26 CFR 1.1502-33 - Earnings and profits.

§ 1.1502-33 Earnings and profits.

(a)In general -

(1)Purpose. This section provides rules for adjusting the earnings and profits of a subsidiary (S) and any member (P) owning S's stock. These rules modify the determination of P's earnings and profits under applicable rules of law, including section 312, by adjusting P's earnings and profits to reflect S's earnings and profits for the period that S is a member of the consolidated group. The purpose for modifying the determination of earnings and profits is to treat P and S as a single entity by reflecting the earnings and profits of lower-tier members in the earnings and profits of higher-tier members and consolidating the group's earnings and profits in the common parent. References in this section to earnings and profits include deficits in earnings and profits.

(2)Application of other rules of law, duplicative adjustments. See § 1.1502-80(a) regarding the general applicability of other rules of law and a limitation on duplicative adjustments. The rules of this section are in addition to other rules of law. For example, the allowance for depreciation is determined in accordance with section 312(k). P's earnings and profits must not be adjusted under this section and other rules of law in a manner that has the effect of duplicating an adjustment. For example, if S's earnings and profits are reflected in P's earnings and profits under paragraph (b) of this section, and S transfers its assets to P in a liquidation to which section 332 applies, S's earnings and profits that P succeeds to under section 381 must be adjusted to prevent duplication.

(b)Tiering up earnings and profits -

(1)General rule. P's earnings and profits are adjusted under this section to reflect changes in S's earnings and profits in accordance with the applicable principles of § 1.1502-32, consistently applied, and an adjustment to P's earnings and profits for a tax year under this paragraph (b)(1) is treated as earnings and profits of P for the tax year in which the adjustment arises. Under these principles, for example, the adjustments are made as of the close of each consolidated return year, and as of any other time if a determination at that time is necessary to determine the earnings and profits of any person. Similarly, S's earnings and profits are allocated under the principles of § 1.1502-32(c), and the adjustments are applied in the order of the tiers, from the lowest to the highest. However, modifications to the principles include:

(i) The amount of P's adjustment is determined by reference to S's earnings and profits, rather than S's taxable and tax-exempt items (and therefore, for example, the deferral of a negative adjustment for S's unabsorbed losses does not apply).

(ii) The tax sharing rules under paragraph (d) of this section apply rather than those of § 1.1502-32(b)(3)(iv)(D).

(2)Affiliated earnings and profits. The reduction in S's earnings and profits under section 312 from a distribution of earnings and profits accumulated in separate return years of S that are not separate return limitation years does not tier up to P's earnings and profits. Thus, the increase in P's earnings and profits under section 312 from receipt of the distribution is not offset by a corresponding reduction.

(3)Examples -

(i)In general. For purposes of the examples in this section, unless otherwise stated, P owns all of the only class of S's stock, the stock is owned for the entire year, S owns no stock of lower-tier members, the tax year of all persons is the calendar year, all persons use the accrual method of accounting, the facts set forth the only corporate activity, preferred stock is described in section 1504(a)(4), all transactions are between unrelated persons, and tax liabilities are disregarded.

(ii)Tiering up earnings and profits. The principles of this paragraph (b) are illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1. Tier-up and distribution of earnings and profits.
(a)Facts. P forms S in Year 1 with a $100 contribution. S has $100 of earnings and profits for Year 1 and no earnings and profits for Year 2. During Year 2, S declares and distributes a $50 dividend to P.

(b)Analysis. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, S's $100 of earnings and profits for Year 1 increases P's earnings and profits for Year 1. P has no additional earnings and profits for Year 2 as a result of the $50 distribution in Year 2, because there is a $50 increase in P's earnings and profits as a result of the receipt of the dividend and a corresponding $50 decrease in S's earnings and profits under section 312(a) that is reflected in P's earnings and profits under paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(c)Distribution of current earnings and profits. The facts are the same as in paragraph (a) of this Example 1, except that S distributes the $50 dividend at the end of Year 1 rather than during Year 2. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, P's earnings and profits are increased by $100 (S's $50 of undistributed earnings and profits, plus P's receipt of the $50 distribution). Thus, S's earnings and profits increase by $50 and P's earnings and profits increase by $100.

