12 CFR 211.605 - Permissible underwriting activities of foreign banks.

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§ 211.605 Permissible underwriting activities of foreign banks.

(a)Introduction. A number of foreign banks that are subject to the Bank Holding Company Act (“BHC Act”) have participated as co-managers in the underwriting of securities to be distributed in the United States despite the fact that the foreign banks in question do not have authority to engage in underwriting activity in the United States under either the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (“GLB Act”) or section 4(c)(8) of the BHC Act ( 12 U.S.C. 1843(c)(8)). This interpretation clarifies the scope of existing restrictions on underwriting by such foreign banks with respect to securities that are distributed in the United States.

(b)Underwriting transactions engaged in by foreign banks.

(1) In the transactions in question, a foreign bank typically becomes a member of the underwriting syndicate for securities that are registered and intended to be distributed in the United States. The lead underwriter, usually a registered U.S. broker-dealer not affiliated with the foreign bank, agrees to be responsible for distributing the securities being underwritten. The underwriting obligation is assumed by a foreign office or affiliate of the foreign bank.

(2) The foreign banks have used their U.S. offices or affiliates to act as liaison with the U.S. issuer and the lead underwriter in the United States, to prepare documentation and to provide other services in connection with the underwriting. In some cases, the U.S. offices or affiliates that assisted the foreign bank with the underwriting receive a substantial portion of the revenue generated by the foreign bank's participation in the underwriting. In other cases, the U.S. offices receive “credit” from the head office of the foreign bank for their assistance in generating profits arising from the underwriting.

(3) By assuming the underwriting risk and booking the underwriting fees in their foreign offices or affiliates, the foreign banks are able to take advantage of an exemption under U.S. securities laws; a foreign underwriter is not required to register in the United States if the underwriter either does not distribute any of the securities in the United States or distributes them only through a registered broker-dealer.

(c)Permissible scope of underwriting activities.

(1) A foreign bank that is subject to the BHC Act may engage in underwriting activities in the United States only if it has been authorized under section 4 of the Act. The foreign banks in question have argued that they are not engaged in underwriting activity in the United States because the underwriting activity takes place only outside the United States where the transaction is booked. The foreign banks refer to Regulation K, which defines “engaged in business” or “engaged in activities” to mean conducting an activity through an office or subsidiary in the United States. Because the underwriting is not booked in a U.S. office or subsidiary, the banks assert that the activity cannot be considered conducted in the United States.

(2) The Board believes that the position taken by the foreign banks is not supported by the Board's regulations or policies. Section 225.124 of the Board's Regulation Y ( 12 CFR 225.124(d)) states that a foreign bank will not be considered to be engaged in the activity of underwriting in the United States if the shares to be underwritten are distributed outside the United States. In the transactions in question, all of the securities to be underwritten by the foreign banks are distributed in the United States.

(3) Regulation K ( 12 CFR part 211) was amended in 1985 to provide clarification that a foreign bank may not own or control voting shares of a foreign company that directly underwrites, sells or distributes securities in the United States (emphasis added). 12 CFR 211.23(f)(5)(ii). In proposing this latter provision, the Board clarified that no part of the prohibited underwriting process may take place in the United States and that the prohibition on the activity does not depend on the activity being conducted through an office or subsidiary in the United States. Moreover, in the transactions in question, there was significant participation by U.S. offices and affiliates of the foreign banks in the underwriting process. In some transactions, the foreign office at which the transactions were booked did not have any documentation on the particular transactions; all documentation was maintained in the United States office. In all cases, the U.S. offices or affiliates provided virtually all technical support for participation in the underwriting process and benefitted from profits generated by the activity.

(4) The fact that some technological and regulatory constraints on the delivery of cross-border services into the United States have been eliminated since the Regulation K definition of “engaged in business” was adopted in 1979 creates greater scope for banking organizations to deal with customers outside the U.S. bank regulatory framework. The definition in Regulation K, however, does not authorize foreign banking organizations to evade regulatory restrictions on securities activities in the United States by directly underwriting securities to be distributed in the United States or by using U.S. offices and affiliates to facilitate the prohibited activity. In the GLB Act, Congress established a framework within which both domestic and foreign banking organizations may underwrite and deal in securities in the United States. The GLB Act requires that banking organizations meet certain financial and managerial requirements in order to be able to engage in these activities in the United States. The Board believes the practices described above undermine this legislative framework and constitute an evasion of the requirements of the GLB Act and the Board's Regulation K. Foreign banking organizations that wish to conduct securities underwriting activity in the United States have long had the option of obtaining section 20 authority and now have the option of obtaining financial holding company status.

