10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 430, Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products

Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 430 - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products
Note:

For refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, the rounding requirements specified in sections 5.3.e and 6.1 of this appendix are not required for use until the compliance date of any amended energy conservation standards for these products. For combination cooler refrigeration products, manufacturers must use the test procedures in this appendix for all representations of energy use starting on the compliance date of any energy conservation standards for these products. For all other miscellaneous refrigeration products (e.g. coolers), manufacturers must use the test procedures in this appendix for all representations of energy use on or after January 17, 2017.

1. Definitions

Section 3, Definitions, of HRF-1-2008 (incorporated by reference; see § 430.3) applies to this test procedure, except that the term “wine chiller” means “cooler” as defined in § 430.2 and the term “wine chiller compartment” means “cooler compartment” as defined in this appendix.

Anti-sweat heater means a device incorporated into the design of a product to prevent the accumulation of moisture on the exterior or interior surfaces of the cabinet.

Anti-sweat heater switch means a user-controllable switch or user interface which modifies the activation or control of anti-sweat heaters.

AS/NZS 4474.1:2007 means Australian/New Zealand Standard 4474.1:2007, Performance of household electrical appliances - Refrigerating appliances, Part 1: Energy consumption and performance. Only sections of AS/NZS 4474.1:2007 (incorporated by reference; see § 430.3) specifically referenced in this test procedure are part of this test procedure. In cases where there is a conflict, the language of the test procedure in this appendix takes precedence over AS/NZS 4474.1:2007.

Automatic defrost means a system in which the defrost cycle is automatically initiated and terminated, with resumption of normal refrigeration at the conclusion of the defrost operation. The system automatically prevents the permanent formation of frost on all refrigerated surfaces.

Automatic icemaker means a device that can be supplied with water without user intervention, either from a pressurized water supply system or by transfer from a water reservoir located inside the cabinet, that automatically produces, harvests, and stores ice in a storage bin, with means to automatically interrupt the harvesting operation when the ice storage bin is filled to a pre-determined level.

Cooler compartment means a refrigerated compartment designed exclusively for wine or other beverages within a consumer refrigeration product that is capable of maintaining compartment temperatures either (a) no lower than 39 °F (3.9 °C), or (b) in a range that extends no lower than 37 °F (2.8 °C) but at least as high as 60 °F (15.6 °C) as determined according to § 429.14(d)(2) or § 429.61(d)(2) of this chapter.

Complete temperature cycle means a time period defined based upon the cycling of compartment temperature that starts when the compartment temperature is at a maximum and ends when the compartment temperature returns to an equivalent maximum (within 0.5 °F of the starting temperature), having in the interim fallen to a minimum and subsequently risen again to reach the second maximum. Alternatively, a complete temperature cycle can be defined to start when the compartment temperature is at a minimum and ends when the compartment temperature returns to an equivalent minimum (within 0.5 °F of the starting temperature), having in the interim risen to a maximum and subsequently fallen again to reach the second minimum.

Cycle means a 24-hour period for which the energy use of a product is calculated based on the consumer-activated compartment temperature controls being set to maintain the standardized temperatures (see section 3.2 of this appendix).

Cycle type means the set of test conditions having the calculated effect of operating a product for a period of 24 hours, with the consumer-activated controls, other than those that control compartment temperatures, set to establish various operating characteristics.

Defrost cycle type means a distinct sequence of control whose function is to remove frost and/or ice from a refrigerated surface. There may be variations in the defrost control sequence, such as the number of defrost heaters energized. Each such variation establishes a separate, distinct defrost cycle type. However, defrost achieved regularly during the compressor off-cycles by warming of the evaporator without active heat addition, although a form of automatic defrost, does not constitute a unique defrost cycle type for the purposes of identifying the test period in accordance with section 4 of this appendix.

HRF-1-2008 means AHAM Standard HRF-1-2008, Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers, Energy and Internal Volume of Refrigerating Appliances (2008), including Errata to Energy and Internal Volume of Refrigerating Appliances, Correction Sheet issued November 17, 2009. Only sections of HRF-1-2008 (incorporated by reference; see § 430.3) specifically referenced in this test procedure are part of this test procedure. In cases where there is a conflict, the language of the test procedure in this appendix takes precedence over HRF-1-2008.

Ice storage bin means a container in which ice can be stored.

Long-time automatic defrost means an automatic defrost system whose successive defrost cycles are separated by 14 hours or more of compressor operating time.

Multiple-compressor product means a consumer refrigeration product with more than one compressor.

Multiple refrigeration system product means a multiple-compressor product or a miscellaneous refrigeration product with more than one refrigeration system for which the operation of the systems is not coordinated. For non-compressor multiple refrigeration system products, “multiple-compressor product” as used in this appendix shall be interpreted to mean “multiple refrigeration system product.”

Precooling means operating a refrigeration system before initiation of a defrost cycle to reduce one or more compartment temperatures significantly (more than 0.5 °F) below its minimum during stable operation between defrosts.

Recovery means operating a refrigeration system after the conclusion of a defrost cycle to reduce the temperature of one or more compartments to the temperature range that the compartment(s) exhibited during stable operation between defrosts.

Separate auxiliary compartment means a separate freezer, fresh food, or cooler compartment that is not the primary freezer, primary fresh food, or primary cooler compartment. Separate auxiliary compartments may also be convertible (e.g., from fresh food to freezer). Separate auxiliary compartments may not be larger than the primary compartment of their type, but such size restrictions do not apply to separate auxiliary convertible compartments.

Special compartment means any compartment other than a butter conditioner or a cooler compartment, without doors directly accessible from the exterior, and with separate temperature control (such as crispers convertible to meat keepers) that is not convertible from the fresh food temperature range to the freezer temperature range.

Stable operation means operation after steady-state conditions have been achieved but excluding any events associated with defrost cycles. During stable operation the average rate of change of compartment temperatures must not exceed 0.042 °F (0.023 °C) per hour for all compartment temperatures. Such a calculation performed for compartment temperatures at any two times, or for any two periods of time comprising complete cycles, during stable operation must meet this requirement.

(a) If compartment temperatures do not cycle, the relevant calculation shall be the difference between the temperatures at two points in time divided by the difference, in hours, between those points in time.

