25 CFR Appendix A to Part 276, Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants
A. Purpose and scope. 1. Objectives. This attachment sets forth principles for determining the allowable costs of programs administered by grantees under grants from the Bureau. The principles are for the purpose of cost determination and are not intended to identify the circumstances or dictate the extent of Bureau and tribal participation in the financing of a particular grant. They are designed to provide that Bureau assisted programs bear their fair share of costs recognized under these principles, except where restricted or prohibited by law. No provision for profit or other increment above cost is intended.
2. Policy guides. The application of these principles is based on the fundamental premises that:
a. Grantees are responsible for the efficient and effective administration of grant programs through the application of sound management practices.
b. The grantee assumes the responsibility for seeing that Bureau assisted program funds have been expended and accounted for consistent with underlying agreements and program objectives.
c. Each grantee organization, in recognition of its own unique combination of staff facilities and experience, will have the primary responsibility for employing whatever form of organization and management techniques may be necessary to assure proper and efficient administration.
3. Application. These principles will be applied by the Bureau in determining costs incurred by grantees under Bureau grants (including subgrants, contracts by grantees and subcontracts).
B. Definitions. 1. Approval or authorization of the Bureau means documentation evidencing consent prior to incurring specific cost.
2. Cost allocation plan means the documentation identifying, accumulating, and distrtibuting allowable costs under grants and contracts together with the allocation methods used.
3. Cost, as used herein, means cost as determined on a cash, accrual, or other basis acceptable to the Bureau as a discharge of the grantee's accountability for Bureau funds.
4. Cost objective means a pool, center, or area established for the accumulation of cost. Such areas include organizational units, functions, objects or items of expense as well as ultimate cost objectives including specific grants, projects, contracts, and other activities.
5. Federal agency means any department, agency, commission, or instrumentality in the executive branch of the Federal Government which makes grants to grantees.
6. Grant means an agreement between the Bureau and a grantee whereby the Bureau provides funds or aid in kind to carry out specified programs, services, or activities. The principles and policies stated in this appendix as applicable to grants in general also apply to any Federally sponsored cost reimbursement type of agreement performed by a grantee, including contracts, subcontracts and subgrants.
7. Grant program means those activities and operations of the grantee which are necessary to carry out the purposes of the grant, including any portion of the program financed by the grantee.
8. Grantee means the entity which is responsible for administration of the grant.
9. Services, as used herein, means goods and facilities, as well as services.
10. Supporting services means auxiliary functions necessary to sustain the direct effort involved in administering a grant program or an activity providing service to the grant program. These services may be centralized in the grantee department or in some other agency, and include procurement, payroll, personnel functions, maintenance and operation of space, data processing, accounting, budgeting, auditing, mail and messenger service, and the like.
C. Basic guidelines. 1. Factors affecting allowability of costs. To be allowable under a grant program, costs must meet the following general criteria:
a. Be necessary and reasonable for proper and efficient administration of the grant program, be allocable thereto under these principles, and, except as specifically provided herein, not be a general expense required to carry out the overall responsibilities of a grantee.
b. Be authorized or not prohibited under applicable laws or regulations.
c. Conform to any limitations or exclusions set forth in these principles, Federal laws, or other governing limitations as to types or amounts of cost items.
d. Be consistent with policies, regulations, and procedures that apply uniformly to both Federally assisted and other activities of which the grantee is a part.
e. Be accorded consistent treatment through application of generally accepted accounting principles appropriate to the circumstances.
f. Not be allocable to or included as a cost of any other Federally financed program in either the current or a prior period.
g. Be net of all applicable credits.
2. Allocable costs. a. A cost is allocable to a particular cost objective to the extent of benefits received by such objective.
b. Any cost allocable to a particular grant or cost objective under the principles provided for in this appendix may not be shifted to other Federal grant programs to overcome funds deficiencies, avoid restrictions imposed by law or grant agreements, or for other reasons.
c. Where an allocation of joint cost will ultimately result in charges to a grant program, an allocation plan will be required as prescribed in section I.
3. Applicable credits. a. Applicable credits refer to those receipts or reduction of expenditure-type transactions which offset or reduce expense items allocable to grants as direct or indirect costs. Examples of such transactions are: purchase discounts; rebates or allowances; recoveries or indemnities on losses; sale of publications, equipment, and scrap; income from personal or incidental services; and adjustments of overpayments or erroneous charges.
b. Applicable credits may also arise when Bureau funds are received or are available from sources other than the grant program involved to finance operations or capital items of the grantee. This includes costs arising from the use of depreciation of items donated or financed by the Bureau to fulfill matching requirements under another grant program. These types of credits should likewise be used to reduce related expenditures in determining the rates or amounts applicable to a given grant.