(d)Conclusion. The Board finds that the underwriting of securities to be distributed in the United States is an activity conducted in the United States, regardless of the location at which the underwriting risk is assumed and the underwriting fees are booked. Consequently, any banking organization that wishes to engage in such activity must either be a financial holding company under the GLB Act or have authority to engage in underwriting activity under section 4(c)(8) of the BHC Act (so-called “section 20 authority”). Revenue generated by underwriting bank-ineligible securities in such transactions should be attributed to the section 20 company for those foreign banks that operate under section 20 authority.

[Reg. K, 68 FR 7899, Feb. 19, 2003]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

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United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 12 - BANKS AND BANKING

§ 221 - Definitions

§ 221a - Additional definitions

§ 222 - Federal reserve districts; membership of national banks

§ 223 - Number of Federal reserve cities in district

§ 224 - Status of reserve cities under former statutes

§ 225 - Federal reserve banks; title

§ 225a - Maintenance of long run growth of monetary and credit aggregates

§ 225b - Appearances before and reports to the Congress

§ 226 - “Federal Reserve Act”

§ 227 - “Banking Act of 1933”

§ 228 - “Banking Act of 1935”

§ 1818 - Termination of status as insured depository institution

§ 1835a - Prohibition against deposit production offices

§ 1841 - Definitions

§ 1842 - Acquisition of bank shares or assets

§ 1843 - Interests in nonbanking organizations

§ 1844 - Administration

§ 1845 - Repealed. Pub. L. 89–485, § 9, July 1, 1966, 80 Stat. 240

§ 1846 - Reservation of rights to States

§ 1847 - Penalties

§ 1848 - Judicial review

§ 1848a - Repealed. Pub. L. 111–203, title VI, § 604(c)(2), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1601

§ 1849 - Saving provision

§ 1850 - Acquisition of subsidiary and tying arrangement: Federal Reserve Board proceedings; application for authorization; competitor as party in interest and person aggrieved; judicial review

§ 1850a - Securities holding companies

§ 1851 - Prohibitions on proprietary trading and certain relationships with hedge funds and private equity funds

§ 1852 - Concentration limits on large financial firms

§ 3101 - Definitions

§ 3102 - Establishment of Federal branches and agencies by foreign bank

§ 3103 - Interstate banking by foreign banks

§ 3104 - Insurance of deposits

§ 3105 - Authority of Federal Reserve System

§ 3106 - Nonbanking activities of foreign banks

§ 3106a - Compliance with State and Federal laws

§ 3107 - Representative offices

§ 3108 - Regulation and enforcement

§ 3109 - Cooperation with foreign supervisors

§ 3110 - Penalties

§ 3111 - Criminal penalty

§ 3901 - Congressional declaration of policy

§ 3902 - Definitions

§ 3903 - Strengthened supervision of international lending

§ 3904 - Reserves

§ 3904a - Additional reserve requirements

§ 3905 - Accounting for fees on international loans

§ 3906 - Collection and disclosure of international lending data

§ 3907 - Capital adequacy

§ 3908 - Foreign loan evaluations

§ 3909 - General authorities

§ 3910 - Audit authority of Government Accountability Office

§ 3911 - Equal representation for Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and the Office of Thrift Supervision

§ 3912 - Repealed. Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II, § 2224(c), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–415

§ 5101 - Purposes and methods for establishing a mortgage licensing system and registry

§ 5102 - Definitions

§ 5103 - License or registration required

§ 5104 - State license and registration application and issuance

§ 5105 - Standards for State license renewal

§ 5106 - System of registration administration by Federal agencies

§ 5107 - Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection backup authority to establish loan originator licensing system

§ 5108 - Backup authority to establish a nationwide mortgage licensing and registry system

§ 5109 - Fees

§ 5110 - Background checks of loan originators

§ 5111 - Confidentiality of information

§ 5112 - Liability provisions

§ 5113 - Enforcement by the Bureau

§ 5114 - State examination authority

§ 5115 - Reports and recommendations to Congress

§ 5116 - Study and reports on defaults and foreclosures

U.S. Code: Title 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE