26 CFR § 1.162-33 - Certain employee remuneration in excess of $1,000,000 not deductible for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017.

§ 1.162-33 Certain employee remuneration in excess of $1,000,000 not deductible for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017.

(a) Scope. This section provides rules for the application of the $1 million deduction limitation under section 162(m)(1) for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. For rules concerning the applicability of section 162(m)(1) to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1994, and prior to January 1, 2018, see § 1.162-27. Paragraph (b) of this section provides the general rule limiting deductions under section 162(m)(1). Paragraph (c) of this section provides definitions of generally applicable terms. Paragraph (d) of this section provides rules for determining when a corporation becomes a publicly held corporation. Paragraph (e) of this section provides rules for payments that are subject to section 280G (golden parachute payments). Paragraph (f) of this section provides a special rule for coordination with section 4985 (stock compensation of insiders in expatriated corporations). Paragraph (g) of this section provides transition rules addressing the amendments made by Public Law 115-97, including the rules for contracts that are grandfathered. Paragraph (h) of this section sets forth the effective date provisions. For rules concerning the deductibility of compensation for services that are not covered by section 162(m)(1) and this section, see section 162(a)(1) and § 1.162-7. This section is not determinative as to whether compensation meets the requirements of section 162(a)(1). For rules concerning the deduction limitation under section 162(m)(6) applicable to certain health insurance providers, see § 1.162-31. For purposes of this section, references to an amount being paid to an employee refer to the event that otherwise would result in the availability of a deduction to the employer with respect to such amount, whether that results from an actual payment in cash, transfer of property, or other event.

(b) Limitation on deduction. Section 162(m)(1) precludes a deduction under chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code by any publicly held corporation for compensation paid to any covered employee to the extent that the compensation for the taxable year exceeds $1,000,000.

(c) Definitions -

(1) Publicly held corporation -

(i) General rule. A publicly held corporation means any corporation that issues securities required to be registered under section 12 of the Exchange Act or that is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. In addition, a publicly held corporation means any S corporation (as defined in section 1361(a)(1)) that issues securities that are required to be registered under section 12(b) of the Exchange Act, or that is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. For purposes of this section, whether a corporation is publicly held is determined based solely on whether, as of the last day of its taxable year, the securities issued by the corporation are required to be registered under section 12 of the Exchange Act or the corporation is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Whether registration under the Exchange Act is required by rules other than those of the Exchange Act is irrelevant to this determination. A publicly traded partnership that is treated as a corporation under section 7704 (or otherwise) is a publicly held corporation if, as of the last day of its taxable year, its securities are required to be registered under section 12 of the Exchange Act or it is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

(ii) Affiliated groups -

(A) In general. A publicly held corporation includes an affiliated group of corporations (affiliated group), as defined in section 1504 (determined without regard to section 1504(b)), that includes one or more publicly held corporations (as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section). In the case of an affiliated group that includes two or more publicly held corporations as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, each member of the affiliated group that is a publicly held corporation as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section is separately subject to this section, and, due to having at least one member that is a publicly held corporation, the affiliated group as a whole is subject to this section. Thus, for example, assume that a publicly held corporation (as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of another publicly held corporation (as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section), which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of a privately held corporation. In this case, the two subsidiaries are separately subject to this section, and all three corporations are members of an affiliated group that is subject to this section. If an individual is a covered employee of both subsidiaries, each subsidiary has its own $1 million deduction limitation with respect to that covered employee. Furthermore, each subsidiary has its own set of covered employees as defined in paragraphs (c)(2)(i) through (iv) of this section (although the same individual may be a covered employee of both subsidiaries).

(B) Proration of amount disallowed as a deduction. If, in a taxable year, a covered employee (as defined in paragraphs (c)(2)(i) through (v) of this section) of one member of an affiliated group is paid compensation by more than one member of the affiliated group, compensation paid by each member of the affiliated group is aggregated with compensation paid to the covered employee by all other members of the affiliated group (excluding compensation paid by any other publicly held corporation in the affiliated group, as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, of which the individual is also a covered employee as defined in paragraphs (c)(2)(i) through (v) of this section). In the event that, in a taxable year, a covered employee (as defined in paragraphs (c)(2)(i) through (v) of this section) is paid compensation by more than one publicly held corporation in an affiliated group and is also a covered employee of more than one publicly held payor corporation (as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section) in the affiliated group, the amount disallowed as a deduction is determined separately with respect to each publicly held corporation of which the individual is a covered employee. Any amount disallowed as a deduction by this section must be prorated among the payor corporations (excluding any other publicly held payor corporation of which the individual is also a covered employee) in proportion to the amount of compensation paid to the covered employee (as defined in paragraphs (c)(2)(i) through (v) of this section) by each such corporation in the taxable year. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(B), the amount of compensation treated as paid by a payor corporation that is not a publicly held corporation (as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section) is determined by prorating the amount actually paid by that payor corporation in proportion to the total amount paid by all of the publicly held corporations of which the individual is a covered employee (as defined in paragraph (c)(2)(i) through (v) of this section). This process is repeated for each publicly held payor corporation of which the individual is a covered employee.

(iii) Disregarded entities. For purposes of paragraph (c)(1) of this section, a publicly held corporation includes a corporation that owns an entity that is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner within the meaning of § 301.7701-2(c)(2)(i) of this chapter if the disregarded entity issues securities required to be registered under section 12(b) of the Exchange Act, or is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

(iv) Qualified subchapter S subsidiaries. For purposes of paragraph (c)(1) of this section, a publicly held corporation includes an S corporation that owns a qualified subchapter S subsidiary as defined in section 1361(b)(3)(B) (QSub) if the QSub issues securities required to be registered under section 12(b) of the Exchange Act, or is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

(v) Qualified real estate investment trust subsidiaries. For purposes of paragraph (c)(1) of this section, a publicly held corporation includes a real estate investment trust as defined in section 856(a) that owns a qualified real estate investment trust subsidiary as defined in section 856(i)(2) (QRS), if the QRS issues securities required to be registered under section 12(b) of the Exchange Act or is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

(vi) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (c)(1). For each example, assume that no corporation is a predecessor of a publicly held corporation within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section. Furthermore, for each example, unless provided otherwise, a reference to a publicly held corporation means a publicly held corporation as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. Additionally, for each example, assume that the corporation is a calendar-year taxpayer and has a fiscal year ending December 31 for reporting purposes under the Exchange Act. The examples in this paragraph (c)(1)(vi) are not intended to provide guidance on the legal requirements of the Securities Act and Exchange Act and the rules thereunder (17 CFR part 240).

(A) Example 1 (Corporation required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) -

(1) Facts. Corporation Z plans to issue debt securities in a public offering registered under the Securities Act. Corporation Z is not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act for any other class of securities and does not have another class of securities required to be registered under section 12 of the Exchange Act. On April 1, 2021, the SEC declares effective the Securities Act registration statement for Corporation Z's debt securities. As a result, Corporation Z is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act, and this requirement continues to apply as of December 31, 2021.

(2) Conclusion. Corporation Z is a publicly held corporation for its 2021 taxable year because it is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act as of the last day of its taxable year.

(B) Example 2 (Corporation not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(A) of this section (Example 1), except that, on January 1, 2022, pursuant to section 15(d) of the Exchange Act, Corporation Z's obligation to file reports under section 15(d) is automatically suspended for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2022, because Corporation Z meets the statutory requirements for an automatic suspension. As of December 31, 2022, Corporation Z is not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

(2) Conclusion. Corporation Z is not a publicly held corporation for its 2022 taxable year because it is not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act as of as of the last day of its taxable year.

(C) Example 3 (Corporation not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(B) of this section (Example 2), except that, on January 1, 2022, pursuant to section 15(d) of the Exchange Act, Corporation Z's obligation to file reports under section 15(d) is not automatically suspended for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2022. Instead, on May 2, 2022, Corporation Z is eligible to suspend its section 15(d) reporting obligation under 17 CFR 240.12h-3 (Rule 12h-3 under the Exchange Act) and files Form 15, Certification and Notice of Termination of Registration under Section 12(g) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or Suspension of Duty to File Reports under Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, (or its successor) to suspend its section 15(d) reporting obligation for its fiscal year ending December 31, 2022. As of December 31, 2022, Corporation Z is not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

(2) Conclusion. Corporation Z is not a publicly held corporation for its 2022 taxable year because it is not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act as of the last day of its taxable year. If Corporation Z had not utilized Rule 12h-3 to suspend its section 15(d) reporting obligation, Corporation Z would be a publicly held corporation for its 2022 taxable year because it would have been required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act as of the last day of its taxable year.

(D) Example 4 (Corporation required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) -

(1) Facts. Corporation Y is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Corporation X, which is required to file reports under the Exchange Act. Corporation Y issued a class of debt securities in a public offering registered under the Securities Act, and therefore is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act for its fiscal year ending December 31, 2020. Corporation Y has no other class of securities registered under the Exchange Act. In its Form 10-K, Annual Report Pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, (or its successor) for the 2020 fiscal year, Corporation Y may omit Item 11, Executive Compensation (required by Part III of Form 10-K), which requires disclosure of compensation of certain executive officers, because it is wholly-owned by Corporation X and the other conditions of General Instruction I to Form 10-K are satisfied.

(2) Conclusion. Corporation Y is a publicly held corporation for its 2020 taxable year because it is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act as of the last day of its taxable year.

(E) Example 5 (Corporation not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act and not required to register securities under section 12 of the Exchange Act) -

(1) Facts. Corporation A has a class of securities registered under section 12(g) of the Exchange Act. For its 2020 taxable year, Corporation A is a publicly held corporation. On September 30, 2021, Corporation A is eligible to terminate the registration of its securities under section 12(g) of the Exchange Act pursuant to 17 CFR 240.12g-4(a)(2) (Rule 12g-4(a)(2) under the Exchange Act), but does not terminate the registration of its securities prior to December 31, 2021. Because Corporation A did not issue securities in a public offering registered under the Securities Act, Corporation A is not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

(2) Conclusion. Corporation A is not a publicly held corporation for its 2021 taxable year because, as of the last day of its taxable year, the securities issued by Corporation A are not required to be registered under section 12 of the Exchange Act and Corporation A is not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

(F) Example 6 (Corporation required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(E) of this section (Example 5), except that Corporation A previously issued a class of securities in a public offering registered under the Securities Act. Furthermore, on October 1, 2021, Corporation A terminates the registration of its securities under section 12(g) of the Exchange Act. Because Corporation A issued a class of securities in a public offering registered under the Securities Act and is not eligible to suspend its reporting obligation under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as of December 31, 2021, Corporation A is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

(2) Conclusion. Corporation A is a publicly held corporation for its 2021 taxable year because it is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act as of the last day of its taxable year.

(G) Example 7 (Corporation not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act and not required to register securities under section 12 of the Exchange Act) -

(1) Facts. On November 1, 2021, Corporation B is an issuer with only one class of equity securities. On November 5, 2021, Corporation B files a registration statement for its equity securities under section 12(g) of the Exchange Act. Corporation B's filing of its registration statement is voluntary because the Exchange Act does not require Corporation B to register its class of securities under section 12(g) of the Exchange Act based on the number and composition of its record holders. On December 1, 2021, the SEC declares effective the Exchange Act registration statement for Corporation B's securities. As of December 31, 2021, Corporation B continues to have its class of equity securities registered voluntarily under section 12 of the Exchange Act. Corporation B is not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act because it did not register any class of securities in a public offering under the Securities Act.

