19 CFR § 152.105 - Deductive value.

§ 152.105 Deductive value.

(a)Merchandise concerned. For the purposes of deductive value, “merchandise concerned” means the merchandise being appraised, identical merchandise, or similar merchandise.

(b)Merchandise of the same class or kind. For the purposes of deductive value, “merchandise of the same class or kind” includes merchandise imported from the same country as well as other countries as the merchandise being appraised.

(c)Prices. The deductive value of the merchandise being appraised is whichever of the following prices (as adjusted under paragraph (d) of this section) is appropriate depending upon when and in what condition the merchandise concerned is sold in the United States:

(1) If the merchandise concerned is sold in the condition as imported at or about the date of importation of the merchandise being appraised, the price is the unit price at which the merchandise concerned is sold in the greatest aggregate quantity at or about such date.

(2) If the merchandise concerned is sold in the condition as imported but not sold at or about the date of importation of the merchandise being appraised, the price is the unit price at which the merchandise concerned is sold in the greatest aggregate quantity after the date of importation of the merchandise being appraised but before the close of the 90th day after the date of such importation.

(3) If the merchandise concerned was not sold in the condition as imported and not sold before the close of the 90th day after the date of importation of the merchandise being appraised, the price is the unit price at which the merchandise being appraised, after further processing, is sold in the greatest aggregate quantity before the 180th day after the date of such importation. This provision will apply to appraisement of merchandise only if the importer so elects at the time of filing the entry summary.

(d)Deductions from price. The price determined under paragraph (c) of this section will be reduced by an amount equal to:

(1) Any commission usually paid or agreed to be paid, or the addition usually made for profit and general expenses, in connection with sales in the United States of imported merchandise that is of the same class or kind, regardless of the country of exportation, as the merchandise concerned;

(2) The actual costs and associated costs of transportation and insurance incurred with respect to international shipments of the merchandise concerned from the country of exportation to the United States;

(3) The usual costs and associated costs of transportation and insurance incurred with respect to shipments of the merchandise concerned from the place of importation to the place of delivery in the United States, if those costs are not included as a general expense under paragraph (d)(1) of this section;

(4) The customs duties and other Federal taxes currently payable on the merchandise concerned by reason of its importation, and any Federal excise tax on, or measured by the value of, the merchandise for which vendors in the United States ordinarily are liable; and

(5) But only in the case of price determined under paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the value added by the processing of the merchandise after importation to the extent that the value is based on sufficient information relating to the cost of that processing.

(e)Profit and general expenses; special rules.

(1) The deduction made for profit and general expenses (taken as a whole) will be based upon the importer's profit and general expenses, unless the profit and general expenses are inconsistent with those reflected in sales in the United States of imported merchandise of the same class or kind from all countries, in which case the deduction will be based on the usual profit and general expenses reflected in those sales, as determined from sufficient information. Any State or local tax imposed on the importer with respect to the sale of imported merchandise will be treated as a general expense.

(2) In determining deductions for commissions and usual profit and general expenses, sales in the United States of the narrowest group or range of imported merchandise of the same class or kind, including the merchandise being appraised, for which sufficient information can be provided, will be examined.

(f)Packing costs. The price determined under paragraph (c) of this section will be increased, but only to the extent that the costs are not otherwise included, by an amount equal to the packing costs incurred by the importer or the buyer with respect to the merchandise concerned.

(g)Assists. For purposes of determining deductive value, any sale to a person who supplies any assist for use in connection with the production or sale for export of the merchandise concerned will be disregarded.

(h)Unit price in greatest aggregate quantity. The unit price will be established after a sufficient number of units have been sold to an unrelated person. The unit price to be used when the units have been sold in different quantities will be that at which the total volume sold is greater than the total volume sold at any other unit price.

(1)Interpretative note 1. Merchandise is sold to an unrelated person from a price list which grants favorable unit prices for purchases made in larger quantities:

Sale quantity Unit price Number of sales Total quantity sold at each price
1-10 units $100 10 sales of 5 units 65
5 sales of 3 units
11-25 units 95 5 sales of 11 units 55
Over 25 units 90 1 sale of 30 units 80
1 sale of 50 units
The greatest number of units sold at a price is 80; therefore, the unit price in the greatest aggregate quantity is $90.

(2)Interpretative note 2. Two sales to unrelated persons occur: in the first sale, 500 units are sold at a price of $95 each; in the second sale, 400 units are sold at a price of $90 each. In this example, the greatest number of units sold at a particular price is 500; therefore, the unit price in the greatest aggregate quantity is $95.

(3)Interpretative note 3. Various quantities are sold to unrelated persons at various prices:

(i) Sales

Sale quantity Unit price
40 units $100
30 units 90
15 units 100
50 units 95
25 units 105
35 units 90
5 units 100

(ii) Totals

Total quantity sold Unit price
65 $90
50 95
60 100
25 105
In this example, the greatest number of units sold at a particular price is 65; therefore, the unit price in the greatest aggregate quantity is $90.

(i)Further processing -

(1)Quantified data. If merchandise has undergone further processing after its importation into the United States and the importer elects the method specified in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, deductions made for the value added by that processing will be based on objective and quantifiable data relating to the cost of the work performed. Accepted industry formulas, recipes, methods of construction, and other industry practices would form the basis for the deduction. That deduction also will reflect amounts for spoilage, waste, or scrap derived from the further processing.

(2)Loss of identity. If the imported merchandise loses its identity as a result of further processing, the method specified in paragraph (c)(3) of this section will not be applicable unless the value added by the processing can be determined accurately without unreasonable difficulty for either importers or Customs. If the imported merchandise maintains its identity but forms a minor element of the merchandise sold in the United States, the use of paragraph (c)(3) of this section will be unjustified. The Center director shall review each case involving these issues on its merits.

Example.
A foreign shipper sells merchandise to a related U.S. importer. The foreign shipper does not sell to any unrelated person. The transaction between the foreign shipper and the U.S. importer is determined to have been affected by the relationship. There is no identical or similar merchandise from the same country of production. The U.S. importer further processes the product and sells the finished product to an unrelated buyer in the U.S. within 180 days of the date of importation. No assists from the unrelated U.S. buyer are involved, and the type of processing involved can be accurately costed.

How should the merchandise be appraised?

The merchandise should be appraised under deductive value with allowances for profit and general expenses, freight and insurance, duties and taxes, and the cost of processing.

[T.D. 81-7, 46 FR 2600, Jan. 12, 1981, as amended by T.D. 85-123, 50 FR 29956, July 23, 1985]