(d)Affiliated earnings and profits. The facts are the same as in paragraph (a) of this Example 1, except that P and S do not begin filing consolidated returns until Year 2. Because P and S file separate returns for Year 1, P's basis in S's stock remains $100 under § 1.1502-32 and this section, S has $100 of earnings and profits, and none of S's earnings and profits is reflected in P's earnings and profits under paragraph (b) of this section. S's distribution in Year 2 ordinarily would reduce S's earnings and profits but not increase P's earnings and profits. (P's $50 of earnings and profits from the dividend would be offset by S's $50 reduction in earnings and profits that tiers up under paragraph (b) of this section.) However, under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the negative adjustment for S's distribution to P does not apply. Thus, S's distribution reduces its earnings and profits by $50 but increases P's earnings and profits by $50. (If S's earnings and profits had been accumulated in a separate return limitation year, paragraph (b)(2) of this section would not apply and the distribution would reduce S's earnings and profits but not increase P's earnings and profits.)

(e)Earnings and profits deficit. Assume instead that after P forms S in Year 1 with a $100 contribution, S borrows additional funds and has a $150 deficit in earnings and profits for Year 1. The corresponding loss for tax purposes is not absorbed in Year 1, and is included in the group's consolidated net operating loss carried forward to Year 2. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, however, S's $150 deficit in earnings and profits decreases P's earnings and profits for Year 1 by $150. (Absorption of the loss in a later tax year has no effect on the earnings and profits of P and S.)

Example 2. Section 355 distribution.
(a)Facts. P owns all of S's stock and S owns all of T's stock. For Year 1, T has $100 of earnings and profits. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the earnings and profits of T tier up to S and to P. S and P have no other earnings and profits for Year 1. S distributes T's stock to P at the end of Year 1 in a distribution to which section 355 applies.

(b)Analysis. Because S's distribution of T's stock is a distribution to which section 355 applies, the applicable principles of § 1.1502-32(b)(2)(iv) do not require P's earnings and profits to be adjusted by reason of the distribution. In addition, although S's earnings and profits may be reduced under section 312(h) as a result of the distribution, the applicable principles of § 1.1502-32(b)(3)(iii) do not require P's earnings and profits to be adjusted to reflect this reduction in S's earnings and profits.

Example 3. Allocating earnings and profits among shares.
P owns 80% of S's stock throughout Year 1. For Year 1, S has $100 of earnings and profits. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, $80 of S's earnings and profits is allocated to P based on P's ownership of S's stock. Accordingly, $80 of S's earnings and profits for Year 1 is reflected in P's earnings and profits for Year 1.

(c)Special rules. For purposes of this section -

(1)Stock of members. For purposes of determining P's earnings and profits from the disposition of S's stock, P's basis in S's stock is adjusted to reflect S's earnings and profits determined under paragraph (b) of this section, rather than under § 1.1502-32. For example, P's basis in S's stock is increased by positive earnings and profits and decreased by deficits in earnings and profits. Similarly, P's basis in S's stock is not reduced for distributions to which paragraph (b)(2) of this section applies (affiliated earnings and profits). P may have an excess loss account in S's stock for earnings and profits purposes (whether or not there is an excess loss account under § 1.1502-32), and the excess loss account is determined, adjusted, and taken into account in accordance with the principles of §§ 1.1502-19 and 1.1502-32.

(2)Intercompany transactions. Intercompany items and corresponding items are not reflected in earnings and profits before they are taken into account under § 1.1502-13. See § 1.1502-13 for the applicable rules and definitions.

(3)Example. The principles of this paragraph (c) are illustrated by the following example.

Example. Adjustments to stock basis.
(a)Facts. P forms S in Year 1 with a $100 contribution. For Year 1, S has $75 of taxable income and $100 of earnings and profits. For Year 2, S has no taxable income or earnings and profits, and S declares and distributes a $50 dividend to P. P sells all of S's stock for $150 at the end of Year 2.

