After two years from May 9, 1956, no certificate evidencing shares of any bank holding company shall bear any statement purporting to represent shares of any other company except a bank or a bank holding company, nor shall the ownership, sale, or transfer of shares of any bank holding company be conditioned in any manner whatsoever upon the ownership, sale, or transfer of shares of any other company except a bank or a bank holding company.
To the extent that such action would not be substantially at variance with the purposes of this chapter and subject to such conditions as it considers necessary to protect the public interest, the Board by order, after opportunity for hearing, may grant exemptions from the provisions of this section to any bank holding company which controlled one bank prior to July 1, 1968, and has not thereafter acquired the control of any other bank in order (1) to avoid disrupting business relationships that have existed over a long period of years without adversely affecting the banks or communities involved, or (2) to avoid forced sales of small locally owned banks to purchasers not similarly representative of community interests, or (3) to allow retention of banks that are so small in relation to the holding company’s total interests and so small in relation to the banking market to be served as to minimize the likelihood that the bank’s powers to grant or deny credit may be influenced by a desire to further the holding company’s other interests.
With respect to shares which were not subject to the prohibitions of this section as originally enacted by reason of any exemption with respect thereto but which were made subject to such prohibitions by the subsequent repeal of such exemption, no bank holding company shall retain direct or indirect ownership or control of such shares after five years from the date of the repeal of such exemption, except as provided in paragraph (2) of subsection (a). Any bank holding company subject to such five-year limitation on the retention of nonbanking assets shall endeavor to divest itself of such shares promptly and such bank holding company shall report its progress in such divestiture to the Board two years after repeal of the exemption applicable to it and annually thereafter.
The Board may, from time to time, examine a company described in paragraph (1), or a bank controlled by such company, or require reports under oath from appropriate officers or directors of such company or bank solely for purposes of assuring compliance with the provisions of this subsection and enforcing such compliance.
In addition to any other power of the Board, the Board may enforce compliance with the provisions of this chapter which are applicable to any company described in paragraph (1), and any bank controlled by such company, under section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818] and such company or bank shall be subject to such section (for such purposes) in the same manner and to the same extent as if such company or bank were a State member insured bank.
An institution described in subparagraph (D), (F), (G), or (H) of section 1841(c)(2) of this title shall be treated as a bank, and a company that controls such an institution shall be treated as a bank holding company, for purposes of section 106 of the Bank Holding Company Act Amendments of 1970 [12 U.S.C. 1971 et seq.] and section 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 375b] and any regulation prescribed under any such section.
A company that controls an institution described in subparagraph (D), (F), (G), or (H) of section 1841(c)(2) of this title and any of such company’s other affiliates, shall be subject to the tying restrictions of section 106 of the Bank Holding Company Act Amendments of 1970 [12 U.S.C. 1971 et seq.] in connection with any transaction involving the products or services of such company or affiliate and those of such institution, as if such company or affiliate were a bank and such institution were a subsidiary of a bank holding company.
In approving an application by a bank holding company to acquire a savings association, the Board shall not impose any restriction on transactions between the savings association and its holding company affiliates, except as required under sections 371c and 371c–1 of this title or any other applicable law.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, any qualified savings association which became a federally chartered stock company in December of 1986 and which is acquired by any bank holding company without Federal financial assistance after June 1, 1991, and before March 1, 1992, and any subsidiary of any such association, may after such acquisition continue to engage within the home State of the qualified savings association in insurance agency activities in which any Federal savings association (or any subsidiary thereof) may engage in accordance with the Home Owners’ Loan Act [12 U.S.C. 1461 et seq.] and regulations pursuant to such Act if the qualified savings association or subsidiary thereof was continuously engaged in such activity from June 1, 1991, to the date of the acquisition.
The comments and recommendations of the Comptroller of the Currency or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, as applicable, under subparagraph (A) with respect to any acquisition subject to such subparagraph shall be transmitted to the Board not later than 30 days after the receipt by the Comptroller of the Currency or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, as applicable, of the notice relating to such acquisition (or such shorter period as the Board may specify if the Board advises the Comptroller of the Currency or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, as applicable, that an emergency exists that requires expeditious action).
Upon the request of the Comptroller of the Currency or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Board shall furnish the Comptroller of the Currency or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, as applicable, with a copy of any inspection report, additional examination materials, or supervisory information relating to any bank holding company that directly or indirectly controls a savings association.
