12 CFR 229.34 - Warranties.
(a)Warranties. Each paying bank or returning bank that transfers a returned check and receives a settlement or other consideration for it warrants to the transferee returning bank, to any subsequent returning bank, to the depositary bank, and to the owner of the check, that -
(1) The paying bank, or in the case of a check payable by a bank and payable through another bank, the bank by which the check is payable, returned the check within its deadline under the U.C.C., Regulation J ( 12 CFR part 210), or § 229.30(c) of this part;
(2) It is authorized to return the check;
(3) The check has not been materially altered; and
(4) In the case of a notice in lieu of return, the original check has not and will not be returned.
(b)Warranty of notice of nonpayment. Each paying bank that gives a notice of nonpayment warrants to the transferee bank, to any subsequent transferee bank, to the depositary bank, and to the owner of the check that -
(1) The paying bank, or in the case of a check payable by a bank and payable through another bank, the bank by which the check is payable, returned or will return the check within its deadline under the U.C.C., Regulation J ( 12 CFR part 210), or § 229.30(c) of this part;
(2) It is authorized to send the notice; and
(3) The check has not been materially altered.
(c)Warranty of settlement amount, encoding, and offset.
(1) Each bank that presents one or more checks to a paying bank and in return receives a settlement or other consideration warrants to the paying bank that the total amount of the checks presented is equal to the total amount of the settlement demanded by the presenting bank from the paying bank.
(2) Each bank that transfers one or more checks or returned checks to a collecting, returning, or depositary bank and in return receives a settlement or other consideration warrants to the transferee bank that the accompanying information, if any, accurately indicates the total amount of the checks or returned checks transferred.
(3) Each bank that presents or transfers a check or returned check warrants to any bank that subsequently handles it that, at the time of presentment or transfer, the information encoded after issue in magnetic ink on the check or returned check is correct. For purposes of this paragraph, the information encoded after issue on the check or returned check includes any information placed in the MICR line of a substitute check that represents that check or returned check.
(4) If a bank settles with another bank for checks presented, or for returned checks for which it is the depositary bank, in amount exceeding the total amount of the checks, the settling bank may set off the excess settlement amount against subsequent settlements for checks presented, or for returned checks for which it is the depositary bank, that it receives from the other bank.
(d)Transfer and presentment warranties with respect to a remotely created check.
(1) A bank that transfers or presents a remotely created check and receives a settlement or other consideration warrants to the transferee bank, any subsequent collecting bank, and the paying bank that the person on whose account the remotely created check is drawn authorized the issuance of the check in the amount stated on the check and to the payee stated on the check. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(1), “account” includes an account as defined in § 229.2(a) as well as a credit or other arrangement that allows a person to draw checks that are payable by, through, or at a bank.
(2) If a paying bank asserts a claim for breach of warranty under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the warranting bank may defend by proving that the customer of the paying bank is precluded under U.C.C. 4-406, as applicable, from asserting against the paying bank the unauthorized issuance of the check.
(e)Damages. Damages for breach of these warranties shall not exceed the consideration received by the bank that presents or transfers a check or returned check, plus interest compensation and expenses related to the check or returned check, if any.
(f)Tender of defense. If a bank is sued for breach of a warranty under this section, it may give a prior bank in the collection or return chain written notice of the litigation, and the bank notified may then give similar notice to any other prior bank. If the notice states that the bank notified may come in and defend and that failure to do so will bind the bank notified in an action later brought by the bank giving the notice as to any determination of fact common to the two litigations, the bank notified is so bound unless after seasonable receipt of the notice the bank notified does come in and defend.
(g)Notice of claim. Unless a claimant gives notice of a claim for breach of warranty under this section to the bank that made the warranty within 30 days after the claimant has reason to know of the breach and the identity of the warranting bank, the warranting bank is discharged to the extent of any loss caused by the delay in giving notice of the claim.
- 12 CFR 210.6 — Status, Warranties, and Liability of Reserve Bank.
- 12 CFR 210.5 — Sender's Agreement; Recovery by Reserve Bank.
- 12 CFR 229.43 — Checks Payable in Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands.
- 12 CFR 210.9 — Settlement and Payment.
- 12 CFR 210.12 — Return of Cash Items and Handling of Returned Checks.
- 12 CFR 229.39 — Lnsolvency of Bank.