26 CFR § 1.48-11 - Qualified rehabilitated building; expenditures incurred before January 1, 1982.
(a) In general. Under section 48(a)(1)(E), that portion of the basis of a qualified rehabilitated building which is attributable to qualified rehabilitation expenditures qualifies as section 38 property. In general, property which is treated as section 38 property by reason of section 48(a)(1)(E) is treated as new section 38 property and therefore is not subject to the used property limitation. See § 1.48-2(d). Section 48(g)(1) and paragraph (b) of this section define the term “qualified rehabilitated building”. Section 48(g)(2) and paragraph (c) of this section define the term “qualified rehabilitation expenditure”. Paragraph (d) of this section provides guidance for coordination of these provisions with other sections of the Code.
(b) Definition of qualified rehabilitated building -
(i) Which has been rehabilitated (within the meaning of paragraph (b)(3) of this section),
(2) Twenty-year requirement -
(i) In general. A building is considered a qualified rehabilitated building only if a period of at least 20 years has elapsed between the date physical work on the rehabilitation of the building began, and the later of -
(ii) Vacant periods. The 20-year period includes periods during which a building was vacant or devoted to a personal use and is computed without regard to the number of owners or the identity of owners during the period.
(iii) Physical work on a rehabilitation. For purposes of this section, “physical work on a rehabilitation” begins when actual construction begins. The term “physical work on a rehabilitation” does not include preliminary activities such as planning, designing, securing financing, exploring, researching, developing plans and specifications, or stabilizing a building to prevent deterioration (e.g., placing boards over broken windows).
(iv) Special rule. If a part of a building meets the twenty-years requirement in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph and a part (for example, an addition) does not, a rehabilitation of that part that meets the requirement may qualify for a credit only if that part constitutes a major portion (as defined in paragraph (b)(5) of this section) of the building.
(3) Rehabilitation -
(i) In general. For purposes of this paragraph, rehabilitation includes renovation, restoration, or reconstruction. However, the term “rehabilitation” does not include enlargement (within the meaning of paragraph (c)(7)(ii) of this section), new construction, or the completion of new construction after a building has been placed in service. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(3), whether expenditures are attributable to the rehabilitation of an existing building, or to new construction, is determined upon all the facts and circumstances.
(ii) Substantial rehabilitation. For a building to be considered rehabilitated, the rehabilitation must be substantial. Whether a rehabilitation is substantial is determined upon the basis of all the facts and circumstances. In general, to be substantial, the rehabilitation must do one of the following:
(B) Significantly upgrade its usefulness (for either the same or a new use); or
(C) Preserve it in a way that significantly improves its condition or enhances its historic value.
(iii) Aggregation of rehabilitation. In the case where qualified rehabilitation expenditures are incurred with respect to a rehabilitation of a building by more than one person (e.g., a lessor and a lessee, several lessees, or several condominium owners), the substantial rehabilitation requirement in this paragraph (b)(3) shall be applied by aggregating all the rehabilitation work done by such persons.
(iv) Special rule by qualified rehabilitation expenditures treated as incurred by the taxpayer. In the case where qualified rehabilitation expenditures are treated as having been incurred by a taxpayer because of the application of paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section, the substantial rehabilitation test in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section will be applied by aggregating the rehabilitation work done by the transferor and the transferee.
(v) Examples. The provisions of this subparagraph (3) may be illustrated by the following examples:
(4) Retention of 75 percent of external walls -
(i) In general. A building meets the requirements set forth in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) only if 75 percent or more of the existing external walls (as measured by the total area of the existing external walls) are retained in place as external walls in the rehabilitation process. For this purpose, the area of existing external walls includes the area of windows and doors.
(ii) External wall. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(4), a wall includes both the supporting elements of the wall and the non supporting elements (e.g., a curtain) of the wall. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (b)(4), the term “external wall” includes any wall that has one face exposed to the weather, earth, or an abutting wall erected on an adjacent property. An external wall also includes a shared wall (i.e., a single wall shared with an adjacent building), generally referred to as a “party wall”.
