10 CFR § 70.4 - Definitions.
Acute, as used in this part, means a single radiation dose or chemical exposure event or multiple radiation dose or chemical exposure events occurring within a short time (24 hours or less).
Agreement State as designated in part 150 of this chapter means any State with which the Commission has entered into an effective agreement under subsection 274b. of the Act. Non-agreement State means any other State.
Alert means events may occur, are in progress, or have occurred that could lead to a release of radioactive material[s] but that the release is not expected to require a response by an offsite response organization to protect persons offsite.
Atomic energy means all forms of energy released in the course of nuclear fission or nuclear transformation;
Atomic weapon means any device utilizing atomic energy, exclusive of the means for transporting or propelling the device (where such means is a separable and divisible part of the device), the principal purpose of which is for use as, or for development of, a weapon, a weapon prototype, or a weapon test device;
Available and reliable to perform their function when needed, as used in subpart H of this part, means that, based on the analyzed, credible conditions in the integrated safety analysis, items relied on for safety will perform their intended safety function when needed, and management measures will be implemented that ensure compliance with the performance requirements of § 70.61 of this part, considering factors such as necessary maintenance, operating limits, common-cause failures, and the likelihood and consequences of failure or degradation of the items and measures.
Commencement of construction means taking any action defined as “construction” or any other activity at the site of a facility subject to the regulations in this part that has a reasonable nexus to:
(1) Radiological health and safety; or
Commission means the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or its duly authorized representatives;
Configuration management (CM) means a management measure that provides oversight and control of design information, safety information, and records of modifications (both temporary and permanent) that might impact the ability of items relied on for safety to perform their functions when needed.
Construction means the installation of foundations, or in-place assembly, erection, fabrication, or testing for any structure, system, or component of a facility or activity subject to the regulations in this part that are related to radiological safety or security. The term “construction” does not include:
(1) Changes for temporary use of the land for public recreational purposes;
(2) Site exploration, including necessary borings to determine foundation conditions or other preconstruction monitoring to establish background information related to the suitability of the site, the environmental impacts of construction or operation, or the protection of environmental values;
(3) Preparation of the site for construction of the facility, including clearing of the site, grading, installation of drainage, erosion and other environmental mitigation measures, and construction of temporary roads and borrow areas;
(4) Erection of fences and other access control measures that are not related to the safe use of, or security of, radiological materials subject to this part;
(6) Erection of support buildings (e.g., construction equipment storage sheds, warehouse and shop facilities, utilities, concrete mixing plants, docking and unloading facilities, and office buildings) for use in connection with the construction of the facility;
(7) Building of service facilities (e.g., paved roads, parking lots, railroad spurs, exterior utility and lighting systems, potable water systems, sanitary sewerage treatment facilities, and transmission lines);
(8) Procurement or fabrication of components or portions of the proposed facility occurring at other than the final, in-place location at the facility; or
(9) Taking any other action that has no reasonable nexus to:
(i) Radiological health and safety, or
Contiguous sites means licensee controlled locations, deemed by the Commission to be in close enough proximity to each other, that the special nuclear material must be considered in the aggregate for the purpose of physical protection.
Corporation means the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), or its successor, a Corporation that is authorized by statute to lease the gaseous diffusion enrichment plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Piketon, Ohio, from the Department of Energy, or any person authorized to operate one or both of the gaseous diffusion plants, or other facilities, pursuant to a plan for the privatization of USEC that is approved by the President.
Critical mass of special nuclear material (SNM), as used in Subpart H, means special nuclear material in a quantity exceeding 700 grams of contained uranium-235; 520 grams of uranium-233; 450 grams of plutonium; 1500 grams of contained uranium-235, if no uranium enriched to more than 4 percent by weight of uranium-235 is present; 450 grams of any combination thereof; or one-half such quantities if massive moderators or reflectors made of graphite, heavy water, or beryllium may be present.
Decommission means to remove a facility or site safely from service and reduce residual radioactivity to a level that permits -
(1) Release of the property for unrestricted use and termination of the license; or
(2) Release of the property under restricted conditions and termination of the license.
