10 CFR Appendix B to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority
1. Assemblies and components especially designed or prepared for use in gas centrifuges.
The gas centrifuge normally consists of a thin-walled cylinder(s) of between 75 mm and 650 mm diameter contained in a vacuum environment and spun at high peripheral speed (of the order of 300 m/per second and more) with the central axis vertical. In order to achieve high speed, the materials of construction for the rotating rotor assembly, and hence its individual components, have to be manufactured to very close tolerances in order to minimize the unbalance. In contrast to other centrifuges, the gas centrifuge for uranium enrichment is characterized by having within the rotor chamber a rotating disc-shaped baffle(s) and a stationary tube arrangement for feeding and extracting uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas and featuring at least three separate channels of which two are connected to scoops extending from the rotor axis towards the periphery of the rotor chamber. Also contained within the vacuum environment are a number of critical items which do not rotate and which, although they are especially designed, are not difficult to fabricate nor are they fabricated out of unique materials. A centrifuge facility, however, requires a large number of these components so that quantities can provide an important indication of end use.
(a) Complete Rotor Assemblies: Thin-walled cylinders, or a number of interconnected thin-walled cylinders, manufactured from one of the high strength-to-density ratio materials described in the footnote to this section.
If interconnected, the cylinders are joined together by flexible bellows or rings as described in § 1.1(c) of this appendix. The rotor is fitted with an internal baffle(s) and end caps, as described in § 1.1(d) and (e) of this appendix, if in final form. However, the complete assembly may be delivered only partly assembled.
(b) Rotor Tubes: Especially designed or prepared thin-walled cylinders with thickness of 12 mm or less, a diameter of between 75 mm and 650 mm, and manufactured from one of the high strength-to-density ratio materials described in the footnote to this section.
(c) Rings or Bellows: Components especially designed or prepared to give localized support to the rotor tube or to join together a number of rotor tubes. The bellows in a short cylinder of wall thickness 3 mm or less, a diameter of between 75 mm and 650 mm, having a convolute, and manufactured from one of the high strength-to-density ratio materials described in the footnote to this section.
(d) Baffles: Disc shaped components of between 75 mm and 650 mm diameter especially designed or prepared to be mounted inside the centrifuge rotor tube, in order to isolate the take-off chamber from the main separation chamber and, in some cases, to assist the UF6 gas circulation within the main separation chamber of the rotor tube, and manufactured from one of the high strength-to-density ratio materials described in the footnote to this section.
(e) Top Caps/Bottom Caps: Disc shaped components of between 75 mm and 650 mm diameter especially designed or prepared to fit to the ends of the rotor tube, and so contain the UF6 within the rotor tube, and in some cases to support, retain or contain as an integrated part, an element of the upper bearing (top cap) or to carry the rotating elements of the motor and lower bearing (bottom cap), and manufactured from one of the high strength-to-density ratio materials described in the footnote to this section.
The materials used for centrifuge rotating components include the following:
(a) Maraging steel capable of an ultimate tensile strength of 1.95 GPa or more.
(b) Aluminum alloys capable of an ultimate tensile strength of 0.46 GPa or more.
(c) Filamentary materials suitable for use in composite structures and having a specific modulus of 3.18 × 10 6 m or greater and a specific ultimate tensile strength of 7.62 × 10 4 m or greater.
(a) Magnetic Suspension Bearings: 1. Especially designed or prepared bearing assemblies consisting of an annular magnet suspended within a housing containing a damping medium. The housing will be manufactured from a UF6 resistant material (see footnote to § 2 of this appendix). The magnet couples with a pole piece or a second magnet fitted to the top cap described in § 1.1(e) of this appendix. The magnet may be ring-shaped with a relation between outer and inner diameter smaller or equal to 1.6:1. The magnet may be in a form having an initial permeability of 0.15 Henry/meter or more, or a remanence of 98.5 percent or more, or an energy product of greater than 80,000 joules/m 3. In addition to the usual material properties, it is a prerequisite that the deviation of the magnetic axes from the geometrical axes is limited to very small tolerances (lower than 0.1 mm) or that homogeneity of the material of the magnet is specially called for.
2. Active magnetic bearings especially designed or prepared for use with gas centrifuges. These bearings usually have the following characteristics:
(i) Designed to keep centred a rotor spinning at 600 Hz or more; and
(ii) Associated to a reliable electrical power supply and/or to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) unit in order to function for more than 1 hour.
(b) Bearings/Dampers: Especially designed or prepared bearings comprising a pivot/cup assembly mounted on a damper. The pivot is normally a hardened steel shaft polished into a hemisphere at one end with a means of attachment to the bottom cap described in § 1.1(e) of this appendix at the other. The shaft may, however, have a hydrodynamic bearing attached. The cup is pellet-shaped with hemispherical indentation in one surface. These components are often supplied separately to the damper.
(c) Molecular Pumps: Especially designed or prepared cylinders having internally machined or extruded helical grooves and internally machined bores. Typical dimensions are as follows: 75 mm to 650 mm internal diameter, 10 mm or more wall thickness, with a length equal to or greater than the diameter. The grooves are typically rectangular in cross-section and 2 mm or more in depth.