(2) Conclusion. Corporation B is not a publicly held corporation for its 2021 taxable year because, as of the last day of that taxable year, the securities issued by Corporation B are not required to be registered under section 12 of the Exchange Act and Corporation B is not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

(H) Example 8 (Corporation not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act and not required to register securities under section 12 of the Exchange Act) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(G) of this section (Example 7), except that, on December 31, 2022, because of a change in circumstances, Corporation B must register its class of equity securities under section 12(g) of the Exchange Act within 120 days of December 31, 2022. On February 1, 2023, the SEC declares effective the Exchange Act registration statement for Corporation B's securities.

(2) Conclusion. Corporation B is not a publicly held corporation for its 2022 taxable year because, as of the last day of that taxable year, Corporation B is not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act and the class of equity securities issued by Corporation B is not yet required to be registered under section 12 of the Exchange Act.

(I) Example 9 (Securities of foreign private issuer in the form of ADRs traded in the over-the-counter market) -

(1) Facts. For its fiscal and taxable years ending December 31, 2021, Corporation W is a foreign private issuer. Because Corporation W has not registered an offer or sale of securities under the Securities Act, it is not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Corporation W qualifies for an exemption from registration of its securities under section 12(g) of the Exchange Act pursuant to 17 CFR 240.12g3-2(b) (Rule 12g3-2(b) under the Exchange Act). Corporation W wishes to have its securities traded in the U.S. in the over-the-counter market in the form of ADRs. Because Corporation W qualifies for an exemption pursuant to Rule 12g3-2(b), Corporation W is not required to register its securities underlying the ADRs under section 12 of the Exchange Act; however, the depositary bank is required to register the ADRs under the Securities Act. Even though the depositary bank is required to register the ADRs under the Securities Act, the registration of the ADRs does not result in either the depositary bank or Corporation W being required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. On February 3, 2021, the SEC declares effective the Securities Act registration statement for the ADRs. On February 4, 2021, Corporation W's ADRs begin trading in the over-the-counter market. On December 31, 2021, the securities of Corporation W are not required to be registered under section 12 of the Exchange Act because Corporation W qualifies for an exemption pursuant to Rule 240.12g3-2(b). Furthermore, on December 31, 2021, Corporation W is not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

(2) Conclusion. Corporation W is not a publicly held corporation for its 2021 taxable year because, as of the last day of that taxable year, the securities underlying the ADRs are not required to be registered under section 12 of the Exchange Act and Corporation W is not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The result would be the same if Corporation W had its securities traded in the over-the-counter market other than in the form of ADRs.

(J) Example 10 (Securities of foreign private issuer in the form of ADRs quoted on Over the Counter Bulletin Board) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(I) of this section (Example 9), except that Corporation W has its securities quoted on the Over the Counter Bulletin Board (OTCBB) in the form of ADRs. Because Corporation W qualifies for an exemption pursuant to 17 CFR 240.12g3-2(b) (Rule 12g3-2(b) under the Exchange Act), Corporation W is not required to register its securities underlying the ADRs under section 12 of the Exchange Act. However, the depositary bank is required to register the ADRs under the Securities Act. In addition, section 6530(b)(1) of the OTCBB Rules requires that a foreign equity security may be quoted on the OTCBB only if the security is registered with the SEC pursuant to section 12 of the Exchange Act and the issuer of the security is current in its reporting obligations. To comply with the OTCBB Rules, on February 5, 2021, Corporation W files a registration statement for its class of securities underlying the ADRs under section 12(g) of the Exchange Act. On February 26, 2021, the SEC declares effective the Exchange Act registration statement for Corporation W's securities. As of December 31, 2021, Corporation W is subject to the reporting obligations under section 12 of the Exchange Act as a result of the section 12 registration.

(2) Conclusion. Corporation W is not a publicly held corporation for its 2021 taxable year because, as of the last day of that taxable year, its ADRs and the securities underlying the ADRs are not required by the Exchange Act to be registered under section 12 and Corporation W is not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Securities Act requirement applicable to the bank pursuant to the OTCBB rules is irrelevant. The result would be the same if Corporation W had its securities traded on the OTCBB other than in the form of ADRs.

(K) Example 11 (Securities of foreign private issuer in the form of ADRs listed on a national securities exchange without a capital raising transaction) -

(1) Facts. For its fiscal and taxable years ending December 31, 2021, Corporation V is a foreign private issuer. Corporation V wishes to list its securities on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) in the form of ADRs without a capital raising transaction. Under the Exchange Act, Corporation V is required to register its securities underlying the ADRs under section 12(b) of the Exchange Act. Because the ADRs and the deposited securities are separate securities, the depositary bank is required to register the ADRs under the Securities Act. On February 2, 2021, the SEC declares effective Corporation V's registration statement under section 12(b) of the Exchange Act in connection with the underlying securities, and the depositary bank's registration statement under the Securities Act in connection with the ADRs. On March 1, 2021, Corporation V's securities begin trading on the NYSE in the form of ADRs. As of December 31, 2021, Corporation V is not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; however, the securities underlying the ADRs are required to be registered under section 12(b) of the Exchange Act.

(2) Conclusion. Corporation V is a publicly held corporation for its 2021 taxable year because, as of the last day of that taxable year, the securities underlying the ADRs are required to be registered under section 12 of the Exchange Act. The result would be the same if Corporation V had its securities listed on the NYSE other than in the form of ADRs. The result also would be the same if Corporation V had wished to raised capital during its 2021 taxable year and been required to register the offer of securities underlying the ADRs under the Securities Act and to register the class of those securities under section 12(b) of the Exchange Act, and the depositary bank was required to register the ADRs under the Securities Act.

(L) Example 12 (Foreign private issuer incorporates subsidiary in the United States to issue debt securities and subsequently issues a guarantee) -

(1) Facts. For its fiscal and taxable years ending December 31, 2021, Corporation T is a foreign private issuer. Corporation T wishes to access the U.S. capital markets. Corporation T incorporates Corporation U, a wholly-owned subsidiary, in the U.S. to issue debt securities. On January 15, 2021, the SEC declares effective Corporation U's Securities Act registration statement. To enhance Corporation U's credit and the marketability of Corporation U's debt securities, Corporation T issues a guarantee of Corporation U's securities and, as required, registers the guarantee under the Securities Act on Corporation U's registration statement. On December 31, 2021, Corporations T and U are required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

(2) Conclusion. Corporations T and U are publicly held corporations for their 2021 taxable years because they are required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act as of the last day of their taxable years.

(M) Example 13 (Affiliated group comprised of two corporations, one of which is a publicly held corporation) -

(1) Facts. Employee D, a covered employee of Corporation N, receives compensation from, Corporations N and O, members of an affiliated group. Corporation N, the parent corporation, is a publicly held corporation. Corporation O is a direct subsidiary of Corporation N and is a privately held corporation. The total compensation paid to Employee D from the affiliated group members is $3,000,000 for the taxable year, of which Corporation N pays $2,100,000 and Corporation O pays $900,000.

(2) Conclusion. Because the compensation paid by all affiliated group members is aggregated for purposes of section 162(m)(1), $2,000,000 of the aggregate compensation paid is nondeductible. Corporations N and O each are treated as paying a ratable portion of the nondeductible compensation. Thus, two thirds of each corporation's payment will be nondeductible. Corporation N has a nondeductible compensation expense of $1,400,000 ($2,100,000 × $2,000,000/$3,000,000). Corporation O has a nondeductible compensation expense of $600,000 ($900,000 × $2,000,000/$3,000,000).

(N) Example 14 (Affiliated group comprised of two corporations, one of which is a publicly held corporation) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(M) of this section (Example 13), except that Corporation O is a publicly held corporation, Corporation N is a privately held corporation, and Employee D is a covered employee of Corporation O (instead of Corporation N).

(2) Conclusion. The result is the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(M) of this section (Example 13). Even though subsidiary Corporation O is the publicly held corporation, Corporations N and O still comprise an affiliated group. Accordingly, $2,000,000 of the aggregate compensation paid is nondeductible, and Corporations N and O each are treated as paying a ratable portion of the nondeductible compensation.

(O) Example 15 (Affiliated group comprised of two publicly held corporations) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(M) of this section (Example 13), except that Corporation O is a publicly held corporation. As in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(M) of this section (Example 13), Employee D is not a covered employee of Corporation O.

(2) Conclusion. The result is the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(M) of this section (Example 13). Even though Corporations N and O each are publicly held corporations, Corporations N and O comprise an affiliated group for purposes of prorating the amount disallowed as a deduction. Accordingly, $2,000,000 of the aggregate compensation paid is nondeductible, and Corporations N and O each are treated as paying a ratable portion of the nondeductible compensation.

(P) Example 16 (Affiliated group comprised of two publicly held corporations) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(O) of this section (Example 15), except that Employee D also is a covered employee of Corporation O.

(2) Conclusion. Corporations N and O each are publicly held corporations and separately subject to this section, but also comprise an affiliated group. Because Employee D is a covered employee of both Corporations N and O, each of which is a separate publicly held corporation, the determination of the amount disallowed as a deduction is made separately for each publicly held corporation. Corporation N has a nondeductible compensation expense of $1,100,000 (the excess of $2,100,000 over $1,000,000), and Corporation O has no nondeductible compensation expense because the amount it paid to Employee D did not exceed $1,000,000.

(Q) Example 17 (Affiliated group comprised of three corporations, one of which is a publicly held corporation) -

(1) Facts. Employee C, a covered employee of publicly held parent Corporation P, receives compensation from Corporations P, Q, and R, members of an affiliated group. Corporation Q is a direct subsidiary of Corporation P, and Corporation R is a direct subsidiary of Corporation Q. Corporations Q and R both are privately held. The total compensation paid to Employee C from the affiliated group members is $3,000,000 for the taxable year, of which Corporation P pays $1,500,000, Corporation Q pays $900,000, and Corporation R pays $600,000.

(2) Conclusion. Because the compensation paid by affiliated group members is aggregated for purposes of section 162(m)(1), $2,000,000 of the aggregate compensation paid is nondeductible. Corporations P, Q, and R each are treated as paying a ratable portion of the nondeductible compensation. Thus, two thirds of each corporation's payment will be nondeductible. The nondeductible compensation expense for Corporation P is $1,000,000 ($1,500,000 × $2,000,000/$3,000,000); for Corporation Q is $600,000 ($900,000 × $2,000,000/$3,000,000); and for Corporation R is $400,000 ($600,000 × $2,000,000/$3,000,000).

(R) Example 18 (Affiliated group comprised of three corporations, one of which is a publicly held corporation) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(Q) of this section (Example 17), except that Corporation Q is a publicly held corporation and Corporation P is a privately held corporation, and Employee C is a covered employee of Corporation Q (instead of Corporation P).

(2) Conclusion. The result is the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(Q) of this section (Example 17). Even though Corporation Q, the subsidiary, is the publicly held corporation, Corporations P, Q, and R comprise an affiliated group. Accordingly, $2,000,000 of the aggregate compensation paid is nondeductible, and Corporations P, Q, and R each are treated as paying a ratable portion of the nondeductible compensation.

(S) Example 19 (Affiliated group comprised of three corporations, two of which are publicly held corporations) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(R) of this section (Example 18), except that Corporation R also is a publicly held corporation. As in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(R) of this section (Example 18), Corporation Q is a publicly held corporation, Corporation P is a privately held corporation, and Employee C is a covered employee of Corporation Q but not a covered employee of Corporation R.