(b)Analysis. Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, P's basis in S's stock for earnings and profits purposes immediately before the sale is $150 (the $100 initial basis, plus S's $100 of earnings and profits for Year 1, minus the $50 distribution of earnings and profits in Year 2). Thus, P recognizes no gain or loss from the sale of S's stock for earnings and profits purposes.

(c)Earnings and profits deficit. Assume instead that S has a $100 tax loss and earnings and profits deficit for Year 1. The tax loss is not absorbed in Year 1 and is included in the group's consolidated net operating loss carried forward to Year 2. Under paragraph (b) of this section, S's $100 deficit in earnings and profits decreases P's earnings and profits for Year 1. Under paragraph (c) of this section, P decreases its basis in S's stock for purposes of determining earnings and profits from $100 to $0. (If S had borrowed an additional $50 that it also lost in Year 1, P would have decreased its earnings and profits for Year 1 by the additional $50, and P would have had a $50 excess loss account in S's stock for earnings and profits purposes, which would be taken into account in determining P's earnings and profits from its sale of S's stock.)

(d)Affiliated earnings and profits. Assume instead that P and S do not begin filing consolidated returns until Year 2. Under paragraph (b) of this section, the negative adjustment under § 1.1502-32(b) for distributions does not apply to S's distribution of earnings and profits accumulated in a separate return year that is a not separate return limitation year. Thus, P's basis in S's stock for earnings and profits purposes remains $100, and P has $50 of earnings and profits from the sale of S's stock.

(d)Federal income tax liability -

(1)In general -

(i)Extension of tax allocations. Section 1552 allocates the tax liability of a consolidated group among its members for purposes of determining the amounts by which their earnings and profits are reduced for taxes. Section 1552 does not reflect the absorption by one member of another member's tax attributes (e.g., losses, deductions and credits). For example, if P's $100 of income is offset by S's $100 of deductions, consolidated tax liability is $0 and no amount is allocated under section 1552. However, the group may elect under this paragraph (d) to allocate additional amounts to reflect the absorption by one member of the tax attributes of another member. Permissible methods are set forth in paragraphs (d)(2) through (4) of this section, and election procedures are provided in paragraph (d)(5) of this section. Allocations under this paragraph (d) must be reflected annually on permanent records (including work papers). Any computations of separate return tax liability are subject to the principles of section 1561.

(ii)Effect of extended tax allocations. The amounts allocated under this paragraph (d) are treated as allocations of tax liability for purposes of § 1.1552-1(b)(2). For example, if P's taxable income is offset by S's loss, and tax liability is allocated under the percentage method of paragraph (d)(3) of this section, P's earnings and profits are reduced as if its income were subject to tax, P is treated as liable to S for the amount of the tax, and corresponding adjustments are made to S's earnings and profits. If the liability of one member to another is not paid, the amount not paid generally is treated as a distribution, contribution, or both, depending on the relationship between the members.

(2)Wait-and-see method. The wait-and-see method under this paragraph (d)(2) is derived from Securities and Exchange Commission procedures. In the year that a member's tax attribute is absorbed, the group's consolidated tax liability is allocated in accordance with the group's method under section 1552. When, in effect, the member with the tax attribute could have absorbed the attribute on a separate return basis in a later year, a portion of the group's consolidated tax liability for the later year that is otherwise allocated to members under section 1552 is reallocated. The reallocation takes into account all consolidated return years to which this paragraph (d) applies (the computation period), and is determined by comparing the tax allocated to a member during the computation period with the member's tax liability determined as if it had filed separate returns during the computation period.

(i)Cap on allocation under section 1552. A member's allocation under section 1552 for a tax year may not exceed the excess, if any, of -

(A) The total of the tax liabilities of the member for the computation period (including the current year), determined as if the member had filed separate returns; over

(B) The total amount allocated to the member under section 1552 and this paragraph (d) for the computation period (except the current year).

(ii)Reallocation of capped amounts. To the extent that the amount allocated to a member under section 1552 exceeds the limitation under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section, the excess is allocated among the remaining members in proportion to (but not to exceed the amount of) each member's excess, if any, of -

(A) The total of the tax liabilities of the member for the computation period (including the current year), determined as if the member had filed separate returns; over

(B) The total amount allocated to the member under section 1552 and this paragraph (d) for the computation period (including for the current year only the amount allocated under section 1552).

