12 CFR 220.2 - Definitions.
The terms used in this part have the meanings given them in section 3(a) of the Act or as defined in this section as follows:
Affiliated corporation means a corporation of which all the common stock is owned directly or indirectly by the firm or general partners and employees of the firm, or by the corporation or holders of the controlling stock and employees of the corporation, and the affiliation has been approved by the creditor's examining authority.
Cash equivalent means securities issued or guaranteed by the United States or its agencies, negotiable bank certificates of deposit, bankers acceptances issued by banking institutions in the United States and payable in the United States, or money market mutual funds.
Covered option transaction means any transaction involving options or warrants in which the customer's risk is limited and all elements of the transaction are subject to contemporaneous exercise if:
(1) The amount at risk is held in the account in cash, cash equivalents, or via an escrow receipt; and
(2) The transaction is eligible for the cash account by the rules of the registered national securities exchange authorized to trade the option or warrant or by the rules of the creditor's examining authority in the case of an unregistered option, provided that all such rules have been approved or amended by the SEC.
Credit balance means the cash amount due the customer in a margin account after debiting amounts transferred to the special memorandum account.
Creditor means any broker or dealer (as defined in sections 3(a)(4) and 3(a)(5) of the Act), any member of a national securities exchange, or any person associated with a broker or dealer (as defined in section 3(a)(18) of the Act), except for business entities controlling or under common control with the creditor.
Current market value of:
(1) A security means:
(i) Throughout the day of the purchase or sale of a security, the security's total cost of purchase or the net proceeds of its sale including any commissions charged; or
(ii) At any other time, the closing sale price of the security on the preceding business day, as shown by any regularly published reporting or quotation service. If there is no closing sale price, the creditor may use any reasonable estimate of the market value of the security as of the close of business on the preceding business day.
(2) Any other collateral means a value determined by any reasonable method.
Customer excludes an exempted borrower and includes:
(1) Any person or persons acting jointly:
(i) To or for whom a creditor extends, arranges, or maintains any credit; or
(ii) Who would be considered a customer of the creditor according to the ordinary usage of the trade;
(2) Any partner in a firm who would be considered a customer of the firm absent the partnership relationship; and
(3) Any joint venture in which a creditor participates and which would be considered a customer of the creditor if the creditor were not a participant.
Debit balance means the cash amount owed to the creditor in a margin account after debiting amounts transferred to the special memorandum account.
Delivery against payment, Payment against delivery, or a C.O.D. transaction refers to an arrangement under which a creditor and a customer agree that the creditor will deliver to, or accept from, the customer, or the customer's agent, a security against full payment of the purchase price.
Equity means the total current market value of security positions held in the margin account plus any credit balance less the debit balance in the margin account.
Escrow agreement means any agreement issued in connection with a call or put option under which a bank or any person designated as a control location under paragraph (c) of SEC Rule 15c3-3 (17 CFR 240.15c3-3(c)), holding the underlying asset or required cash or cash equivalents, is obligated to deliver to the creditor (in the case of a call option) or accept from the creditor (in the case of a put option) the underlying asset or required cash or cash equivalent against payment of the exercise price upon exercise of the call or put.
Examining authority means:
(1) The national securities exchange or national securities association of which a creditor is a member; or
(2) If a member of more than one self-regulatory organization, the organization designated by the SEC as the examining authority for the creditor.
Exempted borrower means a member of a national securities exchange or a registered broker or dealer, a substantial portion of whose business consists of transactions with persons other than brokers or dealers, and includes a borrower who:
(1) Maintains at least 1000 active accounts on an annual basis for persons other than brokers, dealers, and persons associated with a broker or dealer;
(2) Earns at least $10 million in gross revenues on an annual basis from transactions with persons other than brokers, dealers, and persons associated with a broker or dealer; or
(3) Earns at least 10 percent of its gross revenues on an annual basis from transactions with persons other than brokers, dealers, and persons associated with a broker or dealer.