D. Composition of cost. 1. Total cost. The total cost of a grant program is comprised of allowable direct cost incident to its performance, plus its allocable portion of allowable indirect costs, less applicable credits.
2. Classification of costs. There is no universal rule for classifying certain costs as either direct or indirect under every accounting system. A cost may be direct with respect to some specific service or function, but indirect with respect to the grant or other ultimate cost objective. It is essential, therefore, that each item of cost be treated consistently either as a direct or an indirect cost. Specific guides for determining direct and indirect costs allocable under grant programs are provided in the sections which follow.
E. Direct costs. 1. General. Direct costs are those that can be identified specifically with a particular cost objective. These costs may be charged directly to grants, contracts, or to other programs against which costs are finally lodged. Direct costs may also be charged to cost objectives used for the other ultimate cost objective.
2. Application. Typical direct costs chargeable to grant programs are:
a. Compensation of employees for the time and effort devoted specifically to the execution of grant programs.
b. Cost of materials acquired, consumed, or expended specifically for the purpose of the grant.
c. Equipment and other approved capital expenditures.
d. Other items of expense incurred specifically to carry out the grant agreement.
e. Services furnished specifically for the grant program by other agencies, provided such charges are consistent with criteria outlined in section G of these principles.
F. Indirect costs. 1. General. Indirect costs are those (a) incurred for a common or joint purpose benefiting more than one cost objective, and (b) not readily assignable to the cost objectives specifically benefited, without effort disproportionate to the results achieved. The term “indirect costs,” as used herein, applies to costs of this type originating in the grantee department, as well as those incurred by other departments in supplying goods, services, and facilities, to the grantee department. To facilitate equitable distribution of indirect expenses to the cost objectives served, it may be necessary to establish a number of pools of indirect cost within a grantee department or in other agencies providing services to a grantee department. Indirect cost pools should be distributed to benefiting cost objectives on bases which will produce an equitable result in consideration or relative benefits derived.
2. Grantee departmental indirect costs. All grantee departmental indirect costs, including the various levels of supervision, are eligible for allocation to grant programs provided they meet the conditions set forth in this part. In lieu of determining the actual amount of grantee departmental indirect cost allocable to a grant program, the following methods may be used:
a. Predetermined fixed rates for indirect costs. A predetermined fixed rate for computing indirect costs applicable to a grant may be negotiated annually in situations where the cost experience and other pertinent facts available are deemed sufficient to enable the contracting parties to reach an informed judgment (1) as to the probable level of indirect costs in the grantee department during the period to be covered by the negotiated rate, and (2) that the amount allowable under the predetermined rate would not exceed actual indirect cost.
b. Negotiated lump sum for overhead. A negotiated fixed amount in lieu of indirect costs may be appropriate under circumstances where the benefits derived from a grantee department's indirect services cannot be readily determined as in the case of small, self-contained or isolated activity. When this method is used, a determination should be made that the amount negotiated will be approximately the same as the actual indirect cost that may be incurred. Such amounts negotiated in lieu of indirect costs will be treated as an offset to total indirect expenses of the grantee department before allocation to remaining activities. The base on which such remaining expenses are allocated should be appropriately adjusted.
3. Limitation on indirect costs. a. Bureau grants may be subject to laws that limit the amount of indirect costs that may be allowed. In this event, the Bureau will establish procedures which will assure that the amount actually allowed for indirect costs under each such grant does not exceed the maximum allowable under the statutory limitation or the amount otherwise allowable under this appendix, whichever is the smaller.
b. When the amount allowable under a statutory limitation is less than the amount otherwise allocable as indirect costs under this appendix the amount not recoverable as indirect costs under a grant may not be shifted to another Federally sponsored grant program or contract.
G. Cost incurred by organizations other than the grantee. 1. General. The cost of service provided by other organizations may only include allowable direct costs of the service plus a prorata share of allowable supporting costs and supervision directly required in performing the service, but not supervision of a general nature such as that provided by the head of an organization and his staff assistants not directly involved in operations. However, supervision by the head of an organization whose sole function is providing the service furnished would be an eligible cost. Supporting costs include those furnished by other units of the supplying organizations.