(2) Conclusion. The result is the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(R) of this section (Example 18). Even though Corporation R also is a publicly held corporation, Corporations P, Q, and R comprise an affiliated group. Accordingly, $2,000,000 of the aggregate compensation paid is nondeductible, and Corporations P, Q, and R each are treated as paying a ratable portion of the nondeductible compensation.

(T) Example 20 (Affiliated group comprised of three publicly held corporations) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(Q) of this section (Example 17), except that Corporations Q and R also are publicly held corporations, and Employee C is a covered employee of both Corporations P and Q but is not a covered employee of Corporation R.

(2) Conclusion. Even though Corporations P, Q, and R each are publicly held corporations, they comprise an affiliated group. Because Employee C is a covered employee of both Corporations P and Q, the determination of the amount disallowed as a deduction is separately prorated among Corporations P and R and among Corporations Q and R. For each separate calculation of the total amount of the disallowed deduction and the proration of the disallowed deduction, the amount paid by Corporation R is taken into account in proportion to the total compensation paid by Corporations P and Q. With respect to Corporations P and R, $875,000 of the aggregate compensation is nondeductible (the excess of $1,875,000 (the sum of the compensation paid by Corporation P ($1,500,000) and the portion of compensation paid by Corporation R that is treated as allocable to Employee C being a covered employee of Corporation P ($600,000 × $1,500,000/($1,500,000 + $900,000) = $375,000) over the $1,000,000 deduction limitation). Corporations P and R each are treated as paying a ratable portion of the nondeductible compensation. Corporation P has a nondeductible compensation expense of $700,000 ($1,500,000 × $875,000/$1,875,000), and Corporation R has a nondeductible compensation expense of $175,000 ($375,000 × $875,000/$1,875,000). For Corporations Q and R, $125,000 of the aggregate compensation is nondeductible (the excess of $1,125,000 (the sum of the compensation paid by Corporation Q ($900,000) and the portion of compensation paid by Corporation R that is treated as allocable to Employee C being a covered employee of Corporation Q ($600,000 × $900,000/($1,500,000 + $900,000) = $225,000) over the $1,000,000 deduction limitation). Corporation Q has a nondeductible compensation expense of $100,000 ($900,000 × $125,000/$1,125,000), and Corporation R has a nondeductible compensation expense of $25,000 ($225,000 × $125,000/$1,125,000). The total nondeductible compensation expense for Corporation R is $200,000.

(U) Example 21 (Affiliated group comprised of three publicly held corporations) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(T) of this section (Example 20), except that Employee C does not receive any compensation from Corporation R.

(2) Conclusion. Even though Corporations P, Q, and R each are publicly held corporations and separately subject to this section, they comprise an affiliated group. Because Employee C is a covered employee of, and receives compensation from, both Corporations P and Q, each of which is a separate publicly held corporation, the determination of the amount disallowed as a deduction is made separately for Corporations P and Q. Corporation P has a nondeductible compensation expense of $500,000 (the excess of $1,500,000 over $1,000,000), and Corporation Q has no nondeductible compensation expense because the amount it paid to Employee C was below $1,000,000.

(V) Example 22 (Affiliated group comprised of three corporations, one of which is a publicly held corporation) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(Q) of this section (Example 17), except that Corporation R is a direct subsidiary of Corporation P (and not a direct subsidiary of Corporation Q).

(2) Conclusion. The result is the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(Q) of this section (Example 17). Corporations P, Q, and R comprise an affiliated group. Accordingly, $2,000,000 of the aggregate compensation paid is nondeductible, and Corporations P, Q, and R each are treated as paying a ratable portion of the nondeductible compensation.

(W) Example 23 (Affiliated group comprised of three publicly held corporations) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(V) of this section (Example 22), except that Corporations Q and R also are publicly held corporations, and Employee C is a covered employee of both Corporations P and Q but not of Corporation R.

(2) Conclusion. The result is the same as in paragraph (c)(1)(vi)(V) of this section (Example 22). Even though Corporations P, Q, and R each are publicly held corporations, they comprise an affiliated group. Because Employee C is a covered employee of both Corporations P and Q, the amount disallowed as a deduction is prorated separately among Corporations P and R and among Corporations Q and R.

(X) Example 24 (Disregarded entity) -

(1) Facts. Corporation G is privately held for its 2020 taxable year. Entity H, a limited liability company, is wholly-owned by Corporation G and is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner under § 301.7701-2(c)(2)(i) of this chapter. As of December 31, 2020, Entity H is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

(2) Conclusion. Because Entity H is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act and is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner, Corporation G is a publicly held corporation for its 2020 taxable year. The result would be the same if Corporation G was a REIT under section 856(a) and Entity H was a QRS under section 856(i)(2).

(2) Covered employee -

(i) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(vi) of this section, with respect to a publicly held corporation as defined in paragraph (c)(1) of this section (without regard to paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section), for the publicly held corporation's taxable year, a covered employee means any of the following -

(A) The principal executive officer (PEO) or principal financial officer (PFO) of the publicly held corporation serving at any time during the taxable year, including individuals acting in either such capacity.

(B) The three highest compensated executive officers of the publicly held corporation for the taxable year (other than the principal executive officer or principal financial officer, or an individual acting in such capacity), regardless of whether the executive officer is serving at the end of the publicly held corporation's taxable year, and regardless of whether the executive officer's compensation is subject to disclosure for the last completed fiscal year under the executive compensation disclosure rules under the Exchange Act. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(2)(i)(B), the term “executive officer” means an executive officer as defined in 17 CFR 240.3b-7. The amount of compensation used to identify the three most highly compensated executive officers for the taxable year is determined pursuant to the executive compensation disclosure rules under the Exchange Act (using the taxable year as the fiscal year for purposes of making the determination), regardless of whether the corporation's fiscal year and taxable year end on the same date.

(C) Any individual who was a covered employee of the publicly held corporation (or any predecessor of a publicly held corporation, within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section) for any preceding taxable year beginning after December 31, 2016. For taxable years beginning prior to January 1, 2018, covered employees are identified in accordance with the rules in § 1.162-27(c)(2).

(ii) Predecessor of a publicly held corporation -

(A) Publicly held corporations that become privately held. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(2)(ii), a predecessor of a publicly held corporation includes a publicly held corporation that, after becoming a privately held corporation, again becomes a publicly held corporation for a taxable year ending before the 36-month anniversary of the due date for the corporation's U.S. Federal income tax return (disregarding any extensions) for the last taxable year for which the corporation was previously publicly held.

(B) Corporate reorganizations. A predecessor of a publicly held corporation includes a publicly held corporation the stock or assets of which are acquired in a corporate reorganization (as defined in section 368(a)(1)).

(C) Corporate divisions. A predecessor of a publicly held corporation includes a publicly held corporation that is a distributing corporation (within the meaning of section 355(a)(1)(A)) that distributes the stock of a controlled corporation (within the meaning of section 355(a)(1)(A)) to its shareholders in a distribution or exchange qualifying under section 355(a)(1) (corporate division). The rule of this paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(C) applies only with respect to covered employees of the distributing corporation who begin performing services for the controlled corporation (or for a corporation affiliated with the controlled corporation that receives stock of the controlled corporation in the corporate division) within the period beginning 12 months before and ending 12 months after the distribution.

(D) Affiliated groups. A predecessor of a publicly held corporation includes any other publicly held corporation that becomes a member of its affiliated group (as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section).

(E) Asset acquisitions. If a publicly held corporation, including one or more members of an affiliated group as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section (acquiror), acquires at least 80% of the gross operating assets (determined by fair market value on the date of acquisition) of another publicly held corporation (target), then the target is a predecessor of the acquiror. For an acquisition of assets that occurs over time, only assets acquired within a 12-month period are taken into account to determine whether at least 80% of the target's gross operating assets were acquired. However, this 12-month period is extended to include any continuous period that ends on, or begins on, any day during which the acquiror has an arrangement to purchase, directly or indirectly, assets of the target. A shareholder's additions to the assets of target made as part of a plan or arrangement to avoid the application of this subsection to acquiror's purchase of target's assets are disregarded in applying this paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(E). This paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(E) applies only with respect to the target's covered employees who begin performing services for the acquiror (or a corporation affiliated with the acquiror) within the period beginning 12 months before and ending 12 months after the date of the transaction as defined in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(I) of this section (incorporating any extensions to the 12-month period made pursuant to this paragraph).

(F) Predecessor of a predecessor. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(2)(ii), a predecessor of a corporation includes each predecessor of the corporation and the predecessor or predecessors of any prior predecessor or predecessors.

(G) Corporations that are not publicly held at the time of the transaction and sequential transactions -

(1) Predecessor corporation is not publicly held at the time of the transaction. This paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(G)(1) applies if a corporation that was previously publicly held (the first corporation) would be a predecessor to another corporation (the second corporation) under the rules of this paragraph (c)(2)(ii) but for the fact that the first corporation is not a publicly held corporation at the time of the relevant transaction (or transactions). If this paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(G)(1) applies, the first corporation is a predecessor of a publicly held corporation if the second corporation is a publicly held corporation at the time of the relevant transaction (or transactions) and the relevant transaction (or transactions) take place during a taxable year ending before the 36-month anniversary of the due date for the first corporation's U.S. Federal income tax return (excluding any extensions) for the last taxable year for which the first corporation was previously publicly held.

(2) Second corporation is not publicly held at the time of the transaction. This paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(G)(2) applies if a corporation that is publicly held (the first corporation) at the time of the relevant transaction (or transactions) would be a predecessor to another corporation (the second corporation) under the rules of this paragraph (c)(2)(ii) but for the fact that the second corporation is not a publicly held corporation at the time of the relevant transaction (or transactions). If this paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(G)(2) applies, the first corporation is a predecessor of a publicly held corporation if the second corporation becomes a publicly held corporation for a taxable year ending before the 36-month anniversary of the due date for the first corporation's U.S. Federal income tax return (excluding any extensions) for the first corporation's last taxable year in which the transaction is taken into account.

(3) Neither corporation is publicly held at the time of the transaction. This paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(G)(3) applies if a corporation that was previously publicly held (the first corporation) would be a predecessor to another corporation (the second corporation) under the rules of this paragraph (c)(2)(ii) but for the fact that neither the first corporation nor the second corporation is a publicly held corporation at the time of the relevant transaction (or transactions). If this paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(G)(3) applies, the first corporation is a predecessor of a publicly held corporation if the second corporation becomes a publicly held corporation for a taxable year ending before the 36-month anniversary of the due date for the first corporation's U.S. Federal income tax return (excluding any extensions) for the last taxable year for which the first corporation was previously publicly held.

(4) Sequential transactions. If a corporation that was previously publicly held (the first corporation) would be a predecessor to another corporation (the second corporation) under the rules of this paragraph (c)(2)(ii) but for the fact that the first corporation is (or its assets are) transferred to one or more intervening corporations prior to being transferred to the second corporation, and if each intervening corporation would be a predecessor of a publicly held corporation with respect to the second corporation if the intervening corporation or corporations were publicly held corporations, then paragraphs (c)(2)(ii)(G)(1) through (3) of this section also apply without regard to the intervening corporations.