Except as provided in paragraph (3), no bank holding company may engage in any nonbanking activity or acquire or retain ownership or control of the shares of a company engaged in activities based on subsection (c)(8) or (a)(2) or in any complementary activity under subsection (k)(1)(B) without providing the Board with written notice of the proposed transaction or activity at least 60 days before the transaction or activity is proposed to occur or commence.
Any notice filed under this subsection shall be deemed to be approved by the Board unless, before the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date the Board receives a complete notice under subparagraph (A), the Board issues an order disapproving the transaction or activity and setting forth the reasons for disapproval.
In the event a hearing is requested or the Board determines that a hearing is warranted, the Board may extend the notice period provided in this subsection for such time as is reasonably necessary to conduct a hearing and to evaluate the hearing record. Such extension shall not exceed the 91-day period beginning on the date that the hearing record is complete.
Any transaction or activity may commence before the expiration of any period for disapproval established under this paragraph if the Board issues a written notice of approval.
The Board may prescribe regulations which provide for a shorter notice period with respect to particular activities or transactions.
In the case of any notice to engage in, or to acquire or retain ownership or control of shares of any company engaged in, any activity pursuant to subsection (c)(8) or (a)(2) or in any complementary activity under subsection (k)(1)(B) that has not been previously approved by regulation, the Board may extend the notice period under this subsection for an additional 90 days. The Board may further extend the period with the agreement of the bank holding company submitting the notice pursuant to this subsection.
In connection with a notice under this subsection, the Board shall consider whether performance of the activity by a bank holding company or a subsidiary of such company can reasonably be expected to produce benefits to the public, such as greater convenience, increased competition, or gains in efficiency, that outweigh possible adverse effects, such as undue concentration of resources, decreased or unfair competition, conflicts of interests, unsound banking practices, or risk to the stability of the United States banking or financial system.
Nothing in this subsection limits the authority of the Board to impose conditions in connection with an action under this section.
No notice under paragraph (1) of this subsection or under subsection (c)(8) or (a)(2)(B) is required for a proposal by a bank holding company to engage in any activity, other than any complementary activity under subsection (k)(1)(B), or acquire the shares or assets of any company, other than an insured depository institution or a company engaged in any complementary activity under subsection (k)(1)(B), if the proposal qualifies under paragraph (4).
At the time of the transaction, the acquiring bank holding company, its lead insured depository institution, and insured depository institutions that control at least 90 percent of the aggregate total risk-weighted assets of insured depository institutions controlled by such holding company are well managed.
During the 12-month period ending on the date on which the bank holding company proposes to commence an activity or acquisition, no administrative enforcement action has been commenced, and no cease and desist order has been issued pursuant to section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818], against the bank holding company or any depository institution subsidiary of the holding company, and no such enforcement action, order, or other administrative enforcement proceeding is pending as of such date.
A bank holding company that qualifies under paragraph (4) and that proposes to engage de novo, directly or through a subsidiary, in any activity that is permissible under subsection (c)(8), as determined by the Board by regulation, may commence that activity without prior notice to the Board and must provide written notification to the Board not later than 10 business days after commencing the activity.
At least 12 business days before commencing any activity pursuant to paragraph (3) (other than an activity described in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph) or acquiring shares or assets of any company pursuant to paragraph (3), the bank holding company shall provide written notice of the proposal to the Board, unless the Board determines that no notice or a shorter notice period is appropriate.
The Board may, by regulation, adjust the percentages and the manner in which the percentages of insured depository institutions are calculated under paragraph (4)(B)(i), (4)(D), or (6)(B) if the Board determines that any such adjustment is consistent with safety and soundness and the purposes of this chapter.
The Board shall notify the Secretary of the Treasury of, and consult with the Secretary of the Treasury concerning, any request, proposal, or application under this subsection for a determination of whether an activity is financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity.
The Board shall not determine that any activity is financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity under this subsection if the Secretary of the Treasury notifies the Board in writing, not later than 30 days after the date of receipt of the notice described in clause (i) (or such longer period as the Board determines to be appropriate under the circumstances) that the Secretary of the Treasury believes that the activity is not financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity or is not otherwise permissible under this section.
The Secretary of the Treasury may, at any time, recommend in writing that the Board find an activity to be financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity.