2. Alternative methods of determining indirect cost. In lieu of determining actual indirect cost related to a particular service furnished by another organization, either of the following alternative methods may be used provided only one method is used for a specific service during the fiscal year involved.
a. Standard indirect rate. An amount equal to ten percent of direct labor cost in providing the service performed by another organization (excluding overtime, shift, or holiday premiums and fringe benefits) may be allowed in lieu of actual allowable indirect cost for that service.
b. Predetermined fixed rate. A predetermined fixed rate for indirect cost of the unit or activity providing service may be negotiated as set forth in section F.2.a.
H. Cost incurred by grantee for others. 1. General. The principles provided in section G will also be used in determining the cost of services provided by the grantee to another agency.
I. Cost allocation plan. 1. General. A plan for allocation of costs will be required to support the distribution of any joint costs related to the grant program. All costs included in the plan will be supported by formal accounting records which will substantiate the propriety of eventual charges.
2. Requirements. The allocation plan of the grantee should cover all joint costs of the grantees as well as costs to be allocated under plans of other agencies or organizational units which are to be included in the costs of federally sponsored programs. The cost allocation plans of all the agencies rendering services to the grantee, to the extent feasible, should be presented in a single document. The allocation plan should contain, but not neessarily be limited to, the following:
a. The nature and extent of services provided and their relevance to the federally sponsored programs.
b. The items of expense to be included.
c. The methods to be used in distributing cost.
3. Instructions for preparation of cost allocation plans. The Bureau, in consultation with the other Federal agencies concerned, will be responsible for developing and issuing the instructions for use by grantees in preparation of cost allocation plans.
4. Submission of indirect cost proposal and negotiation of indirect cost rates.
a. A grantee should submit its indirect cost proposal to the Federal agency which provides the largest dollar volume of contracts and grants. However, once a Federal agency has handled an indirect cost proposal, that same Federal agency should continue to act upon the proposal even though the preponderance of financial interest may have shifted to another Federal agency, and grantee shall not resubmit its indirect cost proposal to a second Federal agency.
b. Where the grantee submits its proposal to the Department of Interior, the proposal should be sent by the Bureau of Indian Affairs to the cognizant Regional Office of the Department's Office of Audit and Investigation. The Office of Audit and Investigation is responsible for the audit and review of the proposals and negotiation of the indirect cost rates.
c. Grant administrators officers will usually, but are not required to, accept indirect cost rates negotiated by other Federal agencies.
d. The Bureau of Indian Affairs will provide technical assistance in developing indirect cost proposals, if needed.
A. Purpose and applicability. 1. Objective. This attachment provides standards for determining the allowability of selected items of cost.
2. Application. These standards will apply irrespective of whether a particular item of cost is treated as direct or indirect cost. Failure to mention a particular item of cost in the standards is not intended to imply that it is either allowable or unallowable, rather determination of allowability in each case should be based on the treatment of standards provided for similar or related items of cost. The allowability of the selected items of cost is subject to the general policies and principles stated in part I of this appendix.
B. Allowable costs. 1. Accounting. The cost of establishing and maintaining accounting and other information systems required for the management of grant programs is allowable. This includes cost incurred by central service agencies for these purposes. The cost of maintaining central accounting records required for overall tribal government purposes, such as appropriation and fund accounts by the Treasurer, Comptroller, or similar officials, is considered to be a general expense of government and is not allowable.
2. Advertising. Advertising media includes newspapers, magazines, radio and television programs, direct mail, trade papers, and the like. The advertising costs allowable are those which are solely for:
a. Recruitment of personnel required for the grant program.
b. Solicitation of bids for the procurement of goods and services required.
c. Disposal of scrap or surplus materials acquired in the performance of the grant agreement.
d. Other purposes specifically provided for in the grant agreement.
3. Advisory councils. Costs incurred by grantee advisory councils or committees established pursuant to Bureau requirements to carry out grant programs are allowable. The cost of like organizations is allowable when provided for in the grant agreement.
4. Audit service. The cost of audits necessary for the administration and management of functions related to grant programs is allowable.
5. Bonding. Costs of premiums on bonds covering employees who handle grantee funds are allowable.
6. Budgeting. Costs incurred for the development, preparation, presentation, and execution of budgets are allowable. Costs for services of a central budget office are generally not allowable since these are costs of general government. However, where employees of the central budget office activity participate in the grantee budget process, the cost of identifiable services is allowable.
7. Building lease management. The administrative cost for lease management which includes review of lease proposals, maintenance of a list of available property for lease, and related activities is allowable.