(iii)Reallocation of excess capped amounts. If the reductions under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section exceed the amounts allocable under paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section, the excess is allocated among the members in accordance with the group's method under section 1552 without taking this paragraph (d)(2) into account.

(3)Percentage method. The percentage method under this paragraph (d)(3) allocates tax liability based on the absorption of tax attributes, without taking into account the ability of any member to subsequently absorb its own tax attributes. The allocation under this method is in addition to the allocation under section 1552.

(i)Decreased earnings and profits. A member's allocation under section 1552 for any year is increased, thereby decreasing its earnings and profits, by a fixed percentage (not to exceed 100%) of the excess, if any, of -

(A) The member's separate return tax liability for the consolidated return year as determined under § 1.1552-1(a)(2)(ii); over

(B) The amount allocated to the member under section 1552.

(ii)Increased earnings and profits. An amount equal to the total decrease in earnings and profits under paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section (including amounts allocated as a result of a carryback) increases the earnings and profits of the members whose attributes are absorbed, and is allocated among them in a manner that reasonably reflects the absorption of the tax attributes.

(4)Additional methods. The absorption by one member of the tax attributes of another member may be reflected under any other method approved in writing by the Commissioner.

(5)Election of allocation method -

(i)In general. Tax liability may be allocated under this paragraph (d) only if an election is filed with the group's first return. The election must -

(A) Be made in a separate statement entitled “ELECTION TO ALLOCATE TAX LIABILITY UNDER § 1.1502-33(d)”;

(B) State the allocation method elected under § 1.1502-33(d) and under section 1552;

(C) If the percentage method is elected, state the percentage (not to exceed 100%) to be used; and

(D) If a method is permitted under paragraph (d)(4) of this section, provide the date and control number of the private letter ruling issued by the Internal Revenue Service approving such method.

(ii)Consent -

(A)Electing or changing methods. An election for a later year, or an election to change methods, may be made only with the written consent of the Commissioner.

(B)Prior law elections. An election in effect for the last tax year beginning before January 1, 1995, remains in effect under this section. However, a group may elect to conform its earnings and profits computations to the method described in § 1.1502-32(b)(3)(iv)(D) (the percentage method, using a 100% allocation), whether or not it has previously made an election for earnings and profits purposes. If a conforming election is made, the group must make all adjustments necessary to prevent amounts from being duplicated or omitted. The conforming election is made by attaching a statement entitled “ELECTION TO CONFORM TAX ALLOCATIONS UNDER §§ 1.1502-32 and 1.1502-33(d)” to the consolidated group's return for its first tax year beginning on or after January 1, 1995. The statement must be signed by the common parent, and must specify whether the method is conformed only for years beginning on or after January 1, 1995 or as if the method were in effect for all prior years. The statement must also describe the adjustments made by reason of the change (e.g., to reflect prior use of earnings and profits).

(6)Examples. The principles of this paragraph (d) are illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1. Wait-and-see method.
(a)Facts. P owns all of the stock of S1 and S2. The P group uses the wait-and-see method of allocation under paragraph (d)(2) of this section in conjunction with § 1.1552-1(a)(1). For Year 1, each member's taxable income, both for purposes of § 1.1552-1(a)(1) and redetermined as if the member had filed separate returns, is as follows: P $0, S1 $2,000, and S2 ($1,000). Thus, the P group's consolidated tax liability for Year 1 is $340 (assuming a 34% tax rate).

(b)Analysis. Under § 1.1552-1(a)(1)(i), the tax liability of the P group is allocated among the members in accordance with the portion of the consolidated taxable income attributable to each member having taxable income. Thus, all of the P group's $340 consolidated tax liability is allocated to S1. As a result, S1 decreases its earnings and profits under section 1552 by $340 (even if S1 does not pay the tax liability). No further allocations are made under paragraph (d)(2) of this section because S2 cannot yet absorb its loss on a separate return basis.