(H) Elections under sections 336(e) and 338. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(2), if a corporation makes an election to treat as an asset purchase either the sale, exchange, or distribution of stock pursuant to regulations under section 336(e) (§§ 1.336-1 through 1.336-5) or the purchase of stock pursuant to regulations under section 338 (§§ 1.338-1 through 1.338-11, 1.338(h)(10)-1, and 1.338(i)-1), the corporation that issued the stock is treated as the same corporation both before and after such transaction.

(I) Date of transaction. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(2)(ii), the date that a transaction is treated as having occurred is the date on which all events necessary for the transaction to be described in the relevant provision in this paragraph (c)(2)(ii) have occurred.

(J) Publicly traded partnership. For purposes of applying this paragraph (c)(2)(ii), a publicly traded partnership is a predecessor of a publicly held corporation if under the same facts and circumstances a corporation substituted for the publicly traded partnership would be a predecessor of the publicly held corporation, and at the time of the transaction the publicly traded partnership is treated as a publicly held corporation as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. In making this determination, the rules in paragraphs (c)(2)(ii)(A) through (I) of this section apply by analogy to publicly traded partnerships.

(iii) Disregarded entities. If a publicly held corporation under paragraph (c)(1) of this section owns an entity that is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner under § 301.7701-2(c)(2)(i) of this chapter, then the covered employees of the publicly held corporation are determined pursuant to paragraphs (c)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section. The executive officers of the entity that is disregarded as an entity separate from its corporate owner under § 301.7701-2(c)(2)(i) of this chapter are neither covered employees of the entity nor of the publicly held corporation unless they meet the definition of covered employee in paragraphs (c)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section with respect to the publicly held corporation, in which case they are covered employees for its taxable year.

(iv) Qualified subchapter S subsidiaries. If a publicly held corporation under paragraph (c)(1) of this section owns an entity that is a QSub under section 1361(b)(3)(B), then the covered employees of the publicly held corporation are determined pursuant to paragraphs (c)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section. The executive officers of the QSub are neither covered employees of the QSub nor of the publicly held corporation unless they meet the definition of covered employee in paragraphs (c)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section with respect to the publicly held corporation, in which case they are covered employees for the taxable year of the publicly held corporation.

(v) Qualified real estate investment trust subsidiaries. If a publicly held corporation under paragraph (c)(1) of this section owns an entity that is a QRS under section 856(i)(2), then the covered employees of the publicly held corporation are determined pursuant to paragraphs (c)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section. The executive officers of the QRS are neither covered employees of the QRS nor of the publicly held corporation unless they meet the definition of covered employee in paragraphs (c)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section with respect to the publicly held corporation, in which case they are covered employees for the taxable year of the publicly held corporation.

(vi) Covered employee of an affiliated group. A person who is identified as a covered employee in paragraphs (c)(2)(i) through (v) of this section for a publicly held corporation's taxable year is also a covered employee for the taxable year of an affiliated group treated as a publicly held corporation pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section (treatment of an affiliated group).

(vii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (c)(2). For each example, assume that the corporation has a taxable year that is a calendar year and has a fiscal year ending December 31 for reporting purposes under the Exchange Act. Also, for each example, unless provided otherwise, assume that none of the employees were covered employees for any taxable year preceding the first taxable year set forth in that example (since being a covered employee for a preceding taxable year would provide a separate, independent basis for classifying that employee as a covered employee for a subsequent taxable year).

(A) Example 1 (Covered employees of members of an affiliated group) -

(1) Facts. Corporations A, B, and C are direct wholly-owned subsidiaries of Corporation D. Corporations D and A are each publicly held corporations as of December 31, 2020. Corporations B and C are not publicly held corporations for their 2020 taxable years. Employee E served as the PEO of Corporation D from January 1, 2020, to March 31, 2020. Employee F served as the PEO of Corporation D from April 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020. Employee G served as the PEO of Corporation A for its entire 2020 taxable year. Employee H served as the PEO of Corporation B for its entire 2020 taxable year. Employee I served as the PEO of Corporation C for its entire 2020 taxable year. From April 1, 2020, through September 30, 2020, Employee E served as an advisor (not as a PEO) to Employee I and received compensation from Corporation C for these services. In 2020, all four corporations paid compensation to their respective PEOs.

(2) Conclusion (Employees E and F). Because both Employees E and F served as the PEO of Corporation D during its 2020 taxable year, both Employees E and F are covered employees of Corporation D for its 2020 and subsequent taxable years.

(3) Conclusion (Employee G). Because Employee G served as the PEO of Corporation A, Employee G is a covered employee of Corporation A for its 2020 and subsequent taxable years.

(4) Conclusion (Employee H). Even though Employee H served as the PEO of Corporation B, Employee H is not a covered employee of Corporation B for its 2020 taxable year, because Corporation B is considered a publicly held corporation solely by reason of being a member of an affiliated group as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section.

(5) Conclusion (Employee I). Even though Employee I served as the PEO of Corporation C, Employee I is not a covered employee of Corporation C for its 2020 taxable year, because Corporation C is considered a publicly held corporation solely by reason of being a member of an affiliated group as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section.

(B) Example 2 (Covered employees of a publicly held corporation) -

(1) Facts. Corporation J is a publicly held corporation. Corporation J is not a smaller reporting company or emerging growth company for purposes of reporting under the Exchange Act. For 2020, Employee K served as the sole PEO of Corporation J and Employees L and M both served as the PFO of Corporation J at separate times during the year. Employees N, O, and P were, respectively, the first, second, and third highest compensated executive officers of Corporation J for 2020 other than the PEO and PFO, and all three retired before December 31, 2020. Employees Q, R, and S were, respectively, Corporation J's fourth, fifth, and sixth highest compensated executive officers other than the PEO and PFO for 2020, and all three were serving as of December 31, 2020. On March 1, 2021, Corporation J filed its Form 10-K, Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 with the SEC. With respect to Item 11, Executive Compensation (as required by Part III of Form 10-K, or its successor), Corporation J disclosed the compensation of Employee K for serving as the PEO, Employees L and M for serving as the PFO, and Employees Q, R, and S pursuant to 17 CFR 229.402(a)(3)(iii) (Item 402 of Regulation S-K). Corporation J also disclosed the compensation of Employees N and O pursuant to 17 CFR 229.402(a)(3)(iv) (Item 402 of Regulation S-K).

(2) Conclusion (Employee K). Because Employee K served as the PEO during 2020, Employee K is a covered employee for Corporation J's 2020 taxable year.

(3) Conclusion (Employees L and M). Because Employees L and M served as the PFO during 2020, Employees L and M are covered employees for Corporation J's 2020 taxable year.

(4) Conclusion (Employees N, O, P, Q, R, and S). Even though the executive compensation disclosure rules under the Exchange Act require Corporation J to disclose the compensation of Employees N, O, Q, R, and S for 2020, Corporation J's three highest compensated executive officers who are covered employees for its 2020 taxable year are Employees N, O, and P, because these are the three highest compensated executive officers other than the PEO and PFO for 2020.

(C) Example 3 (Covered employees of a smaller reporting company) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(B) of this section (Example 2), except that Corporation J is a smaller reporting company or emerging growth company for purposes of reporting under the Exchange Act. With respect to Item 11, Executive Compensation, Corporation J disclosed the compensation of Employee K for serving as the PEO, Employees Q and R pursuant to 17 CFR 229.402(m)(2)(ii) (Item 402(m) of Regulation S-K), and Employees N and O pursuant to 17 CFR 229.402(m)(2)(iii) (Item 402(m) of Regulation S-K).

(2) Conclusion. The result is the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(L) of this section (Example 2). For purposes of identifying a corporation's covered employees, it is irrelevant whether the reporting obligation under the Exchange Act for smaller reporting companies and emerging growth companies apply to the corporation, and it is irrelevant whether the specific executive officers' compensation must be disclosed pursuant to the disclosure rules under the Exchange Act applicable to the corporation.

(D) Example 4 (Covered employees of a publicly held corporation that is not required to file a Form 10-K) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(B) of this section (Example 2), except that on February 4, 2021, Corporation J files Form 15, Certification and Notice of Termination of Registration under Section 12(g) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or Suspension of Duty to File Reports under Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, (or its successor) to terminate the registration of its securities. Corporation J's duty to file reports under Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act is suspended upon the filing of the Form 15 and, as a result, Corporation J is not required to file a Form 10-K and disclose the compensation of its executive officers for 2020.

(2) Conclusion. The result is the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(B) of this section (Example 2). Covered employees include executive officers of a publicly held corporation even if the corporation is not required to disclose the compensation of its executive officers under the Exchange Act. Therefore, Employees K, L, M, N, O, and P are covered employees for 2020. The result would be different if Corporation J filed Form 15 to terminate the registration of its securities prior to December 31, 2020. In that case, Corporation J would not be a publicly held corporation for its 2020 taxable year, and, therefore, Employees K, L, M, N, O, and P would not be covered employees for Corporation J's 2020 taxable year.

(E) Example 5 (Covered employees of two publicly held corporations after a corporate transaction) -

(1) Facts. Corporation T is a publicly held corporation for its 2019 taxable year. Corporation U is a privately held corporation for its 2019 and 2020 taxable years. On July 31, 2020, Corporation U acquires for cash 80% of the only class of outstanding stock of Corporation T. The affiliated group (comprised of Corporations U and T) elects to file a consolidated Federal income tax return. As a result of this election, Corporation T has a short taxable year ending on July 31, 2020. Corporation T does not change its fiscal year for reporting purposes under the Exchange Act to correspond to the short taxable year. Corporation T remains a publicly held corporation for its short taxable year ending on July 31, 2020, and its subsequent taxable year ending on December 31, 2020, for which it files a consolidated Federal income tax return with Corporation U. For Corporation T's taxable year ending July 31, 2020, Employee V serves as the only PEO, and Employee W serves as the only PFO. Employees X, Y, and Z are the three most highly compensated executive officers of Corporation T for the taxable year ending July 31, 2020, other than the PEO and PFO. As a result of the acquisition, effective July 31, 2020, Employee V ceases to serve as the PEO of Corporation T. Instead, Employee AA starts serving as the PEO of Corporation T on August 1, 2020. Employee V continues to provide services for Corporation T but never serves as PEO again (or as an individual acting in such capacity). For Corporation T's taxable year ending December 31, 2020, Employee AA serves as the only PEO, and Employee W serves as the only PFO. Employees X, Y, and Z continue to serve as executive officers of Corporation T during the taxable year ending December 31, 2020. Employees BB, CC, and DD are the three most highly compensated executive officers of Corporation T, other than the PEO and PFO, for the taxable year ending December 31, 2020.

(2) Conclusion (Employee V). Because Employee V served as the PEO during Corporation T's short taxable year ending July 31, 2020, Employee V is a covered employee for Corporation T's short taxable year ending July 31, 2020, even though Employee V's compensation is required to be disclosed pursuant to the executive compensation disclosure rules under the Exchange Act only for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2020. Because Employee V was a covered employee for Corporation T's short taxable year ending July 31, 2020, Employee V is also a covered employee for Corporation T's short taxable year ending December 31, 2020.

(3) Conclusion (Employee W). Because Employee W served as the PFO during Corporation T's short taxable years ending July 31, 2020, and December 31, 2020, Employee W is a covered employee for both taxable years, even though Employee W's compensation is required to be disclosed pursuant to the executive compensation disclosure rules under the Exchange Act only for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2020. Because Employee W was a covered employee for Corporation T's short taxable year ending July 31, 2020, Employee W would be a covered employee for Corporation T's short taxable year ending December 31, 2020, even if Employee W did not serve as the PFO during this taxable year.