(b) If compartment temperatures cycle as a result of compressor cycling or other cycling operation of any system component (e.g., a damper, fan, heater, etc.), the relevant calculation shall be the difference between compartment temperature averages evaluated for the whole compressor cycles or complete temperature cycles divided by the difference, in hours, between either the starts, ends, or mid-times of the two cycles.

Stabilization period means the total period of time during which steady-state conditions are being attained or evaluated.

Standard cycle means the cycle type in which the anti-sweat heater control, when provided, is set in the highest energy-consuming position.

Through-the-door ice/water dispenser means a device incorporated within the cabinet, but outside the boundary of the refrigerated space, that delivers to the user on demand ice and may also deliver water from within the refrigerated space without opening an exterior door. This definition includes dispensers that are capable of dispensing ice and water or ice only.

Variable anti-sweat heater control means an anti-sweat heater control that varies the average power input of the anti-sweat heater(s) based on operating condition variable(s) and/or ambient condition variable(s).

Variable defrost control means an automatic defrost system in which successive defrost cycles are determined by an operating condition variable (or variables) other than solely compressor operating time. This includes any electrical or mechanical device performing this function. A control scheme that changes the defrost interval from a fixed length to an extended length (without any intermediate steps) is not considered a variable defrost control. A variable defrost control feature predicts the accumulation of frost on the evaporator and reacts accordingly. Therefore, the times between defrost must vary with different usage patterns and include a continuum of periods between defrosts as inputs vary.

2. Test Conditions

2.1 Ambient Temperature Measurement. Temperature measuring devices shall be shielded so that indicated temperatures are not affected by the operation of the condensing unit or adjacent units.

2.1.1 Ambient Temperature. Measure and record the ambient temperature at points located 3 feet (91.5 cm) above the floor and 10 inches (25.4 cm) from the center of the two sides of the unit under test. The ambient temperature shall be 90.0 ± 1 °F (32.2 ± 0.6 °C) during the stabilization period and the test period.

2.1.2 Ambient Temperature Gradient. The test room vertical ambient temperature gradient in any foot of vertical distance from 2 inches (5.1 cm) above the floor or supporting platform to a height of 1 foot (30.5 cm) above the top of the unit under test is not to exceed 0.5 °F per foot (0.9 °C per meter). The vertical ambient temperature gradient at locations 10 inches (25.4 cm) out from the centers of the two sides of the unit being tested is to be maintained during the test. To demonstrate that this requirement has been met, test data must include measurements taken using temperature sensors at locations 10 inches (25.4 cm) from the center of the two sides of the unit under test at heights of 2 inches (5.1 cm) and 36 inches (91.4 cm) above the floor or supporting platform and at a height of 1 foot (30.5 cm) above the unit under test.

2.1.3 Platform. A platform must be used if the floor temperature is not within 3 °F (1.7 °C) of the measured ambient temperature. If a platform is used, it is to have a solid top with all sides open for air circulation underneath, and its top shall extend at least 1 foot (30.5 cm) beyond each side and the front of the unit under test and extend to the wall in the rear.

2.2 Operational Conditions. The unit under test shall be installed and its operating conditions maintained in accordance with HRF-1-2008 (incorporated by reference; see § 430.3), sections 5.3.2 through 5.5.5.5 (excluding section 5.5.5.4). Exceptions and clarifications to the cited sections of HRF-1-2008 are noted in sections 2.3 through 2.8 and 5.1 of this appendix.

2.3 Anti-Sweat Heaters. The anti-sweat heater switch is to be on during one test and off during a second test. In the case of a unit equipped with variable anti-sweat heater control, the standard cycle energy use shall be the result of the calculation described in section 6.2.5 of this appendix.

2.4 Conditions for Automatic Defrost Refrigerator-Freezers, Cooler-Refrigerator-Freezers and Cooler-Freezers. For these products, the freezer compartments shall not be loaded with any frozen food packages during testing. Cylindrical metallic masses of dimensions 1.12 ± 0.25 inches (2.9 ± 0.6 cm) in diameter and height shall be attached in good thermal contact with each temperature sensor within the refrigerated compartments. All temperature measuring sensor masses shall be supported by low-thermal-conductivity supports in such a manner to ensure that there will be at least 1 inch (2.5 cm) of air space separating the thermal mass from contact with any interior surface or hardware inside the cabinet. In case of interference with hardware at the sensor locations specified in section 5.1 of this appendix, the sensors shall be placed at the nearest adjacent location such that there will be a 1-inch air space separating the sensor mass from the hardware.

2.5 Conditions for All-Refrigerators and Cooler-All-Refrigerators. There shall be no load in the freezer compartment during the test.

2.6 The cabinet and its refrigerating mechanism shall be assembled and set up in accordance with the printed consumer instructions supplied with the cabinet. Set-up of the test unit shall not deviate from these instructions, unless explicitly required or allowed by this test procedure. Specific required or allowed deviations from such set-up include the following:

(a) Connection of water lines and installation of water filters are not required;

(b) Clearance requirements from surfaces of the product shall be as described in section 2.8 of this appendix;

(c) The electric power supply shall be as described in HRF-1-2008 (incorporated by reference; see § 430.3), section 5.5.1;

(d) Temperature control settings for testing shall be as described in section 3 of this appendix. Settings for convertible compartments and other temperature-controllable or special compartments shall be as described in section 2.7 of this appendix;

(e) The product does not need to be anchored or otherwise secured to prevent tipping during energy testing;

(f) All the product's chutes and throats required for the delivery of ice shall be free of packing, covers, or other blockages that may be fitted for shipping or when the icemaker is not in use; and

(g) Ice storage bins shall be emptied of ice.

For cases in which set-up is not clearly defined by this test procedure, manufacturers must submit a petition for a waiver (see section 7 of this appendix).

2.7 Compartments that are convertible (e.g., from fresh food to freezer or cooler) shall be operated in the highest energy use position. A compartment may be considered to be convertible to a cooler compartment if it is capable of maintaining compartment temperatures at least as high as 55 °F (12.8 °C) and also capable of operating at storage temperatures less than 37 °F. For the special case of convertible separate auxiliary compartments, this means that the compartment shall be treated as a freezer compartment, a fresh food compartment, or a cooler compartment, depending on which of these represents the highest energy use.

