12 CFR 715.2 - Definitions used in this part.
As used in this part:
(a) Balance sheet audit refers to the examination of a credit union's assets, liabilities, and equity under generally accepted auditing standards (GAAS) by an independent public accountant for the purpose of opining on the fairness of the presentation on the balance sheet. Credit unions required to file call reports consistent with GAAP should ensure the audited balance sheet is likewise prepared on a GAAP basis. The opinion under this type of engagement would not address the fairness of the presentation of the credit union's income statement, statement of changes in equity (including comprehensive income), or statement of cash flows.
(b) Compensated person refers to any accounting/auditing professional, excluding a credit union employee, who is compensated for performing more than one supervisory committee audit and/or verification of members' accounts per calendar year.
(c) Financial statements refers to a presentation of financial data, including accompanying notes, derived from accounting records of the credit union, and intended to disclose a credit union's economic resources or obligations at a point in time, or the changes therein for a period of time, in conformity with GAAP, as defined herein, or regulatory accounting procedures. Each of the following is considered to be a financial statement: a balance sheet or statement of financial condition; statement of income or statement of operations; statement of undivided earnings; statement of cash flows; statement of changes in members' equity; statement of revenue and expenses; and statement of cash receipts and disbursements.
(d) Financial statement audit (also known as an “opinion audit”) refers to an audit of the financial statements of a credit union performed in accordance with GAAS by an independent person who is licensed by the appropriate State or jurisdiction. The objective of a financial statement audit is to express an opinion as to whether those financial statements of the credit union present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position and the results of its operations and its cash flows in conformity with GAAP, as defined herein, or regulatory accounting practices.
(e) GAAP is an acronym for “generally accepted accounting principles” which refers to the conventions, rules, and procedures which define accepted accounting practice. GAAP includes both broad general guidelines and detailed practices and procedures, provides a standard by which to measure financial statement presentations, and encompasses not only accounting principles and practices but also the methods of applying them.
(f) GAAS is an acronym for “generally accepted auditing standards” which refers to the standards approved and adopted by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants which apply when an “independent, licensed certified public accountant” audits financial statements. Auditing standards differ from auditing procedures in that “procedures” address acts to be performed, whereas “standards” measure the quality of the performance of those acts and the objectives to be achieved by use of the procedures undertaken. In addition, auditing standards address the auditor's professional qualifications as well as the judgment exercised in performing the audit and in preparing the report of the audit.
(g) Independent means the impartiality necessary for the dependability of the compensated auditor's findings. Independence requires the exercise of fairness toward credit union officials, members, creditors and others who may rely upon the report of a supervisory committee audit report.
(h) Internal control refers to the process, established by the credit union's board of directors, officers and employees, designed to provide reasonable assurance of reliable financial reporting and safeguarding of assets against unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition. A credit union's internal control structure consists of five components: control environment; risk assessment; control activities; information and communication; and monitoring. Reliable financial reporting refers to preparation of Call Reports (NCUA Forms 5300 and 5310) that meet management's financial reporting objectives. Internal control over safeguarding of assets against unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition refers to prevention or timely detection of transactions involving such unauthorized access, use, or disposition of assets which could result in a loss that is material to the financial statements.
(i) Reportable conditions refers to a matter coming to the attention of the independent, compensated auditor which, in his or her judgment, represents a significant deficiency in the design or operation of the internal control structure of the credit union, which could adversely affect its ability to record, process, summarize, and report financial data consistent with the representations of management in the financial statements.
(j) Report on Examination of Internal Control over Call Reporting refers to an engagement in which an independent, licensed, certified public accountant or public accountant, consistent with attestation standards, examines and reports on management's written assertions concerning the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting in its most recently filed semiannual or year-end Call Report, with a concentration in high risk areas. For credit unions, such high risk areas most often include: lending activity; investing activity; and cash handling and deposit-taking activity.
(k) State-licensed person refers to a certified public accountant or public accountant who is licensed by the State or jurisdiction where the credit union is principally located to perform accounting or auditing services for that credit union.
(l) Supervisory committee refers to a supervisory committee as defined in Section 111(b) of the Federal Credit Union Act, 12 U.S.C. 1761(b). For some federally-insured state chartered credit unions, the “audit committee” designated by state statute or regulation is the equivalent of a supervisory committee.
(m) Supervisory committee audit refers to an engagement under either § 715.5 or § 715.6 of this part.
(n) Working papers refers to the principal record, in any form, of the work performed by the auditor and/or supervisory committee to support its findings and/or conclusions concerning significant matters. Examples include the written record of procedures applied, tests performed, information obtained, and pertinent conclusions reached in the engagement, proprietary audit programs, analyses, memoranda, letters of confirmation and representation, abstracts of credit union documents, reviewer's notes, if retained, and schedules or commentaries prepared or obtained in the course of the engagement.