Exempted securities mutual fund means any security issued by an investment company registered under section 8 of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-8), provided the company has at least 95 percent of its assets continuously invested in exempted securities (as defined in section 3(a)(12) of the Act).
Foreign margin stock means a foreign security that is an equity security that:
(1) Appears on the Board's periodically published List of Foreign Margin Stocks; or
(2) Is deemed to have a “ready market” under SEC Rule 15c3-1 (17 CFR 240.15c3-1) or a “no-action” position issued thereunder.
Foreign person means a person other than a United States person as defined in section 7(f) of the Act.
Foreign security means a security issued in a jurisdiction other than the United States.
Good faith with respect to:
(1) Margin means the amount of margin which a creditor would require in exercising sound credit judgment;
(2) Making a determination or accepting a statement concerning a borrower means that the creditor is alert to the circumstances surrounding the credit, and if in possession of information that would cause a prudent person not to make the determination or accept the notice or certification without inquiry, investigates and is satisfied that it is correct.
Margin call means a demand by a creditor to a customer for a deposit of additional cash or securities to eliminate or reduce a margin deficiency as required under this part.
Margin deficiency means the amount by which the required margin exceeds the equity in the margin account.
Margin equity security means a margin security that is an equity security (as defined in section 3(a)(11) of the Act).
Margin excess means the amount by which the equity in the margin account exceeds the required margin. When the margin excess is represented by securities, the current value of the securities is subject to the percentages set forth in § 220.12 (the Supplement).
Margin security means:
(1) Any security registered or having unlisted trading privileges on a national securities exchange;
(2) After January 1, 1999, any security listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market;
(3) Any non-equity security;
(4) Any security issued by either an open-end investment company or unit investment trust which is registered under section 8 of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-8);
(5) Any foreign margin stock;
(6) Any debt security convertible into a margin security;
(7) Until January 1, 1999, any OTC margin stock; or
(8) Until January 1, 1999, any OTC security designated as qualified for trading in the national market system under a designation plan approved by the Securities and Exchange Commission (NMS security).
Money market mutual fund means any security issued by an investment company registered under section 8 of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-8) that is considered a money market fund under SEC Rule 2a-7 (17 CFR 270.2a-7).
Non-equity security means a security that is not an equity security (as defined in section 3(a)(11) of the Act).
Nonexempted security means any security other than an exempted security (as defined in section 3(a)(12) of the Act).
OTC margin stock means any equity security traded over the counter that the Board has determined has the degree of national investor interest, the depth and breadth of market, the availability of information respecting the security and its issuer, and the character and permanence of the issuer to warrant being treated like an equity security treaded on a national securities exchange. An OTC stock is not considered to be an OTC margin stock unless it appears on the Board's periodically published list of OTC margin stocks.
Payment period means the number of business days in the standard securities settlement cycle in the United States, as defined in paragraph (a) of SEC Rule 15c6-1 (17 CFR 240.15c6-1(a)), plus two business days.
Purpose credit means credit for the purpose of:
(1) Buying, carrying, or trading in securities; or
(2) Buying or carrying any part of an investment contract security which shall be deemed credit for the purpose of buying or carrying the entire security.
Short call or short put means a call option or a put option that is issued, endorsed, or guaranteed in or for an account.
(1) A short call that is not cash-settled obligates the customer to sell the underlying asset at the exercise price upon receipt of a valid exercise notice or as otherwise required by the option contract.
(2) A short put that is not cash-settled obligates the customer to purchase the underlying asset at the exercise price upon receipt of a valid exercise notice or as otherwise required by the option contract.
(3) A short call or a short put that is cash-settled obligates the customer to pay the holder of an in the money long put or long call who has, or has been deemed to have, exercised the option the cash difference between the exercise price and the current assigned value of the option as established by the option contract.
Underlying asset means:
(1) The security or other asset that will be delivered upon exercise of an option; or
(2) In the case of a cash-settled option, the securities or other assets which comprise the index or other measure from which the option's value is derived.