Special compartments shall be tested with controls set to provide the coldest temperature. However, for special compartments in which temperature control is achieved using the addition of heat (including resistive electric heating, refrigeration system waste heat, or heat from any other source, but excluding the transfer of air from another part of the interior of the product) for any part of the controllable temperature range of that compartment, the product energy use shall be determined by averaging two sets of tests. The first set of tests shall be conducted with such special compartments at their coldest settings, and the second set of tests shall be conducted with such special compartments at their warmest settings. The requirements for the warmest or coldest temperature settings of this section do not apply to features or functions associated with temperature controls (such as fast chill compartments) that are initiated manually and terminated automatically within 168 hours.

Movable subdividing barriers that separate compartments shall be placed in the median position. If such a subdividing barrier has an even number of positions, the near-median position representing the smallest volume of the warmer compartment(s) shall be used.

2.8 Rear Clearance.

(a) General. The space between the lowest edge of the rear plane of the cabinet and a vertical surface (the test room wall or simulated wall) shall be the minimum distance in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, unless other provisions of this section apply. The rear plane shall be considered to be the largest flat surface at the rear of the cabinet, excluding features that protrude beyond this surface, such as brackets or compressors.

(b) Maximum clearance. The clearance shall not be greater than 2 inches (51 mm) from the lowest edge of the rear plane to the vertical surface, unless the provisions of paragraph (c) of this section apply.

(c) If permanent rear spacers or other components that protrude beyond the rear plane extend further than the 2-inch (51 mm) distance, or if the highest edge of the rear plane is in contact with the vertical surface when the unit is positioned with the lowest edge of the rear plane at or further than the 2-inch (51 mm) distance from the vertical surface, the appliance shall be located with the spacers or other components protruding beyond the rear plane, or the highest edge of the rear plane, in contact with the vertical surface.

(d) Rear-mounted condensers. If the product has a flat rear-wall-mounted condenser (i.e., a rear-wall-mounted condenser with all refrigerant tube centerlines within 0.25 inches (6.4 mm) of the condenser plane), and the area of the condenser plane represents at least 25% of the total area of the rear wall of the cabinet, then the spacing to the vertical surface may be measured from the lowest edge of the condenser plane.

2.9 Steady-State Condition. Steady-state conditions exist if the temperature measurements in all measured compartments taken at 4-minute intervals or less during a stabilization period are not changing at a rate greater than 0.042 °F (0.023 °C) per hour as determined by the applicable condition of paragraph (a) or (b) of this section.

(a) The average of the measurements during a 2-hour period if no cycling occurs or during a number of complete repetitive compressor cycles occurring through a period of no less than 2 hours is compared to the average over an equivalent time period with 3 hours elapsing between the two measurement periods.

(b) If paragraph (a) of this section cannot be used, the average of the measurements during a number of complete repetitive compressor cycles occurring through a period of no less than 2 hours and including the last complete cycle before a defrost period (or if no cycling occurs, the average of the measurements during the last 2 hours before a defrost period) are compared to the same averaging period before the following defrost period.

2.10 Products with Demand-Response Capability. Products that have a communication module for demand-response functions that is located within the cabinet shall be tested with the communication module in the configuration set at the factory just before shipping.

3. Test Control Settings

3.1 Model with No User-Operable Temperature Control. A test shall be performed to measure the compartment temperatures and energy use. A second test shall be performed with the temperature control electrically short circuited to cause the compressor to run continuously (or to cause the non-compressor refrigeration system to run continuously at maximum capacity).

3.2 Models with User-Operable Temperature Control. Testing shall be performed in accordance with the procedure in this section using the following standardized temperatures:

39 °F (3.9 °C) fresh food compartment temperature;

0 °F (−17.8 °C) freezer compartment temperature, except for freezer compartments in refrigerators and cooler-refrigerators, in which case testing would use a 15 °F (−9.4 °C) freezer compartment temperature; and

55 °F (12.8 °C) cooler compartment temperature.

For the purposes of comparing compartment temperatures with standardized temperatures, as described in sections 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 of this appendix, the freezer compartment temperature shall be as specified in section 5.1.4 of this appendix, the fresh food compartment temperature shall be as specified in section 5.1.3 of this appendix, and the cooler compartment temperature shall be as specified in section 5.1.5 of this appendix.

3.2.1 Temperature Control Settings and Tests to Use for Energy Use Calculations.

3.2.1.1 Setting Temperature Controls. For mechanical control systems, (a) knob detents shall be mechanically defeated if necessary to attain a median setting, and (b) the warmest and coldest settings shall correspond to the positions in which the indicator is aligned with control symbols indicating the warmest and coldest settings. For electronic control systems, the test shall be performed with all compartment temperature controls set at the average of the coldest and warmest settings; if there is no setting equal to this average, the setting closest to the average shall be used. If there are two such settings equally close to the average, the higher of these temperature control settings shall be used.

3.2.1.2 Test Sequence. A first test shall be performed with all compartment temperature controls set at their median position midway between their warmest and coldest settings. A second test shall be performed with all controls set at their warmest setting or all controls set at their coldest setting (not electrically or mechanically bypassed). For units with a single standardized temperature (e.g., all-refrigerator or cooler), this setting shall be the appropriate setting that attempts to achieve compartment temperatures measured during the two tests that bound (i.e., one is above and one is below) the standardized temperature. For other units, the second test shall be conducted with all controls at their coldest setting, unless all compartment temperatures measured during the first test are lower than the standardized temperatures, in which case the second test shall be conducted with all controls at their warmest setting. If any compartment is warmer than its standardized temperature for a test with all controls at their coldest position, the product receives no energy use rating and the manufacturer must submit a petition for a waiver (see section 7 of this appendix).

3.2.1.3 Temperature Setting Table. See Table 1 of this section for a general description of which settings to use and which test results to use in the energy consumption calculation for products with one, two, or three standardized temperatures.

Table 1 - Temperature Settings: General Chart for All Products

First test Second test Energy calculation based on:
Setting Results Setting Results
Mid for all compartments All compartments low Warm for all compartments All compartments low Second Test Only.
One or more compartments high First and Second Test.
One or more compartments high Cold for all compartments All compartments low First and Second Test.
One or more compartments high No Energy Use Rating.

3.2.2 Alternatively, a first test may be performed with all temperature controls set at their warmest setting. If all compartment temperatures are below the appropriate standardized temperatures, then the result of this test alone will be used to determine energy consumption. If this condition is not met, then the unit shall be tested in accordance with section 3.2.1 of this appendix.

3.2.3 Temperature Settings for Separate Auxiliary Convertible Compartments. For separate auxiliary convertible compartments tested as freezer compartments, the median setting shall be within 2 °F (1.1 °C) of the standardized freezer compartment temperature, and the warmest setting shall be at least 5 °F (2.8 °C) warmer than the standardized temperature. For separate auxiliary convertible compartments tested as fresh food compartments, the median setting shall be within 2 °F (1.1 °C) of 39 °F (3.9 °C), the coldest setting shall be below 34 °F (1.1 °C), and the warmest setting shall be above 43 °F (6.1 °C). For separate auxiliary convertible compartments tested as cooler compartments, the median setting shall be within 2 °F (1.1 °C) of 55 °F (12.8 °C), and the coldest setting shall be below 50 °F (10.0 °C). For compartments where control settings are not expressed as particular temperatures, the measured temperature of the convertible compartment rather than the settings shall meet the specified criteria.

3.3 Optional Test for Models with Two Compartments and User-Operable Controls. As an alternative to section 3.2 of this appendix, perform three tests such that the set of tests meets the “minimum requirements for interpolation” of AS/NZS 4474.1:2007 (incorporated by reference; see § 430.3) appendix M, section M3, paragraphs (a) through (c) and as illustrated in Figure M1. The target temperatures txA and txB defined in section M4(a)(i) of AS/NZ 4474.1:2007 shall be the standardized temperatures defined in section 3.2 of this appendix.

4. Test Period

Tests shall be performed by establishing the conditions set forth in section 2, and using the control settings set forth in section 3.

4.1 Non-automatic Defrost. If the model being tested has no automatic defrost system, the test period shall start after steady-state conditions (see section 2.9 of this appendix) have been achieved and be no less than three hours in duration. During the test period, the compressor motor shall complete two or more whole compressor cycles. (A compressor cycle is a complete “on” and a complete “off” period of the motor.) If no “off” cycling occurs, the test period shall be three hours. If fewer than two compressor cycles occur during a 24-hour period, then a single complete compressor cycle may be used.

4.2 Automatic Defrost. If the model being tested has an automatic defrost system, the test period shall start after steady-state conditions have been achieved and be from one point during a defrost period to the same point during the next defrost period. If the model being tested has a long-time automatic defrost system, the alternative provisions of section 4.2.1 may be used. If the model being tested has a variable defrost control, the provisions of section 4.2.2 shall apply. If the model is a multiple-compressor product with automatic defrost, the provisions of section 4.2.3 shall apply. If the model being tested has long-time automatic or variable defrost control involving multiple defrost cycle types, such as for a product with a single compressor and two or more evaporators in which the evaporators are defrosted at different frequencies, the provisions of section 4.2.4 shall apply. If the model being tested has multiple defrost cycle types for which compressor run time between defrosts is a fixed time of less than 14 hours for all such cycle types, and for which the compressor run times between defrosts for different defrost cycle types are equal to or multiples of each other, the test period shall be from one point of the defrost cycle type with the longest compressor run time between defrosts to the same point during the next occurrence of this defrost cycle type. For such products not using the procedures of section 4.2.4, energy consumption shall be calculated as described in section 5.2.1.1 of this appendix.

4.2.1 Long-time Automatic Defrost. If the model being tested has a long-time automatic defrost system, the two-part test described in this section may be used. The first part is a stable period of compressor operation that includes no portions of the defrost cycle, such as precooling or recovery, that is otherwise the same as the test for a unit having no defrost provisions ( section 4.1). The second part is designed to capture the energy consumed during all of the events occurring with the defrost control sequence that are outside of stable operation.

4.2.1.1 Cycling Compressor System. For a system with a cycling compressor, the second part of the test starts at the termination of the last regular compressor “on” cycle. The average compartment temperatures measured from the termination of the previous compressor “on” cycle to the termination of the last regular compressor “on” cycle must both be within 0.5 °F (0.3 °C) of their average temperatures measured for the first part of the test. If any compressor cycles occur prior to the defrost heater being energized that cause the average temperature in any compartment to deviate from its average temperature for the first part of the test by more than 0.5 °F (0.3 °C), these compressor cycles are not considered regular compressor cycles and must be included in the second part of the test. As an example, a “precooling” cycle, which is an extended compressor cycle that lowers the temperature(s) of one or more compartments prior to energizing the defrost heater, must be included in the second part of the test. The test period for the second part of the test ends at the termination of the first regular compressor “on” cycle after compartment temperatures have fully recovered to their stable conditions. The average temperatures of the compartments measured from this termination of the first regular compressor “on” cycle until the termination of the next regular compressor “on” cycle must both be within 0.5 °F (0.3 °C) of their average temperatures measured for the first part of the test. See Figure 1 of this section. Note that Figure 1 illustrates the concepts of precooling and recovery but does not represent all possible defrost cycles.

4.2.1.2 Non-cycling Compressor System. For a system with a non-cycling compressor, the second part of the test starts at a time before defrost during stable operation when compartment temperatures are within 0.5 °F (0.3 °C) of their average temperatures measured for the first part of the test. The second part stops at a time after defrost during stable operation when the compartment temperatures are within 0.5 °F (0.3 °C) of their average temperatures measured for the first part of the test. See Figure 2 of this section.

4.2.2 Variable Defrost Control. If the model being tested has a variable defrost control system, the test shall consist of the same two parts as the test for long-time automatic defrost ( section 4.2.1).

4.2.3 Multiple-compressor Products with Automatic Defrost.

4.2.3.1 Measurement Frequency. Measurements of power input, cumulative electric energy consumption (watt-hours or kilowatt-hours), and compartment temperature shall be taken at regular intervals not exceeding one minute.

4.2.3.2 Steady-state Condition. Steady state shall be considered to have been attained after 24 hours of operation after the last adjustment of the temperature controls.