Department and Department of Energy means the Department of Energy Organization Act (Pub. L. 95-91, 91 Stat. 565, 42 U.S.C. 7101et seq.), to the extent that the Department, or its duly authorized representatives, exercises functions formerly vested in the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, its Chairman, members, officers and components and transferred to the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration and to the Administrator thereof pursuant to sections 104(b), (c) and (d) of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (Pub. L. 93-438, 88 Stat. 1233 at 1237, 42 U.S.C. 5814) and retransferred to the Secretary of Energy pursuant to section 301(a) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Pub. L. 95-91, 91 Stat. 565 at 577-578, 42 U.S.C. 7151).
Double contingency principle means that process designs should incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible.
Effective dose equivalent means the sum of the products of the dose equivalent to the body organ or tissue and the weighting factors applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated. Weighting factors are: 0.25 for gonads, 0.15 for breast, 0.12 for red bone marrow, 0.12 for lungs, 0.03 for thyroid, 0.03 for bone surface, and 0.06 for each of the other five organs receiving the highest dose equivalent.
Effective kilograms of special nuclear material means: (1) For plutonium and uranium-233 their weight in kilograms; (2) For uranium with an enrichment in the isotope U-235 of 0.01 (1%) and above, its element weight in kilograms multiplied by the square of its enrichment expressed as a decimal weight fraction; and (3) For uranium with an enrichment in the isotope U-235 below 0.01 (1%), by its element weight in kilograms multiplied by 0.0001.
Formula quantity means strategic special nuclear material in any combination in a quantity of 5000 grams or more computed by the formula, grams = (grams contained U-235) + 2.5 (grams U-233 + grams plutonium). This class of material is sometimes referred to as a Category I quantity of material.
Government agency means any executive department, commission, independent establishment, corporation, wholly or partly owned by the United States of America which is an instrumentality of the United States, or any board, bureau, division, service, office, officer, authority, administration, or other establishment in the executive branch of the Government;
Hazardous chemicals produced from licensed materials means substances having licensed material as precursor compound(s) or substances that physically or chemically interact with licensed materials; and that are toxic, explosive, flammable, corrosive, or reactive to the extent that they can endanger life or health if not adequately controlled. These include substances commingled with licensed material, and include substances such as hydrogen fluoride that is produced by the reaction of uranium hexafluoride and water, but do not include substances prior to process addition to licensed material or after process separation from licensed material.
Integrated safety analysis (ISA) means a systematic analysis to identify facility and external hazards and their potential for initiating accident sequences, the potential accident sequences, their likelihood and consequences, and the items relied on for safety. As used here, integrated means joint consideration of, and protection from, all relevant hazards, including radiological, nuclear criticality, fire, and chemical. However, with respect to compliance with the regulations of this part, the NRC requirement is limited to consideration of the effects of all relevant hazards on radiological safety, prevention of nuclear criticality accidents, or chemical hazards directly associated with NRC licensed radioactive material. An ISA can be performed process by process, but all processes must be integrated, and process interactions considered.
Integrated safety analysis summary means a document or documents submitted with the license application, license amendment application, license renewal application, or pursuant to § 70.62(c)(3)(ii) that provides a synopsis of the results of the integrated safety analysis and contains the information specified in § 70.65(b). The ISA Summary can be submitted as one document for the entire facility, or as multiple documents that cover all portions and processes of the facility.
Items relied on for safety mean structures, systems, equipment, components, and activities of personnel that are relied on to prevent potential accidents at a facility that could exceed the performance requirements in § 70.61 or to mitigate their potential consequences. This does not limit the licensee from identifying additional structures, systems, equipment, components, or activities of personnel (i.e., beyond those in the minimum set necessary for compliance with the performance requirements) as items relied on for safety.
License, except where otherwise specified, means a license issued pursuant to the regulations in this part;
Management measures mean the functions performed by the licensee, generally on a continuing basis, that are applied to items relied on for safety, to ensure the items are available and reliable to perform their functions when needed. Management measures include configuration management, maintenance, training and qualifications, procedures, audits and assessments, incident investigations, records management, and other quality assurance elements.