Not later than 30 days after the date of receipt of a written recommendation from the Secretary of the Treasury under clause (i) (or such longer period as the Secretary of the Treasury and the Board determine to be appropriate under the circumstances), the Board shall determine whether to initiate a public rulemaking proposing that the recommended activity be found to be financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity under this subsection, and shall notify the Secretary of the Treasury in writing of the determination of the Board and, if the Board determines not to seek public comment on the proposal, the reasons for that determination.
The Board shall, by regulation or order, define, consistent with the purposes of this chapter, the activities described in subparagraph (B) as financial in nature, and the extent to which such activities are financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity.
A financial holding company that acquires any company or commences any activity pursuant to this subsection shall provide written notice to the Board describing the activity commenced or conducted by the company acquired not later than 30 calendar days after commencing the activity or consummating the acquisition, as the case may be.
Except as provided in subsection (j) with regard to the acquisition of a savings association and clause (ii), a financial holding company may commence any activity, or acquire any company, pursuant to paragraph (4) or any regulation prescribed or order issued under paragraph (5), without prior approval of the Board.
The Board and the Secretary of the Treasury may issue such regulations implementing paragraph (4)(H), including limitations on transactions between depository institutions and companies controlled pursuant to such paragraph, as the Board and the Secretary jointly deem appropriate to assure compliance with the purposes and prevent evasions of this chapter and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and to protect depository institutions.
The restrictions contained in paragraph (4)(H) on the ownership and control of shares, assets, or ownership interests by or on behalf of a subsidiary of a depository institution shall not apply to a financial subsidiary (as defined in section 24a of this title) of a bank, if the Board and the Secretary of the Treasury jointly authorize financial subsidiaries of banks to engage in merchant banking activities pursuant to section 122 of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act.
For purposes of paragraph (1), the Board shall apply comparable capital and management standards to a foreign bank that operates a branch or agency or owns or controls a commercial lending company in the United States, giving due regard to the principle of national treatment and equality of competitive opportunity.
Not later than 45 days after the date of receipt by a financial holding company of a notice given under paragraph (1) (or such additional period as the Board may permit), the financial holding company shall execute an agreement with the Board to comply with the requirements applicable to a financial holding company under subsection (l)(1).
Until the conditions described in a notice to a financial holding company under paragraph (1) are corrected, the Board may impose such limitations on the conduct or activities of that financial holding company or any affiliate of that company as the Board determines to be appropriate under the circumstances and consistent with the purposes of this chapter.
In taking any action under this subsection, the Board shall consult with all relevant Federal and State regulatory agencies and authorities.
For purposes of this subsection, a company is predominantly engaged in financial activities if the annual gross revenues derived by the holding company and all subsidiaries of the holding company (excluding revenues derived from subsidiary depository institutions), on a consolidated basis, from engaging in activities that are financial in nature or are incidental to a financial activity under subsection (k) represent at least 85 percent of the consolidated annual gross revenues of the company.
A financial holding company that engages in activities or holds shares pursuant to this subsection, or a subsidiary of such financial holding company, may not acquire, in any merger, consolidation, or other type of business combination, assets of any other company that is engaged in any activity that the Board has not determined to be financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity under subsection (k), except this paragraph shall not apply with respect to a company that owns a broadcasting station licensed under title III of the Communications Act of 1934 [47 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] and the shares of which are under common control with an insurance company since January 1, 1998, unless such company is acquired by, or otherwise becomes an affiliate of, a bank holding company that, at the time such acquisition or affiliation is consummated, is 1 of the 5 largest domestic bank holding companies (as determined on the basis of the consolidated total assets of such companies).
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, a financial holding company may continue to engage in activities or hold shares in companies pursuant to this subsection only to the extent that the aggregate annual gross revenues derived from all such activities and all such companies does not exceed 15 percent of the consolidated annual gross revenues of the financial holding company (excluding revenues derived from subsidiary depository institutions).
A financial holding company engaged in any activity, or retaining direct or indirect ownership or control of shares of a company, pursuant to this subsection, shall terminate such activity and divest ownership or control of the shares of such company before the end of the 10-year period beginning on November 12, 1999. The Board may, upon application by a financial holding company, extend such 10-year period by a period not to exceed an additional 5 years if such extension would not be detrimental to the public interest.