4.2.3.3 Primary Compressor. If at least one compressor cycles, test periods shall be based on compressor cycles associated with the primary compressor system (these are referred to as “primary compressor cycles”). If the freezer compressor cycles, it shall be the primary compressor system.

4.2.3.4 Test Periods. The two-part test described in this section shall be used. The first part is a stable continuous period of compressor operation that includes no defrost cycles or events associated with a defrost cycle, such as precooling or recovery, for any compressor system. The second part is a continuous test period designed to capture the energy consumed during all of the events occurring with the defrost control sequence that are outside of stable operation. The second part of the test shall be conducted separately for each automatic defrost system present.

4.2.3.4.1 First Part of Test. If at least one compressor cycles, the test period for the first part of the test shall include a whole number of complete primary compressor cycles comprising at least 24 hours of stable operation, unless a defrost occurs prior to completion of 24 hours of stable operation, in which case the first part of the test shall include a whole number of complete primary compressor cycles comprising at least 18 hours of stable operation. If no compressor cycles, the first part of the test shall comprise at least 24 hours of stable operation, unless a defrost occurs prior to completion of 24 hours of stable operation, in which case the first part of the test shall comprise at least 18 hours of stable operation.

4.2.3.4.2 Second Part of Test. (a) If at least one compressor cycles, the test period for the second part of the test starts during stable operation before all portions of the defrost cycle, at the beginning of a complete primary compressor cycle. The test period for the second part of the test ends during stable operation after all portions of the defrost cycle, including recovery, at the termination of a complete primary compressor cycle. The start and stop for the test period shall both occur either when the primary compressor starts or when the primary compressor stops. For each compressor system, the compartment temperature averages for the first and last complete compressor cycles that lie completely within the second part of the test must be within 0.5 °F (0.3 °C) of the average compartment temperature measured for the first part of the test. If any one of the compressor systems is non-cycling, its compartment temperature averages during the first and last complete primary compressor cycles of the second part of the test must be within 0.5 °F (0.3 °C) of the average compartment temperature measured for the first part of the test.

(b) If no compressor cycles, the test period for the second part of the test starts during stable operation before all portions of the defrost cycle, when the compartment temperatures of all compressor systems are within 0.5 °F (0.3 °C) of their average temperatures measured for the first part of the test. The test period for the second part ends during stable operation after all portions of the defrost cycle, including recovery, when the compartment temperatures of all compressor systems are within 0.5 °F (0.3 °C) of their average temperatures measured for the first part of the test.

4.2.4 Systems with Multiple Defrost Frequencies. This section applies to models with long-time automatic or variable defrost control with multiple defrost cycle types, such as models with single compressors and multiple evaporators in which the evaporators have different defrost frequencies. The two-part method in 4.2.1 shall be used. The second part of the method will be conducted separately for each distinct defrost cycle type.

5. Test Measurements

5.1 Temperature Measurements. (a) Temperature measurements shall be made at the locations prescribed in HRF-1-2008 (incorporated by reference; see § 430.3) Figure 5.1 for cooler and fresh food compartments and Figure 5.2 for freezer compartments and shall be accurate to within ±0.5 °F (0.3 °C). No freezer temperature measurements need be taken in an all-refrigerator or cooler-all-refrigerator.

(b) If the interior arrangements of the unit under test do not conform with those shown in Figures 5.1 or 5.2 of HRF-1-2008, as appropriate, the unit must be tested by relocating the temperature sensors from the locations specified in the figures to avoid interference with hardware or components within the unit, in which case the specific locations used for the temperature sensors shall be noted in the test data records maintained by the manufacturer in accordance with 10 CFR 429.71, and the certification report shall indicate that non-standard sensor locations were used. If any temperature sensor is relocated by any amount from the location prescribed in Figure 5.1 or 5.2 of HRF-1- 2008 in order to maintain a minimum 1-inch air space from adjustable shelves or other components that could be relocated by the consumer, except in cases in which the Figures prescribe a temperature sensor location within 1 inch of a shelf or similar feature (e.g., sensor T3 in Figure 5.1), this constitutes a relocation of temperature sensors that must be recorded in the test data and reported in the certification report as described in this paragraph (b).

5.1.1 Measured Temperature. The measured temperature of a compartment is the average of all sensor temperature readings taken in that compartment at a particular point in time. Measurements shall be taken at regular intervals not to exceed 4 minutes. Measurements for multiple refrigeration system products shall be taken at regular intervals not to exceed one minute.

5.1.2 Compartment Temperature. The compartment temperature for each test period shall be an average of the measured temperatures taken in a compartment during the test period as defined in section 4 of this appendix. For long-time automatic defrost models, compartment temperatures shall be those measured in the first part of the test period specified in section 4.2.1 of this appendix. For models with variable defrost controls, compartment temperatures shall be those measured in the first part of the test period specified in section 4.2.2 of this appendix. For models with automatic defrost that is neither long-time nor variable defrost, the compartment temperature shall be an average of the measured temperatures taken in a compartment during a stable period of compressor operation that:

(a) Includes no defrost cycles or events associated with a defrost cycle, such as precooling or recovery;

(b) Is no less than three hours in duration; and

(c) Includes two or more whole compressor cycles. If the compressor does not cycle, the stable period used for the temperature average shall be three hours in duration.

5.1.3 Fresh Food Compartment Temperature. The fresh food compartment temperature shall be calculated as:

Where:
R is the total number of applicable fresh food compartments, including the primary fresh food compartment and any separate auxiliary fresh food compartments (including separate auxiliary convertible compartments tested as fresh food compartments in accordance with section 2.7 of this appendix);
TRi is the compartment temperature of fresh food compartment “i” determined in accordance with section 5.1.2 of this appendix; and
VRi is the volume of fresh food compartment “i.”

5.1.4 Freezer Compartment Temperature. The freezer compartment temperature shall be calculated as:

Where:
F is the total number of applicable freezer compartments, which include the primary freezer compartment and any number of separate auxiliary freezer compartments (including separate auxiliary convertible compartments tested as freezer compartments in accordance with section 2.7 of this appendix);
TFi is the compartment temperature of freezer compartment “i” determined in accordance with section 5.1.2 of this appendix; and
VFi is the volume of freezer compartment “i”.