(d) Motor Stators: Especially designed or prepared ring shaped stators for high speed multi-phase alternating current (AC) hysteresis (or reluctance) motors for synchronous operation within a vacuum at a frequency of 600 Hz or greater and a power of 40 volts amps or greater. The stators may consist of multi-phase windings on a laminated low loss iron core comprised of thin layers typically 2.0 mm thick or less.
(e) Centrifuge housing/recipients: Components especially designed or prepared to contain the rotor tube assembly of a gas centrifuge. The housing consists of a rigid cylinder of wall thickness up to 30 mm with precision machined ends to locate the bearings and with one or more flanges for mounting. The machined ends are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the cylinder's longitudinal axis to within 0.05 degrees or less. The housing may also be a honeycomb type structure to accommodate several rotor tubes.
(f) Scoops: Especially designed or prepared tubes for the extraction of UF6 gas from within the rotor tube by a Pitot tube action (that is, with an aperture facing into the circumferential gas flow within the rotor tube, for example by bending the end of a radially disposed tube) and capable of being fixed to the central gas extraction system.
2. Especially designed or prepared auxiliary systems, equipment, and components for gas centrifuge enrichment plants.
The auxiliary systems, equipment, and components for a gas centrifuge enrichment plant are the systems of the plant needed to feed UF6 to the centrifuges to link the individual centrifuges to each other to form cascades (or stages) to allow for progressively higher enrichments and to extract the product and tails of UF6 from the centrifuges, together with the equipment required to drive the centrifuges or to control the plant.
Normally UF6 is evaporated from the solid using heated autoclaves and is distributed in gaseous form to the centrifuges by way of cascade header pipework. The “product” and “tails” of UF6 gaseous streams flowing from the centrifuges are also passed by way of cascade header pipework to cold traps (operating at about 203 K (−70 °C)) where they are condensed prior to onward transfer into suitable containers for transportation or storage. Because an enrichment plant consists of many thousands of centrifuges arranged in cascades, there are many kilometers of cascade header pipework incorporating thousands of welds with a substantial amount of repetition of layout. The equipment, component and piping systems are fabricated to very high vacuum and cleanliness standards.
Some of the items listed below either come into direct contact with the UF6 process gas or directly control the centrifuges and the passage of the gas from centrifuge to centrifuge and cascade to cascade. Materials resistant to corrosion by UF6 include copper, copper alloys, stainless steel, aluminum, aluminum oxide, aluminum alloys, nickel or alloys containing 60 percent or more nickel, and fluorinated hydrocarbon polymers.
(a) Feed Systems/Product and Tails Withdrawal Systems: Especially designed or prepared process systems or equipment for enrichment plants made of or protected by materials resistant to corrosion by UF6 including:
1. Feed autoclaves, ovens, or systems used for passing UF6 to the enrichment process.
2. Desublimers, cold traps, or pumps used to remove UF6 from the enrichment process for subsequent transfer upon heating.
3. Solidification or liquefaction stations used to remove UF6 from the enrichment process by compressing and converting UF6 to a liquid or solid form.
4. “Product” and “tails” stations used for transferring UF6 into containers.
(b) Machine Header Piping Systems: Especially designed or prepared piping systems and header systems for handling UF6 within the centrifuge cascades.
This piping network is normally of the “triple” header system with each centrifuge connected to each of the headers. There is therefore a substantial amount of repetition in its form. It is wholly made of or protected by UF6 resistant materials (see Note to this section) and is fabricated to very high vacuum and cleanliness standards.
(c) Special shut-off and control valves:
1. Shut-off valves especially designed or prepared to act on the feed, “product” or “tails” UF6 gaseous streams of an individual gas centrifuge.
2. Bellows-sealed valves, manual or automated, shut-off or control, made of or protected by materials resistant to corrosion by UF6, with an inside diameter of 10 to 160 mm, especially designed or prepared for use in main or auxiliary systems of gas centrifuge enrichment plants.
Typical especially designed or prepared valves include bellow-sealed valves, fast acting closure-types, fast acting valves, and others.
(d) UF6 Mass Spectrometers/Ion Sources: Especially designed or prepared mass spectrometers capable of taking on-line samples from UF6 gas streams and having all of the following:
1. Capable of measuring ions of 320 atomic mass units or greater and having a resolution of better than 1 part in 320.
2. Ion sources constructed of or protected by nickel, nickel-copper alloys with a nickel content of 60 percent or more by weight, or nickel-chrome alloys.
3. Electron bombardment ionization sources.
4. Having a collector system suitable for isotope analysis.
(e) Frequency Changers: Frequency changers (also known as converters or inverters) especially designed or prepared to supply motor stators as defined under § 1.2(d) of this appendix, or parts, components, and subassemblies of such frequency changers having all of the following characteristics:
1. A multiphase output of 600 Hz or greater; and
2. High stability (with frequency control better than 0.2 percent).
(f) Any other components especially designed or prepared for use in a gas centrifuge enrichment plant or in any of the components described in this appendix.