(c)Payment of tax liability. If S1 pays the $340 tax liability, there is no further effect on the income, earnings and profits, or stock basis of any member. If P pays the $340 tax liability (and the payment is not a loan from P to S1), P is treated as making a $340 contribution to the capital of S1; if S2 pays the $340 tax liability (and the payment is not a loan from S2 to S1), S2 is treated as making a $340 distribution to P with respect to its stock, and P is treated as making a $340 contribution to the capital of S1. See § 1.1552-1(b)(2).

(d)Year 2. For Year 2, each member's taxable income, under § 1.1552-1(a)(1)(ii) and redetermined as if the member had filed separate returns, without taking into account any carryover from Year 1, is as follows: P $0, S1 $1,000, and S2 $3,000. Thus, the P group's consolidated tax liability for Year 2 is $1,360 (assuming a 34% tax rate). Of this amount, section 1552 would allocate $340 to S1 and $1,020 to S2. However, under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section, no more than $680 may be allocated to S2. This is because S2 would have had an aggregate tax liability of $680 if it had filed separate returns for Years 1 and 2 (a $0 tax liability for Year 1, and a $680 tax liability for Year 2, taking into account a $1,000 net operating loss carryover from Year 1). Under paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section, the entire excess of $340 which would otherwise be allocated to S2 under § 1.1552-1(a)(1) is allocated to S1. This is because S1 would have had an additional $340 of aggregate tax liability if it had filed separate returns for Years 1 and 2 (a $680 tax liability for Year 1, and a $340 tax liability for Year 2, not taking into account S2's $1,000 net operating loss for Year 1). The effect of the allocation of $680 to S1 and $680 to S2 is determined under § 1.1552-1(b)(2).

Example 2. Percentage method.
(a)Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 1, but the P group uses the percentage method of allocation under paragraph (d)(3) of this section, with a percentage of 100%. In addition, the taxable incomes and losses of the members are the same if computed as provided in § 1.1552-1(a)(2)(ii).

(b)Analysis. Under § 1.1552-1(a)(2)(ii), $340 of tax liability is allocated to S1 for Year 1. Under paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section, S1 is allocated another $340 of tax liability because S1 would have had a $680 tax liability if it had filed separate returns but only $340 is allocated to S1 under section 1552. Thus, S1's earnings and profits are decreased by the $680 total. Under paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section, S2's earnings and profits are increased by $340 because the additional $340 allocated to S1 under paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section is attributable to the absorption of S2's losses.

(c)Payment of tax liability. If S1 pays the $340 tax liability of the P group and pays $340 to S2, the Year 1 tax liability results in no further adjustments to the income, earnings and profits, or basis of any member's stock. If S1 pays the $340 tax liability of the P group and pays the other $340 to P instead of S2 because, for example, of an agreement among the members, S2 is treated as distributing $340 to P with respect to its stock in the year that S1 makes the payment to P. See § 1.1552-1(b)(2).

(d)Year 2. For Year 2, $340 is allocated to S1 and $1,020 is allocated to S2 under section 1552. No additional amounts are allocated under paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(e)Deconsolidations -

(1)In general. Immediately before it becomes a nonmember, S's earnings and profits are eliminated to the extent they were taken into account by any member under this section. If S's earnings and profits are eliminated under this paragraph (e)(1), no corresponding adjustment is made to the earnings and profits of P (or any other member) under paragraph (b) of this section or to any basis in a member's stock under paragraph (c) of this section. For this purpose, S is treated as becoming a nonmember on the first day of its first separate return year (including another group's consolidated return year).

(2)Acquisition of group -

(i)Application. This paragraph (e)(2) applies only if a consolidated group (the terminating group) ceases to exist as a result of -

(A) The acquisition of either the assets of the common parent of the terminating group in a reorganization described in section 381(a)(2), or the stock of the common parent of the terminating group; or

(B) The application of the principles of § 1.1502-75(d)(2) or (d)(3).

(ii)General rule. Paragraph (e)(1) of this section does not apply solely by reason of the termination of a group because it is acquired, if there is a surviving group that is, immediately thereafter, a consolidated group. Instead, the surviving group is treated as the terminating group for purposes of applying this paragraph (e) to the terminating group. This treatment does not apply, however, to members of the terminating group that are not members of the surviving consolidated group immediately after the terminating group ceases to exist (e.g., under section 1504(a)(3) relating to reconsolidation, or section 1504(c) relating to includible insurance companies).