Person means (1) any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, group, Government agency other than the Commission or the Department, except that the Department shall be considered a person within the meaning of the regulations in this part to the extent that its facilities and activities are subject to the licensing and related regulatory authority of the Commission pursuant to section 202 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (88 Stat. 1244), any State or any political subdivision of or any political entity within a State, any foreign government or nation or any political subdivision of any such government or nation, or other entity; and (2) any legal successor, representative, agent, or agency of the foregoing;
Plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plant means a plant in which the following operations or activities are conducted: (1) Operations for manufacture of reactor fuel containing plutonium including any of the following: (i) Preparation of fuel material; (ii) formation of fuel material into desired shapes; (iii) application of protective cladding; (iv) recovery of scrap material; and (v) storage associated with such operations; or (2) Research and development activities involving any of the operations described in paragraph (1) of this definition except for research and development activities utilizing unsubstantial amounts of plutonium.
Principal activities, as used in this part, means activities authorized by the license which are essential to achieving the purpose(s) for which the license was issued or amended. Storage during which no licensed material is accessed for use or disposal and activities incidental to decontamination or decommissioning are not principal activities.
Produce, when used in relation to special nuclear material, means (1) to manufacture, make, produce, or refine special nuclear material; (2) to separate special nuclear material from other substances in which such material may be contained; or (3) to make or to produce new special nuclear material;
Research and development means (1) theoretical analysis, exploration, or experimentation; or (2) the extension of investigative findings and theories of a scientific or technical nature into practical application for experimental and demonstration purposes, including the experimental production and testing of models, devices, equipment, materials, and processes;
Restricted Data means all data concerning (1) design, manufacture or utilization of atomic weapons; (2) the production of special nuclear material; or (3) the use of special nuclear material in the production of energy, but shall not include data declassified or removed from the Restricted Data category pursuant to section 142 of the Act;
Site Area emergency means events may occur, are in progress, or have occurred that could lead to a significant release of radioactive material and that could require a response by offsite response organizations to protect persons offsite.
Special nuclear material means (1) plutonium, uranium 233, uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235, and any other material which the Commission, pursuant to the provisions of section 51 of the act, determines to be special nuclear material, but does not include source material; or (2) any material artificially enriched by any of the foregoing but does not include source material;
Special nuclear material of low strategic significance means:
(1) Less than an amount of special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance as defined in paragraph (1) of the definition of strategic nuclear material of moderate strategic significance in this section, but more than 15 grams of uranium-235 (contained in uranium enriched to 20 percent or more in U-235 isotope) or 15 grams of uranium-233 or 15 grams of plutonium or the combination of 15 grams when computed by the equation, grams = (grams contained U-235) + (grams plutonium) + (grams U-233); or
(2) Less than 10,000 grams but more than 1,000 grams of uranium-235 (contained in uranium enriched to 10 percent or more but less than 20 percent in the U-235 isotope); or
(3) 10,000 grams or more of uranium-235 (contained in uranium enriched above natural but less than 10 percent in the U-235 isotope).
Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance means:
(1) Less than a formula quantity of strategic special nuclear material but more than 1,000 grams of uranium-235 (contained in uranium enriched to 20 percent or more in the U-235 isotope) or more than 500 grams of uranium-233 or plutonium, or in a combined quantity of more than 1,000 grams when computed by the equation, grams = (grams contained U-235) + 2 (grams U-233 + grams plutonium); or
(2) 10,000 grams or more of uranium-235 (contained in uranium enriched to 10 percent or more but less than 20 percent in the U-235 isotope).
Special nuclear material scrap means the various forms of special nuclear material generated during chemical and mechanical processing, other than recycle material and normal process intermediates, which are unsuitable for use in their present form, but all or part of which will be used after further processing.
Strategic special nuclear material means uranium-235 (contained in uranium enriched to 20 percent or more in the U 235 isotope), uranium-233, or plutonium.
Transient shipment means a shipment of nuclear material, originating and terminating in foreign countries, on a vessel or aircraft which stops at a United States port.
Unacceptable performance deficiencies mean deficiencies in the items relied on for safety or the management measures that need to be corrected to ensure an adequate level of protection as defined in 10 CFR 70.61(b), (c), or (d).
Uranium enrichment facility means:
(1) Any facility used for separating the isotopes of uranium or enriching uranium in the isotope 235, except laboratory scale facilities designed or used for experimental or analytical purposes only; or
(2) Any equipment or device, or important component part especially designed for such equipment or device, capable of separating the isotopes of uranium or enriching uranium in the isotope 235.