(4) Conclusion (Employee AA). Because Employee AA served as the PEO during Corporation T's short taxable year ending December 31, 2020, Employee AA is a covered employee for that short taxable year.

(5) Conclusion (Employees X, Y, and Z). Employees X, Y, and Z are covered employees for Corporation T's short taxable years ending July 31, 2020, and December 31, 2020. Employees X, Y, and Z are covered employees for Corporation T's short taxable year ending July 31, 2020, because those employees are the three highest compensated executive officers for that short taxable year. Because they were covered employees for Corporation T's short taxable year ending July 31, 2020, Employees X, Y, and Z are covered employees for Corporation T's short taxable year ending December 31, 2020 and would be covered employees for that later short taxable year even if their compensation would not be required to be disclosed pursuant to the executive compensation disclosure rules under the Exchange Act.

(6) Conclusion (Employees BB, CC, and DD). Employees BB, CC, and DD are covered employees for Corporation T's short taxable year ending December 31, 2020, because those employees are the three highest compensated executive officers for that short taxable year.

(F) Example 6 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation) -

(1) Facts. Corporation EE is a publicly held corporation for its 2021 taxable year. Corporation EE is a privately held corporation for its 2022 and 2023 taxable years. For its 2024 taxable year, Corporation EE is a publicly held corporation.

(2) Conclusion. For its 2024 taxable year, Corporation EE is a predecessor of a publicly held corporation within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section because, after ceasing to be a publicly held corporation, it again became a publicly held corporation for a taxable year ending prior to April 15, 2025. Therefore, for Corporation EE's 2024 taxable year, the covered employees of Corporation EE include the covered employees of Corporation EE for its 2021 taxable year and any additional covered employees determined pursuant to this paragraph (c)(2).

(G) Example 7 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(F) of this section (Example 6), except that Corporation EE remains a privately held corporation until it becomes a publicly held corporation for its 2027 taxable year.

(2) Conclusion. Corporation EE is not a predecessor of a publicly held corporation within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section because it became a publicly held corporation for a taxable year ending after April 15, 2025. Therefore, any covered employee of Corporation EE for its 2021 taxable year is not a covered employee of Corporation EE for its 2027 taxable year due to that individual's status as a covered employee of Corporation EE for a preceding taxable year (beginning after December 31, 2016) but may be a covered employee due to that individual's status during the 2027 taxable year.

(H) Example 8 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation that is party to a merger) -

(1) Facts. On June 30, 2021, Corporation FF (a publicly held corporation) merged into Corporation GG (a publicly held corporation) in a transaction that qualifies as a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(A), with Corporation GG as the surviving corporation. As a result of the merger, Corporation FF has a short taxable year ending June 30, 2021. Corporation FF is a publicly held corporation for this short taxable year. Corporation GG does not have a short taxable year and is a publicly held corporation for its 2021 taxable year.

(2) Conclusion. Corporation FF is a predecessor of a publicly held corporation within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(B) of this section. Therefore, any covered employee of Corporation FF for its short taxable year ending June 30, 2021, is a covered employee of Corporation GG for its 2021 taxable year. For Corporation GG's 2021 and subsequent taxable years, the covered employees of Corporation GG include the covered employees of Corporation FF (for a preceding taxable year beginning after December 31, 2016) and any additional covered employees determined pursuant to this paragraph (c)(2).

(I) Example 9 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation that is party to a merger) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(H) of this section (Example 8), except that, after the merger, Corporation GG is a privately held corporation for its 2021 taxable year.

(2) Conclusion. Because Corporation GG is a privately held corporation for its 2021 taxable year, it is not subject to section 162(m)(1) for this taxable year.

(J) Example 10 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation that is party to a merger) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(I) of this section (Example 9), except that Corporation GG, becomes a publicly held corporation (as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section) on June 30, 2023, and is a publicly held corporation for its 2023 taxable year.

(2) Conclusion. Because Corporation GG became a publicly held corporation for a taxable year ending prior to April 15, 2025, Corporation FF is a predecessor of a publicly held corporation within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(G) of this section. For Corporation GG's 2023 and subsequent taxable years, the covered employees of Corporation GG include the covered employees of Corporation FF (for a preceding taxable year beginning after December 31, 2016) and any additional covered employees determined pursuant to this paragraph (c)(2).

(K) Example 11 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation that is party to a merger) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(J) of this section (Example 10), except that Corporation FF is a privately held corporation for its taxable year ending June 30, 2021, but was a publicly held corporation for its 2020 taxable year.

(2) Conclusion. Even though Corporation FF was a privately held corporation when it merged with Corporation GG on June 30, 2021, Corporation FF will be a predecessor corporation if Corporation GG becomes a publicly held corporation within a taxable year ending prior to April 15, 2024. Because Corporation GG became a publicly held corporation for its taxable year ending December 31, 2023, Corporation FF is a predecessor of a publicly held corporation within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(G) of this section. For Corporation GG's 2023 and subsequent taxable years, the covered employees of Corporation GG include the covered employees of Corporation FF (for a preceding taxable year beginning after December 31, 2016) and any additional covered employees determined pursuant to this paragraph (c)(2).

(L) Example 12 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation that is party to a merger and subsequently becomes member of an affiliated group) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(J) of this section (Example 10), except that, on June 30, 2022, Corporation GG becomes a publicly held corporation by becoming a member of an affiliated group (as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section). Corporation II is the parent corporation of the group and is a publicly held corporation. Employee HH was a covered employee of Corporation FF for its taxable year ending June 30, 2021. On July 1, 2022, Employee HH becomes an employee of Corporation II.

(2) Conclusion. By becoming a member of an affiliated group (as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section) on June 30, 2022, Corporation GG became a publicly held corporation for a taxable year ending prior to April 15, 2025. Therefore, Corporation FF is a predecessor of a publicly held corporation (Corporation GG) within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(G) of this section. Furthermore, Corporation FF is also a predecessor of Corporation II, a publicly held corporation within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(G) of this section. For Corporation II's 2022 and subsequent taxable years, Employee HH is a covered employee of the affiliated group that includes Corporation II because Employee HH was a covered employee of Corporation FF for its taxable year ending June 30, 2021.

(M) Example 13 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation that is party to a merger and subsequently becomes member of an affiliated group) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(L) of this section (Example 12), except that Corporation FF was a privately held corporation for its taxable year ending June 30, 2021, and Employee HH was a covered employee of Corporation FF for its taxable year ending December 31, 2020.

(2) Conclusion. Even though Corporation FF was a privately held corporation when it merged with Corporation GG on June 30, 2021, Corporation FF will be a predecessor corporation if Corporation GG becomes a publicly held corporation for a taxable year ending prior to April 15, 2024. Because Corporation GG became a publicly held corporation for its 2022 taxable year by becoming a member of an affiliated group (as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section), Corporation FF is a predecessor of a publicly held corporation (Corporation GG) within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(G) of this section. Furthermore, Corporation FF is also a predecessor of Corporation II, a publicly held corporation within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(G) of this section. Therefore, any covered employee of Corporation FF for its 2020 taxable year is a covered employee of the affiliated group that includes Corporation II for its 2022 and subsequent taxable years. For Corporation II's 2022 taxable year, Employee HH is a covered employee of the affiliated group that includes Corporation II because Employee HH was a covered employee of Corporation FF for its 2020 taxable year.

(N) Example 14 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation that is a party to a merger) -

(1) Facts. Corporation JJ is a publicly held corporation for its 2019 taxable year and is incorporated in State KK. On June 1, 2019, Corporation JJ formed a wholly-owned subsidiary, Corporation LL. Corporation LL is a publicly held corporation incorporated in State MM. On June 30, 2021, Corporation JJ merged into Corporation LL under State MM law in a transaction that qualifies as a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(A), with Corporation LL as the surviving corporation. As a result of the merger, Corporation JJ has a short taxable year ending June 30, 2021. Corporation JJ is a publicly held corporation for this short taxable year.

(2) Conclusion. Corporation JJ is a predecessor of a publicly held corporation within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(B) of this section. For Corporation LL's taxable years ending after June 30, 2021, the covered employees of Corporation LL include the covered employees of Corporation JJ for its short taxable year ending June 30, 2021 (as well as preceding taxable years beginning after December 31, 2016) and any additional covered employees determined pursuant to this paragraph (c)(2).

(O) Example 15 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation becomes member of an affiliated group) -

(1) Facts. On June 30, 2021, Corporation OO acquires for cash 100% of the only class of outstanding stock of Corporation NN. The affiliated group (comprised of Corporations NN and OO) elects to file a consolidated Federal income tax return. As a result of this election, Corporation NN has a short taxable year ending on June 30, 2021. Corporation NN is a publicly held corporation for its taxable year ending June 30, 2021, and a privately held corporation for subsequent taxable years. On June 30, 2022, Corporation OO completely liquidates Corporation NN. Corporation OO is a publicly held corporation for its 2021 and 2022 taxable years.

(2) Conclusion. After Corporation OO acquired Corporation NN, Corporations NN and OO comprise an affiliated group as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. Thus, Corporation NN is a predecessor of a publicly held corporation within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(D) of this section. For Corporation OO's taxable years ending after June 30, 2021, the covered employees of Corporation OO include the covered employees of Corporation NN for its short taxable year ending June 30, 2021 (as well as preceding taxable years beginning after December 31, 2016) and any additional covered employees determined pursuant to this paragraph (c)(2).

(P) Example 16 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation becomes member of an affiliated group) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(O) of this section (Example 15), except that Corporation OO is a privately held corporation on June 30, 2021, and for its 2021 and 2022 taxable years.

(2) Conclusion. Because Corporation OO is a privately held corporation for its 2021 and 2022 taxable years, it is not subject to section 162(m)(1) for these taxable years.

(Q) Example 17 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation becomes member of an affiliated group) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(P) of this section (Example 16), except that, on October 1, 2022, the SEC declares effective Corporation OO's Securities Act registration statement in connection with its initial public offering, and Corporation OO is a publicly held corporation for its 2022 taxable year.

(2) Conclusion (Taxable Year Ending December 31, 2021). Because Corporation OO is a privately held corporation for its 2021 taxable year, it is not subject to section 162(m)(1) for this taxable year.

(3) Conclusion (Taxable Year Ending December 31, 2022). For the 2022 taxable year, Corporations NN and OO comprise an affiliated group as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. Corporation NN is a predecessor of a publicly held corporation within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(D) and (G) of this section because Corporation OO became a publicly held corporation for a taxable year ending prior to April 15, 2025. For Corporation OO's 2022 and subsequent taxable years, the covered employees of Corporation OO include the covered employees of Corporation NN for its short taxable year ending June 30, 2021 (as well as preceding taxable years beginning after December 31, 2016) and any additional covered employees determined pursuant to this paragraph (c)(2).

(R) Example 18 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation and asset acquisition) -

(1) Facts. Corporations VV, WW, and XX are publicly held corporations for their 2020 and 2021 taxable years. Corporations VV and WW are members of an affiliated group. Corporation WW is a direct subsidiary of Corporation VV. On June 30, 2021, Corporation VV acquires for cash 40% of the gross operating assets (determined by fair market value as of January 31, 2022) of Corporation XX. On January 31, 2022, Corporation WW acquires an additional 40% of the gross operating assets (determined by fair market value as of January 31, 2022) of Corporation XX. Employees EB, EC, and EA are covered employees for Corporation XX's 2020 taxable year. Employees ED and EF are also covered employees for Corporation XX's 2021 taxable year. On January 15, 2021, Employee EA started performing services as an employee of Corporation WW. On July 1, 2021, Employee EB started performing services as an employee of Corporation WW. On February 1, 2022, Employees EC and ED started performing services as employees of Corporation WW. On June 30, 2023, Employee EF started performing services as an employee of Corporation WW.

(2) Conclusion. Because an affiliated group, comprised of Corporations VV and WW, acquired 80% of Corporation XX's gross operating assets (determined by fair market value) within a twelve-month period, Corporation XX is a predecessor of a publicly held corporation within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(E) of this section. Therefore, any covered employee of Corporation XX for its 2020 and 2021 taxable years (who started performing services as an employee of Corporation WW within the period beginning 12 months before and ending 12 months after the date of the January 31, 2022, acquisition (determined under paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(I) of this section) is a covered employee of Corporation WW for its 2021, 2022, and subsequent taxable years. For Corporation WW's 2021 and subsequent taxable years, the covered employees of Corporation WW include Employee EB and any additional covered employees determined pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section. For Corporation WW's 2022 and subsequent taxable years, the covered employees of Corporation WW include Employees EB, EC, and ED, and any additional covered employees determined pursuant to this paragraph (c)(2). Because Employee EA started performing services as an employee of Corporation WW before January 31, 2021, Employee EA is not a covered employee of Corporation WW for its 2021 taxable year and subsequent taxable years by reason of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(E) of this section, but may be a covered employee of Corporation WW by application of other rules in this paragraph (c)(2). Because Employee EF started performing services as an employee of Corporation WW after January 31, 2023, Employee EF is not a covered employee of Corporation WW for its 2023 taxable year by reason of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(E) of this section, but may be a covered employee of Corporation WW by application of other rules in this paragraph (c)(2).

(S) Example 19 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation and asset acquisition) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(R) of this section (Example 18), except that Corporations VV and WW are not publicly held corporations on June 30, 2021, or for their 2021 taxable years.

(2) Conclusion. Because Corporations VV and WW are not publicly held corporations for their 2021 taxable years, they are not subject to section 162(m)(1) for their 2021 taxable years.

(T) Example 20 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation and asset acquisition) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(R) of this section (Example 18), except that, on October 1, 2022, the SEC declares effective Corporation VV's Securities Act registration statement in connection with its initial public offering, and Corporation VV is a publicly held corporation for its 2022 taxable year.

(2) Conclusion (2021 taxable year). Because Corporations VV and WW are not publicly held corporations for their 2021 taxable years, they are not subject to section 162(m)(1) for their 2021 taxable years.

(3) Conclusion (2022 taxable year). Corporation XX is a predecessor of a publicly held corporation within the meaning of paragraphs (c)(2)(ii)(E) and (G) of this section because a member of the affiliated group comprised of Corporations VV and WW acquired 80% of Corporation XX's gross operating assets (determined by fair market value) within a twelve-month period ending on January 31, 2022, and the parent of the affiliated group, Corporation VV, subsequently became a publicly held corporation for a taxable year ending prior to April 15, 2024. Therefore, any covered employee of Corporation XX for its 2020 and 2021 taxable years (who started performing services as an employee of Corporation WW within the period beginning 12 months before and ending 12 months after the acquisition) is a covered employee of the affiliated group comprised of Corporations VV and WW for its 2022 and subsequent taxable years. For Corporation WW's 2022 and subsequent taxable years, the covered employees of Corporation WW include Employees EB, EC, and ED, and any additional covered employees determined pursuant to this paragraph (c)(2).

(U) Example 21 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation and a division) -

(1) Facts. Corporation CA is a publicly held corporation for its 2021 and 2022 taxable years. On March 2, 2021, Corporation DDD forms a wholly-owned subsidiary, Corporation CB, and transfers assets to it. On April 1, 2022, Corporation CA distributes all shares of Corporation CB to its shareholders in a transaction described in section 355(a)(1). On April 1, 2022, the SEC declares effective Corporation CB's Securities Act registration statement in connection with its initial public offering. Corporation CB is a publicly held corporation for its 2022 taxable year. Employee EG serves as the PFO of Corporation CA from January 1, 2022, to March 31, 2022. On April 2, 2022, Employee EG starts performing services as an employee of Corporation CB advising the PFO of Corporation CB. After March 31, 2022, Employee EG ceases to provide services for Corporation CA.

(2) Conclusion. Because the distribution of the stock of Corporation CB is a transaction described under section 355(a)(1), Corporation CA is a predecessor of Corporation CB within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(C) of this section. Because Employee EG was a covered employee of Corporation CA for its 2022 taxable year, Employee ED is a covered employee of Corporation CB for its 2022 taxable year. The result is the same whether Employee EG performs services as an advisor for Corporation CB as an employee or an independent contractor.

(V) Example 22 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation and a division) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(U) of this section (Example 21), except that Corporation CA distributes 100% of the shares of Corporation CB to Corporation CD in exchange for all of Corporation CD's stock in Corporation CA in a transaction described in section 355(a)(1) and Corporation CB does not register any class of securities with the SEC. Also, Employee EG performs services as an employee of Corporation CD instead of as an employee of Corporation CB. Corporation CD is a privately held corporation for its 2022 taxable year. On October 1, 2023, the SEC declares effective Corporation CD's Securities Act registration statement in connection with its initial public offering. Corporation CD is a publicly held corporation for its 2023 taxable year. On January 1, 2028, Employee EG starts performing services as an employee of Corporation CA. Corporation CA is a publicly held corporation for its 2028 taxable year.

(2) Conclusion (2022 taxable year). Because Corporation CD is a privately held corporation for its 2022 taxable year, it is not subject to section 162(m)(1) for this taxable year.

(3) Conclusion (2023 taxable year). Because the exchange of the stock of Corporation CB for the stock of Corporation CA is a transaction described in section 355(a)(1), Corporations CB and CD are an affiliated group, and Corporation CD became a publicly held corporation for a taxable year ending prior to April 15, 2026, Corporation CA is a predecessor of Corporation CD within the meaning of paragraphs (c)(2)(ii)(D) and (G) of this section. Employee EG was a covered employee of Corporation CA for its 2022 taxable year, and started performing services as an employee of Corporation CD following April 1, 2021, and before April 1, 2023. Therefore, Employee ED is a covered employee of Corporation CD for its 2023 taxable year.

(4) Conclusion (2028 taxable year). Because Employee EG served as the PFO of Corporation CA from January 1, 2022, to March 31, 2022, Employee EG was a covered employee of Corporation CA for its 2022 taxable year. Because an individual who is a covered employee for a taxable year remains a covered employee for all subsequent taxable years (even after the individual has separated from service), Employee EG is a covered employee of Corporation CA for its 2028 taxable year.

(W) Example 23 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation and a division) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(V) of this section (Example 22), except that Employee EG starts performing services as an employee of Corporation CD on June 30, 2023, instead of on April 2, 2022, and never performs services for Corporation CA after June 30, 2023. Furthermore, on June 30, 2023, Employee EH, a covered employee of Corporation CB for all of its taxable years, starts performing services for Corporation EF as an independent contractor advising its PEO but not serving as a PEO.

(2) Conclusion (2023 taxable year). Because the exchange of the stock of Corporation CB for the stock of Corporation CA is a transaction described in section 355(a)(1) and Corporation CD became a publicly held corporation for a taxable year ending before April 15, 2026, Corporation CA is a predecessor of Corporation CD within the meaning of paragraphs (c)(2)(ii)(D) and (G) of this section. Even though Employee EG was a covered employee of Corporation CA for its 2022 taxable year, because Employee EG started performing services as an employee of Corporation CD after April 1, 2023, Employee EG is not a covered employee of Corporation CD for its 2023 taxable year under paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(C) of this section. However, Employee EG may be a covered employee of Corporation CD by application of other rules in this paragraph (c)(2). Because Employee EH was a covered employee of Corporation CB for its 2022 taxable year, Employee EH is a covered employee of Corporation CD for its 2023 taxable year.

(X) Example 24 (Predecessor of a publicly held corporation and election under section 338(h)(10)) -

(1) Facts. Corporation CE is the common parent of a group of corporations filing consolidated returns that includes Corporation CF as a member. Corporation CE wholly-owns Corporation CF, a publicly held corporation within the meaning of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. On June 30, 2021, Corporation CG purchases Corporation CF from Corporation CE. Corporation CE and Corporation CG make a timely election under section 338(h)(10) with respect to the purchase of Corporation CF stock. For its taxable year ending December 31, 2021, Corporation CF continues to be a publicly held corporation within the meaning of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section.

(2) Conclusion. As provided in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(H) of this section, Corporation CF is treated as the same corporation after the section 338(h)(10) transaction as before the transaction for purposes for purposes of this paragraph (c)(2). Any covered employee of Corporation CF for its short taxable year ending June 30, 2021, is a covered employee of Corporation CF for its short taxable year ending on December 31, 2021, and subsequent taxable years.

(Y) Example 25 (Disregarded entity) -

(1) Facts. Corporation CH is a privately held corporation for its 2020 taxable year. Entity CI is a wholly-owned limited liability company and is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner, Corporation CH, under § 301.7701-2(c)(2)(i) of this chapter. As of December 31, 2020, Entity CI is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. For the 2020 taxable year, Employee EI is the PEO and Employee EJ is the PFO of Corporation CH. Employees EK, EL, and EM, are the three most highly compensated executive officers of Corporation CH (other than Employees EI and EJ). Employee EN is the PFO of Entity CI and does not perform any policy making functions for Corporation CH. Entity CI has no other executive officers.

(2) Conclusion. Because Entity CI is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner, Corporation CH, and is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act, Corporation CH is a publicly held corporation under paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section for its 2020 taxable year. Even though Employee EN is a PFO of Entity CI, Employee EN is not considered a PFO of Corporation CH under paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section. As PEO and PFO, Employees EI and EJ are covered employees of Corporation CH under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section. Additionally, as the three most highly compensated executive officers of Corporation CH (other than Employees EI and EJ), Employees EK, EL, and EM also are covered employees of Corporation CH under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section for Corporation CH's 2020 taxable year. The result would be the same if Entity CI was not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act and Corporation CH was a publicly held corporation pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(i) instead of paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section.

(Z) Example 26 (Disregarded entity) -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(Y) of this section (Example 25), except that Employee EN performs a policy making function for Corporation CH. If Corporation CH were subject to the SEC executive compensation disclosure rules, then Employee EN would be treated as an executive officer of Corporation CH pursuant to 17 CFR 240.3b-7 for purposes of determining the three highest compensated executive officers for Corporation CH's 2020 taxable year. Employee EN is compensated more than Employee EK, but less than Employees EL and EM.

(2) Conclusion. Because Entity CI is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner, Corporation CH, and is required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act, Corporation CH is a publicly held corporation under paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section for its 2020 taxable year. As PEO and PFO, Employees EI and EJ are covered employees of Corporation CH under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section. Employee EN is one of the three highest compensated executive officers for Corporation CH's taxable year. Because Employees EN, EL, and EM are the three most highly compensated executive officers of Corporation CH (other than Employees EI and EJ), they are covered employees of Corporation CH under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section for Corporation CH's 2020 taxable year. The result would be the same if Entity CI was not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act and Corporation CH was a publicly held corporation pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(i) instead of paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section.