8. Central stores. The cost of maintaining and operating a central store's organization for supplies, equipment, and materials used either directly or indirectly for grant programs is allowable.
9. Communications. Communication costs incurred for telephone calls or service, telegraph, teletype service, wide area telephone service (WATS), centrex, telpak (tie lines), postage, messenger service and similar expenses are allowable.
10. Compensation for personal services. a. General. Compensation for personal services includes all remuneration, paid currently or accrued, for services rendered during the period of performance under the grant agreement, including but not necessarily limited to wages, salaries, and supplementary compensation and benefits. The costs of such compensation are allowable to the extent that total compensation for individual employees: (1) Is responsible for the services rendered, (2) follows an appointment made in accordance with tribal government ordinances and rules and which meets Federal merit system or other requirements, where applicable; and (3) is determined and supported as provided in b., below. Compensation for employees engaged in federally assisted actvities will be considered reasonable to the extent that it is consistent with that paid for similar work in other activities of the tribal government. In cases where the kinds of employees required for the federally assisted activities are not found in the other activities of the tribal government, compensation will be considered reasonable to the extent that it is comparable to that paid for similar work in the labor market in which the employing government competes for the kind of employees involved. Compensation surveys providing data representative of the labor market involved will be an acceptable basis for evaluating reasonableness.
b. Payroll and distribution of time. Amounts charged to grant programs for personal services, regardless of whether treated as direct or indirect costs, will be based on payrolls documented and approved in accordance with generally accepted practice of the tribal government. Payrolls must be supported by time and attendance or equivalent records for individual employees. Salaries and wages of employees chargeable to more than one grant program or other cost objective will be supported by appropriate time distribution records. The method used should produce an equitable distribution of time and effort.
11. Depreciation and use allowance. a. Grantees may be compensated for the use of their own buildings, capital improvements, and equipment through use allowances or depreciation. Use allowances are the means of providing compensation in lieu of depreciation or other equivalent costs. However, a combination of the two methods may not be used in connection with a single class of fixed assets.
b. The computation of depreciation or use allowance will be based on acquisition cost. Where actual cost records have not been maintained, a reasonable estimate of the original acquisition cost may be used in the computation. The computation will exclude the cost or any portion of the cost of buildings and equipment donated or borne directly or indirectly by the Federal Government through charges to Federal grant programs or otherwise, irrespective of whether title was originally vested or where it presently resides. In addition, the computation will also exclude the cost of land. Depreciation or a use allowance on idle or excess facilities is not allowable, except when specifically authorized by the grantor Federal agency.
c. Where the depreciation method is followed, adequate property records must be maintained, and any generally accepted method of computing depreciation must be consistently applied for any specific asset or class of assets for all affected Federally sponsored programs and must result in equitable charges considering the extent of the use of the assets for benefit of such programs.
d. In lieu of depreciation, a use allowance for buildings and improvements may be computed at an annual rate not exceeding two percent of acquisition cost. The use allowance for equipment (excluding items properly capitalized as building cost) will be computed at an annual rate not exceeding six and two-thirds percent of acquisition cost of usable equipment.
e. No depreciation or use charge may be allowed on any assets that would be considered as fully depreciated, provided, however, that reasonable use charges may be negotitated for any such assets if warranted after taking into consideration the cost of the facility or item involved, the estimated useful life remaining at time of negotiation, the effect of any increased maintenance charges or decreased efficiency due to age, and any other factors pertinent to utilization of the facility or item for the purpose contemplated.
12. Disbursing service. The cost of disbursing grant program funds by the Treasurer or other designated officer is allowable. Disbursing services cover the processing of checks or warrants, from preparation to redemption, including the necessary records of accountability and reconciliation of such records with related cash accounts.
13. Employee fringe benefits. Costs identified under a. and b. below are allowable to the extent that total compensation for employees is reasonable as defined in section B.10.
a. Employee benefits in the form of regular compensation paid to employees during periods of authorized absences from the job, such as for annual leave, sick leave, court leave, military leave, and the like, if they are: (1) Provided pursuant to an approved leave system, and (2) the cost thereof is equitably allocated to all related activities, including grant programs.
b. Employee benefits in the form of employers' contribution or expenses for social security, employees' life and health insurance plans, unemployment insurance coverage, workmen's compensation insurance, pension plans, severance pay, and the like, provided such benefits are granted under approved plans and are distributed equitably to grant programs and in other activities.