5.1.5 Cooler Compartment Temperature. The cooler compartment temperature shall be calculated as:

Where:
C is the total number of applicable cooler compartments (including separate auxiliary convertible compartments tested as cooler compartments in accordance with section 2.7 of this appendix);
TCi is the compartment temperature of cooler compartment “i” determined in accordance with section 5.1.2 of this appendix; and
VCi is the volume of cooler compartment “i.”

5.2 Energy Measurements.

5.2.1 Per-Day Energy Consumption. The energy consumption in kilowatt-hours per day, ET, for each test period shall be the energy expended during the test period as specified in section 4 of this appendix adjusted to a 24-hour period. The adjustment shall be determined as follows.

5.2.1.1 Non-Automatic Defrost and Automatic Defrost. The energy consumption in kilowatt-hours per day shall be calculated equivalent to:

ET = (EP × 1440 × K)/T
Where:
ET = test cycle energy expended in kilowatt-hours per day;
EP = energy expended in kilowatt-hours during the test period;
T = length of time of the test period in minutes; and
1440 = conversion factor to adjust to a 24-hour period in minutes per day.
K = dimensionless correction factor of 1.0 for refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; and 0.55 for coolers and combination cooler refrigeration products to adjust for average household usage.

5.2.1.2 Long-time Automatic Defrost. If the two-part test method is used, the energy consumption in kilowatt-hours per day shall be calculated equivalent to:

ET = (1440 × K × EP1/T1) (EP2 − (EP1 × T2/T1)) × K × (12/CT)
Where:
ET, 1440, and K are defined in section 5.2.1.1 of this appendix;
EP1 = energy expended in kilowatt-hours during the first part of the test;
EP2 = energy expended in kilowatt-hours during the second part of the test;
T1 and T2 = length of time in minutes of the first and second test parts respectively;
CT = defrost timer run time or compressor run time between defrosts in hours required to cause it to go through a complete cycle, rounded to the nearest tenth of an hour; and
12 = factor to adjust for a 50-percent run time of the compressor in hours per day.

5.2.1.3 Variable Defrost Control. The energy consumption in kilowatt-hours per day shall be calculated equivalent to:

ET = (1440 × K × EP1/T1) (EP2 − (EP1 × T2/T1)) × K × (12/CT),
Where:
1440 and K are defined in section 5.2.1.1 of this appendix and EP1, EP2, T1, T2, and 12 are defined in section 5.2.1.2 of this appendix;
CT = (CTL × CTM)/(F × (CTM − CTL) CTL);
CTL = the shortest compressor run time between defrosts used in the variable defrost control algorithm (greater than or equal to 6 but less than or equal to 12 hours), or the shortest compressor run time between defrosts observed for the test (if it is shorter than the shortest run time used in the control algorithm and is greater than 6 hours), or 6 hours (if the shortest observed run time is less than 6 hours), in hours rounded to the nearest tenth of an hour;
CTM = maximum compressor run time between defrosts in hours rounded to the nearest tenth of an hour (greater than CTL but not more than 96 hours);
F = ratio of per day energy consumption in excess of the least energy and the maximum difference in per-day energy consumption and is equal to 0.20.

For variable defrost models with no values for CTL and CTM in the algorithm, the default values of 6 and 96 shall be used, respectively.

5.2.1.4 Multiple Compressor Products with Automatic Defrost. For multiple compressor products, the two-part test method in section 4.2.3.4 of this appendix must be used. The energy consumption in kilowatt-hours per day shall be calculated equivalent to:

Where:
1440 and K are defined in section 5.2.1.1 of this appendix and EP1, T1, and 12 are defined in section 5.2.1.2 of this appendix;
i = a variable that can equal 1, 2, or more that identifies each individual compressor system that has automatic defrost;
D = the total number of compressor systems with automatic defrost.
EP2i = energy expended in kilowatt-hours during the second part of the test for compressor system i;
T2i = length of time in minutes of the second part of the test for compressor system i;
CTi = the compressor run time between defrosts for compressor system i in hours rounded to the nearest tenth of an hour, for long-time automatic defrost control equal to a fixed time in hours, and for variable defrost control equal to:
(CTLi × CTMi)/(F × (CTMi− CTLi) CTLi);
Where:
CTLi = for compressor system i, the shortest compressor run time between defrosts used in the variable defrost control algorithm (greater than or equal to 6 but less than or equal to 12 hours), or the shortest compressor run time between defrosts observed for the test (if it is shorter than the shortest run time used in the control algorithm and is greater than 6 hours), or 6 hours (if the shortest observed run time is less than 6 hours), in hours rounded to the nearest tenth of an hour;
CTMi = for compressor system i, the maximum compressor run time between defrosts in hours rounded to the nearest tenth of an hour (greater than CTLi but not more than 96 hours);
F = default defrost energy consumption factor, equal to 0.20.

For variable defrost models with no values for CTLi and CTMi in the algorithm, the default values of 6 and 96 shall be used, respectively.

5.2.1.5 Long-time or Variable Defrost Control for Systems with Multiple Defrost Cycle Types. The energy consumption in kilowatt-hours per day shall be calculated equivalent to:

Where:
1440 and K are defined in section 5.2.1.1 of this appendix and EP1, T1, and 12 are defined in section 5.2.1.2 of this appendix;
i is a variable that can equal 1, 2, or more that identifies the distinct defrost cycle types applicable for the product;
EP2i = energy expended in kilowatt-hours during the second part of the test for defrost cycle type i;
T2i = length of time in minutes of the second part of the test for defrost cycle type i;
CTi is the compressor run time between instances of defrost cycle type i, for long-time automatic defrost control equal to a fixed time in hours rounded to the nearest tenth of an hour, and for variable defrost control equal to:
(CTLi × CTMi)/(F × (CTMi − CTLi) CTLi);
CTLi = least or shortest compressor run time between instances of defrost cycle type i in hours rounded to the nearest tenth of an hour (CTL for the defrost cycle type with the longest compressor run time between defrosts must be greater than or equal to 6 but less than or equal to 12 hours);
CTMi = maximum compressor run time between instances of defrost cycle type i in hours rounded to the nearest tenth of an hour (greater than CTLi but not more than 96 hours);

For cases in which there are more than one fixed CT value (for long-time defrost models) or more than one CTM and/or CTL value (for variable defrost models) for a given defrost cycle type, an average fixed CT value or average CTM and CTL values shall be selected for this cycle type so that 12 divided by this value or values is the frequency of occurrence of the defrost cycle type in a 24 hour period, assuming 50% compressor run time.