(AA) Example 27 (Individual as covered employee of a publicly held corporation that includes the affiliated group) -

(1) Facts. Corporations CJ and CK are publicly held corporations for their 2020, 2021, and 2022 taxable years. Corporation CK is a direct subsidiary of Corporation CJ. Employee EO is an employee, but not a covered employee (as defined in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section), of Corporation CJ for its 2020, 2021, and 2022 taxable years. From April 1, 2020, to September 30, 2020, Employee EO serves as the PFO of Corporation CK. Employee EO does not perform any services for Corporation CK for its 2021 and 2022 taxable years, however, employee EO is a covered employee (as defined in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section) of Corporation CK for its 2020, 2021, and 2022 taxable years. For the 2020 taxable year, Employee EO receives compensation of $1,500,000 for services provided to Corporations CJ and CK. Employee EO receives $2,000,000 from Corporation CJ for performing services for Corporation CJ during each of its 2021 and 2022 taxable years. On June 30, 2022, Corporation CK pays $500,000 to Employee EO from a nonqualified deferred compensation plan that complies with section 409A.

(2) Conclusion (2020 taxable year). Because Employee EO is a covered employee of Corporation CK and because the affiliated group (comprised of Corporations CJ and CK) is a publicly held corporation, Employee EO is a covered employee of the publicly held corporation that is the affiliated group pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(vi) of this section. Compensation paid by Corporations CJ and CK is aggregated for purposes of section 162(m)(1) and, as a result, $500,000 of the aggregate compensation paid is nondeductible. The result would be the same if Corporation CJ was a privately held corporation for its 2020 taxable year.

(3) Conclusion (2021 taxable year). Because Employee EO is a covered employee of Corporation CK pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i)(C) of this section and because the affiliated group (comprised of Corporations CJ and CK) is a publicly held corporation, Employee EO is a covered employee of the publicly held corporation that is the affiliated group pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(vi) of this section. Compensation paid by Corporations CJ and CK is aggregated for purposes of section 162(m)(1) and, as a result, $1,000,000 of the aggregate compensation paid is nondeductible. The result would be the same if Corporation CJ was a privately held corporation for its 2021 taxable year.

(4) Conclusion (2022 taxable year). Because Employee EO is a covered employee of Corporation CK pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i)(C) of this section and because the affiliated group (comprised of Corporations CJ and CK) is a publicly held corporation, Employee EO is a covered employee of the publicly held corporation that is the affiliated group pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(vi) of this section. Compensation paid by Corporations CJ and CK is aggregated for purposes of section 162(m)(1) and, as a result, $1,500,000 of the aggregate compensation paid is nondeductible. The result would be the same if Corporation CJ was a privately held corporation for its 2022 taxable year.

(BB) Example 28 (Individual as covered employee of a publicly held corporation that includes the affiliated group) -

(1) Facts. Corporation CL is a publicly held corporation for its 2020 through 2023 taxable years. Corporations CM and CN are direct subsidiaries of Corporation CL and are privately held corporations for their 2020 through 2022 taxable years. Employee EP serves as the PFO of Corporation CL from January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020, when Employee EP terminates employment from Corporation CL. On January 1, 2021, Employee EP starts performing services as an employee of Corporation CM. In 2021, Employee EP receives compensation from Corporation CM in excess of $1,000,000. On April 1, 2022, Employee EP starts performing services as an employee of Corporation CN. On September 30, 2022, Employee EP terminates employment from Corporations CM and CN. In 2022, Employee EP receives compensation from Corporations CM and CN in excess of $1,000,000. For the 2021 and 2022 taxable years, Employee EP does not serve as either the PEO or PFO of Corporations CM and CN, and is not one of the three highest compensated executive officers (other than the PEO or PFO) of Corporations CM and CN. On April 1, 2023, Corporation CL distributes all the shares of Corporation CM to its shareholders in a transaction described in section 355(a)(1). On April 1, 2023, the SEC declares effective Corporation CM's Securities Act registration statement in connection with its initial public offering. Corporation CM is a publicly held corporation for its 2023 taxable year. On April 2, 2023, Employee EP starts performing services as an employee of Corporation CM but is not an executive officer of Corporation CM.

(2) Conclusion (2021 taxable year). Employee EP is a covered employee of Corporation CL for the 2020 and subsequent taxable years. Because Employee EP is a covered employee of Corporation CL and because the affiliated group (comprised of Corporations CL, CM, and CN) is a publicly held corporation, Employee EP is a covered employee of the publicly held corporation that is the affiliated group pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(vi) of this section for the 2020 and subsequent taxable years. Therefore, Corporation CM's deduction for compensation paid to Employee EP for the 2021 taxable year is subject to section 162(m)(1). The result would be the same if Corporation CM was a publicly held corporation as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section.

(3) Conclusion (2022 taxable year). Because Employee EP is a covered employee of Corporation CL and because the affiliated group (comprised of Corporations CL, CM, and CN) is a publicly held corporation, Employee EP is a covered employee of the publicly held corporation that is the affiliated group pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(vi) of this section. Therefore, Corporation CM's and CN's deduction for compensation paid to Employee EP for the 2022 taxable year is subject to section 162(m)(1). Because the compensation paid by all affiliated group members is aggregated for purposes of section 162(m)(1), $1,000,000 of the aggregate compensation paid is nondeductible. Corporations CM and CN are each treated as paying a ratable portion of the nondeductible compensation. The result would be the same if either Corporation CM or CN (or both) was a publicly held corporation as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section.

(4) Conclusion (2023 taxable year). Because the distribution of the stock of Corporation CM is a transaction described in section 355(a)(1), Corporation CL is a predecessor of Corporation CM within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(C) of this section. However, because Employee EP started performing services as an employee of Corporation CM on January 1, 2021, and the distribution of stock of Corporation CM did not occur until April 1, 2023, Employee EP is not a covered employee of Corporation CM for its 2023 taxable year.

(3) Compensation -

(i) In general. For purposes of the deduction limitation described in paragraph (b) of this section, compensation means the aggregate amount allowable as a deduction to the publicly held corporation under chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code for the taxable year (determined without regard to section 162(m)(1)) for remuneration for services performed by a covered employee in any capacity, whether or not the services were performed during the taxable year. Compensation includes an amount that is includible in the income of, or paid to, a person other than the covered employee (including a beneficiary after the death of the covered employee) for services performed by the covered employee.

(ii) Compensation paid by a partnership. For purposes of paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section, compensation includes an amount equal to a publicly held corporation's distributive share of a partnership's deduction for compensation expense attributable to the remuneration paid by the partnership to a covered employee of the publicly held corporation for services performed by the covered employee, including a payment for services under section 707(a) or under section 707(c).

(iii) Exceptions. Compensation does not include -

(A) Remuneration covered in section 3121(a)(5)(A) through (D) (concerning remuneration that is not treated as wages for purposes of the Federal Insurance Contributions Act);

(B) Remuneration consisting of any benefit provided to or on behalf of an employee if, at the time the benefit is provided, it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude it from gross income; or

(C) Salary reduction contributions described in section 3121(v)(1).

(iv) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (c)(3). For each example, assume that the corporation is a calendar year taxpayer.

(A) Example 1 -

(1) Facts. Corporation Z is a publicly held corporation for its 2020 taxable year, during which Employee A serves as the PEO of Corporation Z and also serves on the board of directors of Corporation Z. In 2020, Corporation Z paid $1,200,000 to Employee A plus a $50,000 fee for serving as a director of Corporation Z. These amounts are otherwise deductible for Corporation Z's 2020 taxable year.

(2) Conclusion. The $1,200,000 paid to Employee A in 2020 plus the $50,000 director's fee paid to Employee A in 2020 are compensation within the meaning of this paragraph (c)(3). Therefore, Corporation Z's $1,250,000 deduction for the 2020 taxable year is subject to the section 162(m)(1) limit.

(B) Example 2 -

(1) Facts. Corporation X is a publicly held corporation for its 2020 and all subsequent taxable years. Employee B serves as the PEO of Corporation X for its 2020 taxable year and is a participant in the Corporation X nonqualified retirement plan that meets the requirements of section 409A. The plan provides for the distribution of benefits over a three-year period beginning after a participant separates from service. Employee B terminates employment in 2021. In 2022, Employee B receives a $75,000 fee for services as a director and $1,500,000 as the first payment under the retirement plan. Employee B continues to serve on the board of directors until 2023 when Employee B dies before receiving the retirement benefit for 2023 and before becoming entitled to any director's fees for 2023. In 2023 and 2024, Corporation X pays the $1,500,000 annual retirement benefits to Person C, a beneficiary of Employee B.

(2) Conclusion (2022 Taxable Year). In 2022, Corporation X paid Employee B $1,575,000, including $1,500,000 under the retirement plan and $75,000 in director's fees. The retirement benefit and the director's fees are compensation within the meaning of this paragraph (c)(3). Therefore, Corporation X's $1,575,000 deduction for the 2022 taxable year is subject to the section 162(m)(1) limit.

(3) Conclusion (2023 and 2024 Taxable Years). In 2023 and 2024, Corporation X made payments to Person C of $1,500,000 under the retirement plan. The retirement benefits are compensation within the meaning of this paragraph (c)(3). Therefore, Corporation X's deduction for each annual payment of $1,500,000 for the 2023 and 2024 taxable years is subject to the section 162(m)(1) limit.

(C) Example 3 -

(1) Facts. Corporation T is a publicly held corporation for its 2021 taxable year. Corporation S is a privately held corporation for its 2021 taxable year. On January 2, 2021, Corporations S and T form a general partnership. Under the partnership agreement, Corporations S and T each have a 50% distributive share of the partnership's income, gain, loss, and deductions. For the taxable year ending December 31, 2021, Employee D, a covered employee of Corporation T, performs services for the partnership, and the partnership pays $800,000 to Employee D for these services, the deduction of $400,000 of which is allocated to Corporation T. Corporation T's $400,000 distributive share of the partnership's deduction is reported separately to Corporation T pursuant to § 1.702-1(a)(8)(iii).

(2) Conclusion. Because Corporation T's $400,000 distributive share of the partnership's deduction is attributable to the compensation paid by the partnership for services performed by Employee D, a covered employee of Corporation T, the $400,000 is compensation within the meaning of this paragraph (c)(3) and Corporation T's deduction for this expense for its 2021 taxable year is subject to the section 162(m)(1) limit. Corporation T's $400,000 allocation of the partnership's deduction is aggregated with Corporation T's deduction for compensation paid to Employee D, if any, in determining the amount allowable as a deduction to Corporation T for compensation paid to Employee D for Corporation T's 2021 taxable year. The result is the same whether Employee D performs services for the partnership as a common law employee, an independent contractor, or a partner, and whether the payment to Employee D is a payment under section 707(a) or section 707(c).

(4) Securities Act. The Securities Act means the Securities Act of 1933.

(5) Exchange Act. The Exchange Act means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

(6) SEC. The SEC means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

(7) Foreign Private Issuer. A foreign private issuer means an issuer as defined in 17 CFR 240.3b-4(c).

(8) American Depositary Receipt (ADR). An American Depositary Receipt or ADR means a negotiable certificate that evidences ownership of a specified number (or fraction) of a foreign private issuer's securities held by a depositary (typically, a U.S. bank).