14. Employee morale, health and welfare costs. The costs of health or first-aid clinics and/or infirmaries, recreational facilities, employees' counseling services, employee information publications, and any related expenses incurred, are allowable. Income generated from any of these activities will be offset against expenses.
15. Exhibits. Costs of exhibits relating specifically to the grant programs are allowable.
16. Legal expenses. The cost of legal expenses required in the administration of grant programs is allowable. Legal services furnished by the chief legal officer of a tribal government or his staff solely for the purpose of discharging his general responsibilities as legal officer are unallowable. Legal expenses for the prosecution of claims against the Federal Government are unallowable.
17. Maintenance and repair. Costs incurred for necessary maintenance, repair, or upkeep of property which neither add to the permanent value of the property nor appreciably prolong its intended life, but keep it in an efficient operating condition, are allowable.
18. Materials and supplies. The cost of materials and supplies necessary to carry out the grant programs is allowable. Purchases made specifically for the grant program should be charged thereto at their actual prices after deducting all cash discounts, trade discounts, rebates, and allowances received by the grantee. Withdrawals from general stores or stockrooms should be charged at cost under any recognized method of pricing consistently applied. Incoming transportation charges are a proper part of material cost.
19. Memberships, subscriptions and professional activities. a. Memberships. The cost of membership in civic, business, technical and professional organizations is allowable provided: (1) The benefit from the membership is related to the grant program, (2) the expenditure is for agency membership, (3) the cost of the membership is reasonably related to the value of the services or benefits received, and (4) the expenditure is not for membership in an organization which devotes a substantial part of its activities to influencing legislation.
b. Reference material. The cost of books, and subscriptions to civic, business, professional, and technical periodicals is allowable when related to the grant program.
c. Meetings and conferences. Costs are allowable when the purpose of the meeting is the dissemination of technical information relating to the grant program and they are consistent with regular practices followed for other activities of the grantee.
20. Motor pools. The costs of a service organization which provides automobiles to grantees at a mileage or fixed rate and/or provides vehicle maintenance, inspection and repair services are allowable.
21. Payroll preparation. The cost of preparing payrolls and maintaining necessary related wage records is allowable.
22. Personnel administration. Costs for the recruitment, examination, certification, classification, training, establishment of pay standards, and related activities for grant programs, are allowable.
23. Printing and reproduction. Cost for printing and reproduction services necessary for grant administration, including but not limited to forms, reports, manuals, and informational literature, are allowable. Publication costs of reports or other media relating to grant program accomplishments or results are allowable when provided for in the grant agreement.
24. Procurement service. The cost of procurement service, including solicitation of bids, preparation and award of contracts, and all phases of contract administration in providing goods, facilities and services for grant programs, is allowable.
25. Taxes. In general, taxes or payments in lieu of taxes which the grantee is legally required to pay are allowable.
26. Training and education. The cost of in-service training, customarily provided for employee development which directly or indirectly benefits grant programs is allowable. Out-of-service training involving extended periods of time is allowable only when specifically authorized by the Bureau.
27. Transportation. Costs incurred for freight, cartage, express, postage and other transportation costs relating either to goods purchased, delivered, or moved from one location to another are allowable.
28. Travel. Travel costs are allowable for expenses for transportation, lodging, subsistence, and related items incurred by employees who are in travel status on official business incident to a grant program. Such costs may be charged on an actual basis, on a per diem or mileage basis in lieu of actual costs incurred, or on a combination of the two, provided the method used is applied to an entire trip, and results in charges consistent with those normally allowed in like circumstances in non-Federally sponsored activities. The difference in cost between first-class air accommodations and less-than-first-class air accommodations is unallowable except when less-than-first-class air accommodations are not reasonably available.
C. Costs allowable with approval of the Bureau. 1. Automatic data processing. The cost of data processing services to grant programs is allowable. This cost may include rental of equipment or depreciation on grantee-owned equipment. The acquisition of equipment, whether by outright purchase, rental-purchase agreement or other method of purchase, is allowable only upon specific prior approval of the Bureau as provided under the selected item for capital expenditures. The Bureau must obtain required Departmental clearances before such approval can be given.