F = default defrost energy consumption factor, equal to 0.20.

For variable defrost models with no values for CTLi and CTMi in the algorithm, the default values of 6 and 96 shall be used, respectively.

D is the total number of distinct defrost cycle types.

5.3 Volume Measurements. (a) The unit's total refrigerated volume, VT, shall be measured in accordance with HRF-1-2008, (incorporated by reference; see § 430.3), section 3.30 and sections 4.2 through 4.3. The measured volume shall include all spaces within the insulated volume of each compartment except for the volumes that must be deducted in accordance with section 4.2.2 of HRF-1-2008, as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, and be calculated equivalent to:

VT = VF VFF VC
Where:
VT = total refrigerated volume in cubic feet,
VF = freezer compartment volume in cubic feet,
VFF = fresh food compartment volume in cubic feet, and
VC = cooler compartment volume in cubic feet.

(b) The following component volumes shall not be included in the compartment volume measurements: Icemaker compartment insulation (e.g., insulation isolating the icemaker compartment from the fresh food compartment of a product with a bottom-mounted freezer with through-the-door ice service), fountain recess, dispenser insulation, and ice chute (if there is a plug, cover, or cap over the chute per Figure 4-2 of HRF-1-2008). The following component volumes shall be included in the compartment volume measurements: Icemaker auger motor (if housed inside the insulated space of the cabinet), icemaker kit, ice storage bin, and ice chute (up to the dispenser flap, if there is no plug, cover, or cap over the ice chute per Figure 4-3 of HRF-1-2008).

(c) Total refrigerated volume is determined by physical measurement of the test unit. Measurements and calculations used to determine the total refrigerated volume shall be retained as part of the test records underlying the certification of the basic model in accordance with 10 CFR 429.71.

(d) Compartment classification shall be based on subdivision of the refrigerated volume into zones separated from each other by subdividing barriers: No evaluated compartment shall be a zone of a larger compartment unless the zone is separated from the remainder of the larger compartment by subdividing barriers; if there are no such subdividing barriers within the larger compartment, the larger compartment must be evaluated as a single compartment rather than as multiple compartments. If the cabinet contains a movable subdividing barrier, it must be placed as described in section 2.7 of this appendix.

(e) Freezer, fresh food, and cooler compartment volumes shall be calculated and recorded to the nearest 0.01 cubic foot. Total refrigerated volume shall be calculated and recorded to the nearest 0.1 cubic foot.

6. Calculation of Derived Results From Test Measurements

6.1 Adjusted Total Volume. The adjusted total volume of each tested unit must be determined based upon the volume measured in section 5.3 of this appendix using the following calculations. Where volume measurements for the freezer, fresh food, and cooler compartment are recorded in liters, the measured volume must be converted to cubic feet and rounded to the nearest 0.01 cubic foot prior to calculating the adjusted volume. Adjusted total volume shall be calculated and recorded to the nearest 0.1 cubic foot.

6.1.1 Refrigerators, Coolers, and Cooler-Refrigerators. The adjusted total volume, AV, for refrigerators or cooler-refrigerators under test, shall be defined as:

AV = (VF × CR) VFF VC
Where:
AV = adjusted total volume in cubic feet;
VF, VFF, and VC are defined in section 5.3 of this appendix;
CR = dimensionless adjustment factor for freezer compartments of 1.00 for all-refrigerators and cooler-all-refrigerators, or 1.47 for other types of refrigerators and cooler-refrigerators; and

6.1.2 Refrigerator-Freezers, Cooler-Refrigerator-Freezers, and Cooler-Freezers. The adjusted total volume, AV, for refrigerator-freezers, cooler-refrigerator-freezers, and cooler-freezers under test shall be calculated as follows:

AV = (VF × CRF) VFF VC
Where:
VF, VFF, and VC are defined in section 5.3 and AV is defined in section 6.1.1 of this appendix;
CRF = dimensionless adjustment factor for freezer compartments of 1.76; and

6.2 Average Per-Cycle Energy Consumption. The average per-cycle energy consumption for a cycle type, E, is expressed in kilowatt-hours per cycle to the nearest one hundredth (0.01) kilowatt-hour and shall be calculated according to the sections below.

6.2.1 All-Refrigerator Models. The average per-cycle energy consumption shall depend upon the temperature attainable in the fresh food compartment as shown in section 6.2.1.1 of this appendix.

6.2.1.1 If the fresh food compartment temperature is always below 39.0 °F (3.9 °C), the average per-cycle energy consumption shall be equivalent to:

E = ET1
Where:
ET is defined in section 5.2.1 of this appendix; and
The number 1 indicates the test during which the highest fresh food compartment temperature is measured.

6.2.1.2 If the conditions of section 6.2.1.1 of this appendix do not apply, the average per-cycle energy consumption shall be equivalent to:

E = ET1 ((ET2 − ET1) × (39.0 − TR1)/(TR2 − TR1))
Where:
ET is defined in section 5.2.1 of this appendix;
TR = fresh food compartment temperature determined according to section 5.1.3 of this appendix in degrees F;
The numbers 1 and 2 indicate measurements taken during the two tests to be used to calculate energy consumption, as specified in section 3 of this appendix; and
39.0 = standardized fresh food compartment temperature in degrees F.

6.2.2 Coolers. The average per-cycle energy consumption shall depend upon the temperature attainable in the cooler compartment as shown in section 6.2.2.1 of this appendix.

6.2.2.1 If the cooler compartment temperature is always below 55.0 °F (12.8 °C), the average per-cycle energy consumption shall be equivalent to:

E = ET1
Where:
ET is defined in section 5.2.1 of this appendix; and
The number 1 indicates the test during which the highest cooler compartment temperature is measured.

6.2.2.2 If the conditions of section 6.2.2.1 of this appendix do not apply, the average per-cycle energy consumption shall be equivalent to:

E = ET1 ((ET2 − ET1) × (55.0 − TC1)/(TC2 − TC1))
Where:
ET is defined in section 5.2.1 of this appendix;
TC = cooler compartment temperature determined according to section 5.1.5 of this appendix in degrees F;
The numbers 1 and 2 are defined in section 6.2.1.2 of this appendix; and
55.0 = standardized cooler compartment temperature in degrees F.