(9) Privately held corporation. A privately held corporation is a corporation that is not a publicly held corporation as defined in paragraph (c)(1) of this section (without regard to paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section).

(d) Corporations that become publicly held -

(1) In general. In the case of a corporation that was a privately held corporation and then becomes a publicly held corporation, the deduction limitation of paragraph (b) of this section applies to any compensation that is otherwise deductible for the taxable year ending on or after the date that the corporation becomes a publicly held corporation. A corporation is considered to become publicly held on the date that its registration statement becomes effective either under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. The rules in this section apply to a partnership that becomes a publicly traded partnership that is a publicly held corporation within the meaning of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section.

(2) Example. The following example illustrates the provision of this paragraph (d).

(i) Facts. In 2021, Corporation E plans to issue debt securities in a public offering registered under the Securities Act. Corporation E is not required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act with respect to any other class of securities and does not have another class of securities required to be registered under section 12 of the Exchange Act. On December 18, 2021, the SEC declares effective the Securities Act registration statement for Corporation E's debt securities.

(ii) Conclusion. Corporation E becomes a publicly held corporation on December 18, 2021 because it is then required to file reports under section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The deduction limitation of paragraph (b) of this section applies to any compensation that is otherwise deductible for Corporation E's taxable year ending on or after December 18, 2021.

(e) Coordination with disallowed excess parachute payments under section 280G. The $1,000,000 limitation in paragraph (b) of this section is reduced (but not below zero) by the amount (if any) that would have been included in the compensation of the covered employee for the taxable year but for being disallowed by reason of section 280G. For example, assume that during a taxable year a corporation pays $1,500,000 to a covered employee, of which $600,000 is an excess parachute payment, as defined in section 280G(b)(1), and a deduction for that excess parachute payment is disallowed by reason of section 280G(a). Because the $1,000,000 limitation in paragraph (b) of this section is reduced by the amount of the excess parachute payment, the corporation may deduct $400,000 ($1,000,000−$600,000), and $500,000 of the otherwise deductible amount is nondeductible by reason of section 162(m)(1). Thus $1,100,000 (of the total $1,500,000 payment) is non-deductible, reflecting the disallowance related to the excess parachute payment under section 280G and the application of section 162(m)(1).

(f) Coordination with excise tax on specified stock compensation. The $1,000,000 limitation in paragraph (b) of this section is reduced (but not below zero) by the amount (if any) of any payment (with respect to such employee) of the tax imposed by section 4985 directly or indirectly by the expatriated corporation (as defined in section 4985(e)(2)) or by any member of the expanded affiliated group (as defined in section 4985(e)(4)) that includes such corporation.

(g) Transition rules -

(1) Amount of compensation payable under a written binding contract that was in effect on November 2, 2017 -

(i) General rule. This section does not apply to the deduction for compensation payable under a written binding contract that was in effect on November 2, 2017, and that is not modified in any material respect on or after that date (a grandfathered amount). Instead, section 162(m), as in effect prior to its amendment by Public Law 115-97, applies to limit the deduction for that compensation. Because § 1.162-27 implemented section 162(m) as in effect prior to its amendment by Public Law 115-97, the rules of § 1.162-27 determine the applicability of the deduction limitation under section 162(m) with respect to the payment of a grandfathered amount (including the potential application of the separate grandfathering rules contained in § 1.162-27(h)). Compensation is a grandfathered amount only to the extent that as of November 2, 2017, the corporation was and remains obligated under applicable law (for example, state contract law) to pay the compensation under the contract if the employee performs services or satisfies the applicable vesting conditions. This section applies to the deduction for any amount of compensation that exceeds the grandfathered amount. If a grandfathered amount and non-grandfathered amount are otherwise deductible for the same taxable year and, under the rules of § 1.162-27, the deduction of some or all of the grandfathered amount may be limited (for example, the grandfathered amount does not satisfy the requirements of § 1.162-27(e)(2) through (5) as qualified performance-based compensation), then the grandfathered amount is aggregated with the non-grandfathered amount to determine the deduction disallowance for the taxable year under section 162(m)(1) (so that the deduction limit applies to the excess of the aggregated amount over $1 million).

(ii) Contracts that are terminable or cancelable. If a written binding contract is renewed after November 2, 2017, this section (and not § 1.162-27) applies to any payments made after the renewal. A written binding contract that is terminable or cancelable by the corporation without the employee's consent after November 2, 2017, is treated as renewed as of the earliest date that any such termination or cancellation, if made, would be effective. Thus, for example, if the terms of a contract provide that it will be automatically renewed or extended as of a certain date unless either the corporation or the employee provides notice of termination of the contract at least 30 days before that date, the contract is treated as renewed as of the date that termination would be effective if that notice were given. Similarly, for example, if the terms of a contract provide that the contract will be terminated or canceled as of a certain date unless either the corporation or the employee elects to renew within 30 days of that date, the contract is treated as renewed by the corporation as of that date (unless the contract is renewed before that date, in which case, it is treated as renewed on the earlier date). Alternatively, if the corporation will remain legally obligated by the terms of a contract beyond a certain date at the sole discretion of the employee, the contract will not be treated as renewed as of that date if the employee exercises the discretion to keep the corporation bound to the contract. A contract is not treated as terminable or cancelable if it can be terminated or canceled only by terminating the employment relationship of the employee. A contract is not treated as renewed if upon termination or cancellation of the contract the employment relationship continues but would no longer be covered by the contract. However, if the employment continues after the termination or cancellation, payments with respect to the post-termination or post-cancellation employment are not made pursuant to the contract (and, therefore, are not grandfathered amounts).

(iii) Compensation payable under a plan or arrangement. If a compensation plan or arrangement is a written binding contract in effect on November 2, 2017, the deduction for the amount that the corporation is obligated to pay to an employee pursuant to the plan or arrangement is not subject to this section solely because the employee was not eligible to participate in the plan or arrangement as of November 2, 2017, provided the employee was employed on November 2, 2017, by the corporation that maintained the plan or arrangement, or the employee had the right to participate in the plan or arrangement under a written binding contract as of that date.

(iv) Compensation subject to recovery by corporation. If the corporation is obligated or has discretion to recover compensation paid in a taxable year only upon the future occurrence of a condition that is objectively outside of the corporation's control, then the corporation's right to recovery is disregarded for purposes of determining the grandfathered amount for the taxable year. Whether or not the corporation exercises its discretion to recover any compensation does not affect the amount of compensation that the corporation remains obligated to pay under applicable law.

(v) Compensation payable from an account balance plan -

(A) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (g), the grandfathered amount of payments from an account balance plan (as defined in § 1.409A-1(c)(2)(i)(A)) that is a written binding contract in effect as of November 2, 2017, is the amount that the corporation is obligated to pay pursuant to the terms of the account balance plan in effect as of that date, as determined under applicable law. If under the terms of the plan, the corporation is obligated to pay the employee the account balance that is credited with earnings and losses and has no right to terminate or materially amend the plan, then the grandfathered amount would be the account balance as of November 2, 2017, plus any additional contributions and earnings and losses that the corporation is obligated to credit to the account balance in accordance with the terms of the plan as of November 2, 2017, through the date of payment.

(B) Account balance plan providing right to terminate. If under the terms of the account balance plan in effect as of November 2, 2017, the corporation may terminate the contract and distribute the account balance to the employee, then the grandfathered amount would be the account balance determined as if the corporation had terminated the plan on November 2, 2017 or, if later, the earliest possible date the plan could be terminated in accordance with the terms of the plan (termination date). Whether additional contributions and earnings and losses credited to the account balance after the termination date, through the earliest possible date the account balance could have been distributed to the employee in accordance with the terms of the plan, are grandfathered depends on whether the terms of the plan require the corporation to make those contributions or credit those earnings and losses through that distribution date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the corporation may treat the account balance as of the termination date as the grandfathered amount regardless of when the amount is paid and regardless of whether it has been credited with additional contributions or earnings or losses prior to payment.

(C) Account balance plan providing right to discontinue future contributions. If under the terms of the account balance plan in effect as of November 2, 2017, the corporation has no right to terminate the plan, but may discontinue future contributions and distribute the account balance in accordance with the terms of the plan, then the grandfathered amount would be the account balance determined as if the corporation had exercised the right to discontinue contributions on November 2, 2017, or, if later, the earliest permissible date the corporation could exercise that right in accordance with the terms of the plan (the freeze date). If, after the freeze date, the plan requires the crediting of earnings and losses on the account balance through the payment date, then the earnings and losses credited to the grandfathered account balance would also be grandfathered. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the corporation may treat the account balance as of the freeze date as the grandfathered amount regardless of when the amount is paid and regardless of whether it has been credited with earnings or losses prior to payment.

(vi) Compensation payable from a nonaccount balance plan -

(A) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (g), the grandfathered amount of payments from a nonaccount balance plan (as defined in § 1.409A-1(c)(2)(i)(C)) that is a written binding contract in effect as of November 2, 2017, is the amount that the corporation is obligated to pay pursuant to the terms of the nonaccount balance plan in effect as of that date, as determined under applicable law. If under the terms of the plan, the corporation is obligated to pay the employee the benefit under the plan and has no right to terminate or materially amend the plan, then the grandfathered amount would be the benefit under the plan as of November 2, 2017, plus any additional accrued benefits that the corporation is obligated to pay in accordance with the terms of the plan as of November 2, 2017, through the date of payment.

(B) Nonaccount balance plan providing right to terminate. If under the terms of the nonaccount balance plan in effect as of November 2, 2017, the corporation may terminate the plan and distribute the total benefit to the employee, then the grandfathered amount would be the present value of the total benefit (lump sum value) determined as if the corporation had terminated the plan on November 2, 2017 or, if later, the earliest possible date the plan could be terminated in accordance with the terms of the plan (termination date). Whether an increase or decrease in the lump sum value after the termination date, through the earliest possible date the lump sum value could have been distributed to the employee, is grandfathered depends on whether the terms of the plan require the corporation to increase or decrease the lump sum value through the distribution date. For example, if the plan did not require the corporation to make further service or compensation credits, then any increase in the lump sum value for these credits after the termination date is not grandfathered. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the corporation may treat the lump sum value as of the termination date as the grandfathered amount regardless of when the amount is paid and regardless of whether it has increased or decreased prior to payment. For purposes of this paragraph (g)(1)(vi)(B), the lump sum value is determined based on the actuarial methods and assumptions provided in the plan in effect on November 2, 2017, if the assumptions are reasonable, or any reasonable actuarial assumptions if the plan does not provide for applicable actuarial methods and assumptions or the terms of the plan were not reasonable. The determination of the lump sum value may not take into account the likelihood that payments will not be made (or will be reduced) because of the unfunded status of the plan, the risk that the employer, the trustee, or another party will be unwilling or unable to pay, the possibility of future plan amendments, the possibility of a future change in the law, or similar risks or contingencies. If the benefit provided under the plan in effect on November 2, 2017, is paid as a life annuity or other form of benefit that is not a single lump sum payment, the application of the grandfathered amount to the payments of the benefit is determined in accordance with the ordering rule of paragraph (g)(1)(viii) of this section.

(C) Nonaccount balance plan providing right to discontinue future accrual of benefits. If under the terms of the nonaccount balance plan in effect as of November 2, 2017, the corporation has no right to terminate the plan, but may discontinue future accruals of benefits and distribute the benefit in accordance with the terms of the