2. Building space and related facilities. The cost of space in privately or publicly owned buildings used for the benefit of the grant program is allowable subject to the conditions stated below. The total cost of space, whether in a privately or publicly owned building, may not exceed the rental cost of comparable space and facilities in a privately owned building in the same locality. The cost of space procured for grant program usage may not be charged to the program for periods of nonoccupancy, without authorization of the Bureau.
a. Rental cost. The rental cost of space in a privately owned building is allowable.
b. Maintenance and operation. The cost of utilities, insurance, security, janitorial services, elevator service, upkeep of grounds, normal repairs and alterations and the like, are allowable to the extent they are not otherwise included in rental or other charges for space.
c. Rearrangements and alterations. Cost incurred for rearrangement and alteration of facilities required specifically for the grant program or those that materially increase the value or useful life of the facilities (section C.3.) are allowable when specifically approved by the Bureau.
d. Depreciation and use allowances on publicly owned buildings. These costs are allowable as provided in section B.11.
e. Occupancy of space under rental-purchase or a lease with option-to-purchase agreement. The cost of space procured under such arrangements is allowable when specifically approved by the Bureau.
3. Capital expenditures. The cost of facilities, equipment, other capital assets, and repairs which materially increase the value or useful life of capital assets is allowable when such procurement is specifically approved by the Bureau. When assets acquired with Bureau grant funds are (a) sold, (b) no longer available for use in a Federally sponsored program or (c) used for purposes not authorized by the Bureau, the Bureau's equity in the asset will be refunded in the same proportion as Bureau participation in its cost. In case any assets are traded on new items, only the net cost of the newly acquired assets is allowable.
4. Insurance and indemnification. a. Costs of insurance required, or approved and maintained pursuant to the grant agreement, is allowable.
b. Costs of other insurance in connection with the general conduct of activities is allowable subject to the following limitations:
(1) Types and extent and cost of coverage will be in accordance with sound business practice.
(2) Costs of insurance or of contributions to any reserve covering the risk of loss of, or damage to, Federal Government property is unallowable except to the extent that the Bureau has specifically required or approved such costs.
c. Contributions to a reserve for a self-insurance program approved by the Bureau are allowable to the extent that the type of coverage, extent of coverage, and the rates and premiums would have been allowed had insurance been purchased to cover the risks.
d. Actual losses which could have been covered by permissible insurance (through an approved self-insurance program or otherwise) are unallowable unless expressly provided for in the grant agreement. However, costs incurred because of losses not covered under nominal deductible insurance coverage provided in keeping with sound management practice, and minor losses not covered by insurance, such as spoilage, breakage and disappearance of small hand tools which occur in the ordinary course of operations, are available.
e. Indemnification includes securing the grantee against liabilities to third persons and other losses not compensated by insurance or otherwise. The Bureau is obligated to indemnify the grantee only to the extent expressly provided for in the grant agreement, except as provided in d. above.
5. Management studies. The cost of management studies to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of grant management for ongoing programs is allowable except that the cost of studies performed by agencies other than the grantee or outside consultants is allowable only when authorized by the Bureau.
6. Preagreement costs. Costs incurred prior to the effective date of the grant, whether or not they would have been allowable thereunder if incurred after such date, are allowable when specifically provided for in the grant agreement.
7. Professional services. Cost of professional services rendered by individuals or organizations not a part of the grantee is allowable subject to such prior authorization as may be required by the Bureau.
8. Proposal costs. Costs of preparing proposals on potential Federal Government grant agreements are allowable when specifically provided for in the grant agreement.
9. Tribal government officer salaries and expenses. Identifiable salary and expense costs incurred as a direct result of a tribal government officer's service to a grant program provided under this chapter are allowable subject to advance agreement with an approval by the Bureau. A general limitation in this regard is prescribed in section D.6.
D. Unallowable costs. 1. Bad debts. Any losses arising from uncollectible accounts and other claims, and related costs, are unallowable.
2. Contingencies. Contributions to a contingency reserve or any similar provision for unforeseen events are unallowable.
3. Contributions and donations. Unallowable.
4. Entertainments. Costs of amusements, social activities, and incidental costs relating thereto, such as meals, beverages, lodgings, rentals, transportation, and gratuities, are unallowable.
5. Fines and penalties. Costs resulting from violations of, or failure to comply with Federal, State and local laws and regulations are unallowable.
6. Tribal officer salaries and expenses. The salaries and expenses of tribal government officers are considered a cost of general tribal government and are unallowable except as prescribed in section C.9.
7. Interest and other financial costs. Interest on borrowing (however requested), bond discounts, cost of financing and refinancing operations, and legal and professional fees paid in connection therewith, are unallowable except when authorized by Federal legislation.
8. Underrecovery of costs under grant agreements. Any excess of cost over the Federal contribution under one grant agreement is unallowable under other grant agreements.