2 CFR § 200.516 - Audit findings.
(1) Significant deficiencies and material weaknesses in internal control over major programs and significant instances of abuse relating to major programs. The auditor's determination of whether a deficiency in internal control is a significant deficiency or a material weakness for the purpose of reporting an audit finding is in relation to a type of compliance requirement for a major program identified in the Compliance Supplement.
(2) Material noncompliance with the provisions of Federal statutes, regulations, or the terms and conditions of Federal awards related to a major program. The auditor's determination of whether a noncompliance with the provisions of Federal statutes, regulations, or the terms and conditions of Federal awards is material for the purpose of reporting an audit finding is in relation to a type of compliance requirement for a major program identified in the compliance supplement.
(3) Known questioned costs that are greater than $25,000 for a type of compliance requirement for a major program. Known questioned costs are those specifically identified by the auditor. In evaluating the effect of questioned costs on the opinion on compliance, the auditor considers the best estimate of total costs questioned (likely questioned costs), not just the questioned costs specifically identified (known questioned costs). The auditor must also report known questioned costs when likely questioned costs are greater than $25,000 for a type of compliance requirement for a major program. In reporting questioned costs, the auditor must include information to provide proper perspective for judging the prevalence and consequences of the questioned costs.
(4) Known questioned costs that are greater than $25,000 for a Federal program which is not audited as a major program. Except for audit follow-up, the auditor is not required under this part to perform audit procedures for such a Federal program; therefore, the auditor will normally not find questioned costs for a program that is not audited as a major program. However, if the auditor does become aware of questioned costs for a Federal program that is not audited as a major program (e.g., as part of audit follow-up or other audit procedures) and the known questioned costs are greater than $25,000, then the auditor must report this as an audit finding.
(5) The circumstances concerning why the auditor's report on compliance for each major program is other than an unmodified opinion, unless such circumstances are otherwise reported as audit findings in the schedule of findings and questioned costs for Federal awards.
(6) Known or likely fraud affecting a Federal award, unless such fraud is otherwise reported as an audit finding in the schedule of findings and questioned costs for Federal awards. This paragraph does not require the auditor to report publicly information which could compromise investigative or legal proceedings or to make an additional reporting when the auditor confirms that the fraud was reported outside the auditor's reports under the direct reporting requirements of GAGAS.
(7) Instances where the results of audit follow-up procedures disclosed that the summary schedule of prior audit findings prepared by the auditee in accordance with § 200.511(b) materially misrepresents the status of any prior audit finding.
(b) Audit finding detail and clarity. Audit findings must be presented in sufficient detail and clarity for the auditee to prepare a corrective action plan and take corrective action, and for Federal agencies and pass-through entities to arrive at a management decision. The following specific information must be included, as applicable, in audit findings:
(1) Federal program and specific Federal award identification including the Assistance Listings title and number, Federal award identification number and year, name of Federal agency, and name of the applicable pass-through entity. When information, such as the Assistance Listings title and number or Federal award identification number, is not available, the auditor must provide the best information available to describe the Federal award.
(2) The criteria or specific requirement upon which the audit finding is based, including the Federal statutes, regulations, or the terms and conditions of the Federal awards. Criteria generally identify the required or desired state or expectation with respect to the program or operation. Criteria provide a context for evaluating evidence and understanding findings.
(3) The condition found, including facts that support the deficiency identified in the audit finding.
(4) A statement of cause that identifies the reason or explanation for the condition or the factors responsible for the difference between the situation that exists (condition) and the required or desired state (criteria), which may also serve as a basis for recommendations for corrective action.
(5) The possible asserted effect to provide sufficient information to the auditee and Federal agency, or pass-through entity in the case of a subrecipient, to permit them to determine the cause and effect to facilitate prompt and proper corrective action. A statement of the effect or potential effect should provide a clear, logical link to establish the impact or potential impact of the difference between the condition and the criteria.
(6) Identification of questioned costs and how they were computed. Known questioned costs must be identified by applicable Assistance Listings number(s) and applicable Federal award identification number(s).
(7) Information to provide proper perspective for judging the prevalence and consequences of the audit findings, such as whether the audit findings represent an isolated instance or a systemic problem. Where appropriate, instances identified must be related to the universe and the number of cases examined and be quantified in terms of dollar value. The auditor should report whether the sampling was a statistically valid sample.
(9) Recommendations to prevent future occurrences of the deficiency identified in the audit finding.
(10) Views of responsible officials of the auditee.
(c) Reference numbers. Each audit finding in the schedule of findings and questioned costs must include a reference number in the format meeting the requirements of the data collection form submission required by § 200.512(b) to allow for easy referencing of the audit findings during follow-up.