(3)Certain corporate separations and reorganizations. The adjustments under paragraph (e)(1) of this section must be modified to the extent necessary to effectuate the principles of section 312(h). Thus, P's earnings and profits rather than S's earnings and profits may be eliminated immediately before S becomes a nonmember. P's earnings and profits are eliminated to the extent that its earnings and profits reflect S's earnings and profits after applying section 312(h) immediately after S becomes a nonmember (determined without taking this paragraph (e) into account).

(4)Special uses of earnings and profits. Paragraph (e)(1) of this section does not apply for purposes of determining -

(i) The extent to which a distribution is charged to reserve accounts under section 593(e);

(ii) The extent to which a distribution is taxable to the recipient under sections 805(a)(4) and 832; and

(iii) Any other special use identified in guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin.

(5)Example. The principles of this paragraph (e) are illustrated by the following example.

Example.
(a)Facts. Individuals A and B own all of P's stock, and P owns all of the stock of S and T, each with a $500 basis. For Year 1, S has $100 of earnings and profits and T has $50 of earnings and profits. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the earnings and profits of S and T tier up to P, and P has $150 of earnings and profits for Year 1. P sells all of S's stock for $600 at the close of Year 1.

(b)Analysis. Under paragraph (e)(1) of this section, S's $100 of earnings and profits is eliminated immediately before S becomes a nonmember because the earnings and profits are taken into account under paragraph (b) of this section in P's earnings and profits. However, no corresponding adjustment is made to P's earnings and profits or to P's basis in S's stock for purposes of earnings and profits. P's earnings and profits for Year 1 remain $150 following the sale of S's stock.

(c)Forward merger. The facts are the same as in paragraph (a) of this Example, except that, rather than P selling S's stock, S merges into a nonmember in a transaction described in section 368(a)(2)(D). Under paragraph (h) of this section, the nonmember is treated as a successor to S. Thus, as in paragraph (b) of this Example, S's $100 of earnings and profits is eliminated immediately before S ceases to be a member.

(d)Acquisition of entire group. The facts are the same as in paragraph (a) of this Example, except that X, the common parent of another consolidated group, purchases all of P's stock at the close of Year 1, and P sells S's stock during Year 3. Under paragraph (e)(2) of this section, the earnings and profits of S and T are not eliminated as a result of X purchasing P's stock. However, S's earnings and profits from consolidated return years of both the P group and the X group are eliminated immediately before S becomes a nonmember of the X group.

(e)Earnings and profits deficit. The facts are the same as in paragraph (d) of this Example, except that S has a $550 deficit in earnings and profits for Year 1. The effect of paragraph (e)(1) of this section is the same. Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, P would have an excess loss account in S's stock for earnings and profits purposes under the principles of §§ 1.1502-19 and 1.1502-32, and, under the principles of § 1.1502-19(c)(2), the excess loss account is not taken into account as a result of X's purchase of P's stock. Under paragraph (e)(2) of this section, S's deficit is not eliminated under paragraph (e)(1) of this section immediately before X's purchase of P's stock. However, S's earnings and profits (or deficit) is eliminated immediately before S becomes a nonmember of the X group.

(f)Section 355 distribution. The facts are the same as in paragraph (a) of this Example, except that, rather than selling S's stock, P distributes S's stock to A at the close of Year 1 in a distribution to which section 355 applies. Under paragraph (e)(3) of this section, P's earnings and profits may be reduced under section 312(h) as a result of the distribution. To the extent that P's earnings and profits are reduced, S's earnings and profits are not eliminated under paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

(f)Changes in the structure of the group -

(1)Changes in the common parent -

(i)General rule. If P succeeds another corporation under the principles of § 1.1502-75(d) (2) or (3) as the common parent of a consolidated group (a group structure change), the earnings and profits of P are adjusted immediately after P becomes the new common parent to reflect the earnings and profits of the former common parent immediately before the former common parent ceases to be the common parent. The adjustment is made as if P succeeds to the earnings and profits of the former common parent in a transaction described in section 381(a). See § 1.1502-31 for the basis of the stock of members following a group structure change.

