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 25, which also created a United States Claims Court [now United States Court of Federal Claims] that inherited the trial jurisdiction of the Court of Claims. See sections 48, 171 et seq., 791 et seq., and 1491 et seq. of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–206, § 3307(a), inserted “or in person” after “section 6212 (b)”.
Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–206, § 3307(b)(1), inserted “(or, in the case of such a notice delivered in person, such delivery)” after “paragraph (1)”.
Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105–206, § 3307(b)(2), inserted “or delivered in person” after “mailed” in introductory provisions and in subpar. (A).
1996—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 104–168, § 901(a), added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–168, § 903(a), added subsec. (d).
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–168, § 904(a), added subsec. (e).
1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–239, § 7721(c)(9), inserted “or part II of subchapter A of chapter 68” after “under section 6653”.
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, § 7737(a), inserted at end “Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit any counterclaim for the remainder of such penalty in a proceeding begun as provided in paragraph (2).”
1978—Pub. L. 95–628designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), added subsec. (a) heading, and added subsec. (b).
Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, § 3307(c),July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 744, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1998].”
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–168, title IX, § 901(b),July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1466, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to proposed assessments made after June 30, 1996.”
Pub. L. 104–168, title IX, § 903(b),July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1466, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to penalties assessed after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 30, 1996].”
Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7721(c)(9) ofPub. L. 101–239applicable to returns the due date for which (determined without regard to extensions) is after Dec. 31, 1989, see section 7721(d) ofPub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 461 of this title.
Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, § 7737(b),Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2404, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 6694 and 6703 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 1989].”
Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–628, § 9(c),Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3633, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 7103 and 7421 of this title] shall apply with respect to penalties assessed more than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1978].”
Public Information To Ensure Employee Awareness of Responsibilities and Liabilities Under Tax Depository System

Pub. L. 104–168, title IX, § 904(b),July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1467, provided that:
“(1) In general.—The Secretary of the Treasury or the Secretary’s delegate (hereafter in this subsection referred to as the ‘Secretary’) shall take such actions as may be appropriate to ensure that employees are aware of their responsibilities under the Federal tax depository system, the circumstances under which employees may be liable for the penalty imposed by section 6672 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, and the responsibility to promptly report to the Internal Revenue Service any failure referred to in subsection (a) of such section 6672. Such actions shall include—
“(A) printing of a warning on deposit coupon booklets and the appropriate tax returns that certain employees may be liable for the penalty imposed by such section 6672, and
“(B) the development of a special information packet.
“(2) Development of explanatory materials.—The Secretary shall develop materials explaining the circumstances under which board members of tax-exempt organizations (including voluntary and honorary members) may be subject to penalty under section 6672 of such Code. Such materials shall be made available to tax-exempt organizations.
“(3) IRS instructions.—The Secretary shall clarify the instructions to Internal Revenue Service employees on the application of the penalty under section 6672 of such Code with regard to voluntary members of boards of trustees or directors of tax-exempt organizations.”

 

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