6.2.3 Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers. The average per-cycle energy consumption shall be defined in one of the following ways as applicable.

6.2.3.1 If the fresh food compartment temperature is always below 39 °F (3.9 °C) and the freezer compartment temperature is always below 15 °F (−9.4 °C) in both tests of a refrigerator or always below 0 °F (−17.8 °C) in both tests of a refrigerator-freezer, the average per-cycle energy consumption shall be:

E = ET1 IET
Where:
ET is defined in section 5.2.1 of this appendix;
IET, expressed in kilowatt-hours per cycle, equals 0.23 for a product with an automatic icemaker and otherwise equals 0 (zero); and
The number 1 indicates the test during which the highest freezer compartment temperature was measured.

6.2.3.2 If the conditions of section 6.2.3.1 of this appendix do not apply, the average per-cycle energy consumption shall be defined by the higher of the two values calculated by the following two formulas:

E = ET1 ((ET2 − ET1) × (39.0 − TR1)/(TR2 − TR1)) IET
and
E = ET1 ((ET2 − ET1) × (k − TF1)/(TF2 − TF1)) IET
Where:
ET is defined in section 5.2.1 of this appendix;
IET is defined in section 6.2.3.1 of this appendix;
TR and the numbers 1 and 2 are defined in section 6.2.1.2 of this appendix;
TF = freezer compartment temperature determined according to section 5.1.4 of this appendix in degrees F;
39.0 is a specified fresh food compartment temperature in degrees F; and
k is a constant 15.0 for refrigerators or 0.0 for refrigerator-freezers, each being a standardized freezer compartment temperature in degrees F.

6.2.4 Combination Cooler Refrigeration Products. The average per-cycle energy consumption shall be defined in one of the following ways as applicable.

6.2.4.1 If the compartment temperatures are always below their compartments' standardized temperatures as defined in section 3.2 of this appendix (the fresh food compartment temperature is at or below 39 °F (3.9 °C); the cooler compartment temperature is at or below 55 °F (12.8 °C); and the freezer compartment temperature is at or below 15 °F (−9.4 °C) for a cooler-refrigerator, or the freezer compartment temperature is at or below 0 °F (−17.8 °C) for a cooler-refrigerator-freezer or cooler-freezer), the average per-cycle energy consumption shall be:

E = ET1 IET
Where:
ET is defined in section 5.2.1 of this appendix;
IET is defined in section 6.2.3.1 of this appendix;
The number 1 indicates the test during which the highest freezer compartment temperature is measured. If the product has no freezer compartment, the number 1 indicates the test during which the highest fresh food compartment temperature is measured.

6.2.4.2 If the conditions of section 6.2.4.1 of this appendix do not apply, the average per-cycle energy consumption shall be defined by the highest of the two or three values calculated by the following three formulas:

E = (ET1 ((ET2 − ET1) × (39.0 − TR1)/(TR2 − TR1)) IET if the product has a fresh food compartment;
E = (ET1 ((ET2 − ET1) × (k − TF1)/(TF2 − TF1)) IET if the product has a freezer compartment; and
E = (ET1 ((ET2 − ET1) × (55.0 − TC1)/(TC2 − TC1)) IET
Where:
ET is defined in section 5.2.1 of this appendix;
IET is defined in section 6.2.3.1 of this appendix;
TR and the numbers 1 and 2 are defined in section 6.2.1.2 of this appendix;
TF is defined in section 6.2.3.2 of this appendix;
TC is defined in section 6.2.2.2 of this appendix;
39.0 is a specified fresh food compartment temperature in degrees F;
k is a constant 15.0 for cooler-refrigerators or 0.0 for cooler-refrigerator-freezers and cooler-freezers, each being a standardized freezer compartment temperature in degrees F; and
55.0 is a specified cooler compartment temperature in degrees F.

6.2.5 Variable Anti-Sweat Heater Models. The standard cycle energy consumption of a model with a variable anti-sweat heater control (Estd), expressed in kilowatt-hours per day, shall be calculated equivalent to:

Estd = E (Correction Factor) where E is determined by sections 6.2.1, 6.2.2, 6.2.3, or 6.2.4 of this appendix, whichever is appropriate, with the anti-sweat heater switch in the “off” position or, for a product without an anti-sweat heater switch, the anti-sweat heater in its lowest energy use state.

Correction Factor = (Anti-sweat Heater Power × System-loss Factor) × (24 hrs/1 day) × (1 kW/1000 W)
Where:
Anti-sweat Heater Power = 0.034 * (Heater Watts at 5%RH)
0.211 * (Heater Watts at 15%RH)
0.204 * (Heater Watts at 25%RH)
0.166 * (Heater Watts at 35%RH)
0.126 * (Heater Watts at 45%RH)
0.119 * (Heater Watts at 55%RH)
0.069 * (Heater Watts at 65%RH)
0.047 * (Heater Watts at 75%RH)
0.008 * (Heater Watts at 85%RH)
0.015 * (Heater Watts at 95%RH)
Heater Watts at a specific relative humidity = the nominal watts used by all heaters at that specific relative humidity, 72 °F (22.2 °C) ambient, and DOE reference temperatures of fresh food (FF) average temperature of 39 °F (3.9 °C) and freezer (FZ) average temperature of 0 °F (−17.8 °C).
System-loss Factor = 1.3.
7. Test Procedure Waivers

To the extent that the procedures contained in this appendix do not provide a means for determining the energy consumption of a basic model, a manufacturer must obtain a waiver under § 430.27 to establish an acceptable test procedure for each such basic model. Such instances could, for example, include situations where the test set-up for a particular basic model is not clearly defined by the provisions of section 2 of this appendix. For details regarding the criteria and procedures for obtaining a waiver, please refer to § 430.27.

[ 75 FR 78851, Dec. 16, 2010, as amended at 76 FR 12502, Mar. 7, 2011; 76 FR 24781, May 2, 2011; 77 FR 3574, Jan. 25, 2012; 79 FR 22349, Apr. 21, 2014; 79 FR 41418, July 16, 2014; 81 FR 46795, July 18, 2016]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


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