(ii)Minority shareholders. If the former common parent's stock is not wholly owned by members of the consolidated group immediately after the former common parent ceases to be the common parent, appropriate adjustments must be made to reflect in the new common parent only an allocable part of the former common parent's earnings and profits.

(iii)Higher-tier members. To the extent that earnings and profits are adjusted under this paragraph (f)(1), and the former common parent is owned by members other than P, the earnings and profits of the intermediate subsidiaries must be adjusted in accordance with the principles of this section.

(iv)Example. The principles of this paragraph (f)(1) are illustrated by the following example.

Example.
(a)Facts. X is the common parent of a consolidated group with $100 of earnings and profits, and P is the common parent of another consolidated group with $20 of earnings and profits. P acquires all of X's stock at the close of Year 1 in exchange for 70% of P's stock. The exchange is a reverse acquisition under § 1.1502-75(d)(3), and the X group is treated as remaining in existence with P as its new common parent.

(b)Adjustments for X group earnings and profits. Under paragraph (f)(1) of this section, P's earnings and profits are adjusted immediately after P becomes the new common parent, to reflect X's $100 of earnings and profits immediately before X ceases to be the common parent. The adjustment is made as if P succeeds to X's earnings and profits in a transaction described in section 381(a). Thus, immediately after the acquisition, P has $120 of accumulated earnings and profits and X continues to have $100 of accumulated earnings and profits.

(c)Adjustments for P group earnings and profits. Although the P group terminates on P's acquisition of X's stock, under paragraph (e)(2) of this section, no adjustments are made to the earnings and profits of any subsidiaries in the terminating P group.

(d)Acquisition of separate return corporation. The facts are the same as in paragraph (a) of this Example, except that, immediately before the acquisition of its stock by P, X is not affiliated with any other corporation. The exchange is a reverse acquisition under § 1.1502-75(d)(3), and P is treated as the common parent of the X group. Consequently, the results are the same as in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this Example.

(2)Change in the location of subsidiaries. If the location of a member within a group changes, appropriate adjustments must be made to the earnings and profits of the members to prevent the earnings and profits from being eliminated. For example, if P transfers all of S's stock to another member in a transaction to which section 351 and § 1.1502-13 apply, the transferee's earnings and profits are adjusted immediately after the transfer to reflect S's earnings and profits immediately before the transfer from consolidated return years. On the other hand, if the transferee purchases S's stock from P, the transferee's earnings and profits are not adjusted.

(g)Anti-avoidance rule. If any person acts with a principal purpose contrary to the purposes of this section, to avoid the effect of the rules of this section or apply the rules of this section to avoid the effect of any other provision of the consolidated return regulations, adjustments must be made as necessary to carry out the purposes of this section.

(h)Predecessors and successors. For purposes of this section, any reference to a corporation or to a share includes a reference to a successor or predecessor as the context may require. A corporation is a successor if its earnings and profits are determined, directly or indirectly, in whole or in part, by reference to the earnings and profits of another corporation (the predecessor). A share is a successor if its basis is determined, directly or indirectly, in whole or in part, by reference to the basis of another share (the predecessor).

(i) [Reserved]

(j)Effective/applicability date -

(1)General rule. This section applies with respect to determinations of the earnings and profits of a member (e.g., for purposes of a characterizing a distribution to which section 301 applies) in consolidated return years beginning on or after January 1, 1995. If this section applies, earnings and profits must be determined or redetermined as if this section were in effect for all years (including, for example, the consolidated return years of another consolidated group to the extent the earnings and profits from those years are still reflected). For example, if a distribution by P to a nonmember shareholder in 1990 was a dividend because of an unabsorbed loss carryover attributable to S, P's earnings and profits in tax years beginning after January 1, 1995 are redetermined by taking into account a negative adjustment in the tax year S's loss arose and in 1990 for P's distribution, and any subsequent absorption of the loss has no effect on earnings and profits. Any such determination or redetermination does not, however, affect any prior period. Thus, the shareholder's treatment in 1990 of the distribution as a dividend (and the effect of the distribution on stock basis) is not redetermined under this section. Paragraphs (a)(2) and (e)(2)(i)(A) of this section apply with respect to determinations of the earnings and profits of a member in consolidated return years beginning on or after September 17, 2008. However, taxpayers may apply paragraph (e)(2)(i)(A) of this section with respect to determinations of the earnings and profits of a member in consolidated return years beginning prior to September 17, 2008.

(2)Dispositions of stock before effective date -

(i)In general. If P disposes of stock of S in a consolidated return year beginning before January 1, 1995, the amount of P's earnings and profits with respect to S are not redetermined under paragraph (j)(1) of this section. See § 1.1502-19 as contained in the 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 1994 for the definition of disposition, and paragraph (j)(5) of this section for the rules applicable to such dispositions.

(ii)Lower-tier members. Although P disposes of S's stock in a tax year beginning before January 1, 1995, S's determinations or adjustments with respect to lower-tier members with which it continues to file a consolidated return are redetermined in accordance with the rules of this section (even if S's earnings and profits were previously taken into account by P). For example, assume that P owns all of S's stock, S owns all of T's stock, and T owns all of U's stock. If S sells 80% of T's stock in a tax year beginning before January 1, 1995 (the effective date), the amount of S's earnings and profits from the sale, and the adjustments to stock basis for earnings and profits purposes that are reflected in that amount, are not redetermined if P sells S's stock after the effective date. If S sells the remaining 20% of T's stock after the effective date, S's stock basis adjustments with respect to that T stock are also not redetermined because T became a nonmember before the effective date. However, if T and U continue to file a consolidated return with each other, paragraph (e)(1) of this section did not apply, and T sells U's stock after the effective date, T's earnings and profits with respect to U are redetermined (even though some of the earnings and profits may have been taken into account by S in its prior sale of T's stock before the effective date).

(iii)Deferred amounts. For purposes of this paragraph (j)(2), a disposition does not include a transaction to which § 1.1502-13, § 1.1502-13T, § 1.1502-14, or § 1.1502-14T applies. Instead, the transaction is deemed to occur as the earnings and profits (if any) are taken into account.

(3)Deconsolidations and group structure changes -

(i)In general. Paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section apply with respect to deconsolidations and group structure changes occurring in consolidated return years beginning on or after January 1, 1995.

(ii)Prior period group structure changes. If there was a group structure change in a consolidated return year beginning before January 1, 1995, and earnings and profits were not determined under § 1.1502-33T(a) as contained in the 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 1994, a distribution in a tax year ending after September 7, 1988, of earnings and profits that are not reflected in the earnings and profits of the distributee member, but would have been so reflected if § 1.1502-33T(a) as contained in the 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 1994 had applied, the negative adjustment under paragraph (b) of this section for distributions does not apply (and there is therefore no offset to the increase in the earnings and profits of the distributee).

(4)Deemed dividend elections. If there is a deemed distribution and recontribution pursuant to § 1.1502-32(f)(2) as contained in the 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 1994 in a consolidated return year beginning before January 1, 1995, the deemed distribution and recontribution under the election are treated as an actual distribution by S and recontribution by P as provided under the election.

(5)Prior law. For prior determinations, see prior regulations under section 1502 as in effect with respect to the determination. See, e.g., §§ 1.1502-33 and 1.1502-33T as contained in the 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 1994.

(k)Effective/applicability date. Paragraph (d)(5)(i)(D) of this section applies to any original consolidated Federal income tax return due (without extensions) after June 14, 2007. For original consolidated Federal income tax returns due (without extensions) after May 30, 2006, and on or before June 14, 2007, see § 1.1502-33T as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2007. For original consolidated Federal income tax returns due (without extensions) on or before May 30, 2006, see § 1.1502-33 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2006.

[T.D. 8560, 59 FR 41695, Aug. 15, 1994, as amended by T.D. 8597, 60 FR 36710, July 18, 1995; T.D. 9264, 71 FR 30603, May 30, 2006; T.D. 9329, 72 FR 32805, June 14, 2007; T.D. 9424, 73 FR 53951, Sept. 17, 2008; 73 FR 62204, Oct. 20, 2008]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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