(iii) Alternative rule. Notwithstanding the definition of external wall contained in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section, in any case in which the building being rehabilitated would fail to meet the requirements of a qualified rehabilitation building if the definition of external wall in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section were used, then the term “external wall” shall be defined as a wall, including its supporting elements, with one face exposed to the weather or earth, and a common wall shall not be treated as an external wall.
(iv) Retained in place. An existing external wall is retained in place if the supporting elements of the wall are retained in place. An existing external wall is not retained in place if the supporting elements of the wall are replaced by new supporting elements. An external wall is retained in place, however, if the supporting elements are reinforced in the rehabilitation, provided that such supporting elements of the external wall are retained in place. An external wall is retained in place even though it is covered (e.g., with new siding). Moreover, the existing curtain may be replaced with a new curtain provided that the structural framework that provides for the support of the existing curtain is retained in place. An external wall is retained in place notwithstanding that the existing doors and windows in the wall are modified, eliminated, or replaced. A wall may be disassembled and reassembled so long as the same supporting elements are used when the wall is reassembled. Thus, for example, in the case of the brick wall, the wall is considered retained in place even though the original bricks are removed (for cleaning, etc.) and put back to form the wall.
(v) Retention as an external wall. For purposes of meeting the 75 percent requirement of this subparagraph (4), an existing external wall must be retained in place as an external wall. If an addition is made that results in an existing external wall being converted into an internal wall, the wall is not retained in place as an external wall.
(vi) Special rule. Solely for the purpose of meeting the 75 percent requirement of this subparagraph (4), the walls of an uncovered internal shaft designed solely to bring light or air into the center of a building which are completely surrounded by external walls of the building and which enclose space not designated for occupancy or other use by people (other than for maintenance or emergency) are not considered external walls. Thus, a wall of a light well in the center of an office building is not an external wall. However, walls surrounding an uncovered courtyard which is usable by the building's occupants, (e.g., at lunch time) are external walls.
(vii) Examples. The provisions of this subparagraph (4) may be illustrated by the following examples:
(5) Major portion treated as separate building -
(i) In general. Where there is a separate rehabilitation of a major portion of a building, such major portion shall be treated as a separate building. Thus, such major portion may qualify as a qualified rehabilitated building if the requirements of this paragraph are met with respect to such major portion. Expenditures for property that services both a major portion of a building and another portion must be specifically allocated to each portion to the extent possible. If it is not possible to make such an allocation, the expenditures must be allocated to each portion on some reasonable basis. What constitutes a reasonable basis for an allocation depends on factors such as the type of improvement and how the improvement relates functionally to the building. For example, in the case of expenditures for an air conditioning system or a roof, a reasonable basis for allocating the expenditures would be the volume of the major portion served by the improvement relative to the volume of the other portion of the building served by the improvement.
(ii) Major portion defined. Whether a part of a building constitutes a major portion of the building is determined upon the basis of all the facts and circumstances. A major portion must generally consist of clearly identifiable parts of a building (e.g., a wing of a building or the first 5 stories of a 7 story building). The following factors shall be taken into account:
(B) Whether the portion (as measured by volume) is sufficiently large that it would be reasonable to treat it as a separate building; and
(C) Whether the portion is functionally different from other parts of the building.
(6) Special rule for rehabilitation done in phases. If rehabilitation which is not continuous is determined under this subparagraph to be a single rehabilitation done in phases, the requirements of this paragraph (b) are to be applied with respect to the overall rehabilitation and not merely to a phase of the rehabilitation. In such case, a phase of a single overall rehabilitation will not be considered as “prior rehabilitation” for purposes of subparagraph (2)(i)(B) of this paragraph (b). Whether rehabilitation which is not continuous is a single rehabilitation that is done in phases is determined on the basis of all the facts and circumstances. Generally, however, to constitute a single rehabilitation that is done in phases, there must exist, prior to the time any rehabilitation work is commenced, a set of written plans describing generally all phases of the rehabilitation of the building and a reasonable expectation that all phases of the rehabilitation will be completed. Such written plans are not required to contain detailed working drawings or detailed specifications of the material to be used. In addition, the period between the time that physical work on the first phase of the overall rehabilitation begins and physical work on the last phase of the overall rehabilitation begins must be reasonable. In determining whether the rehabilitation is completed within a reasonable time, the fact that a building is occupied during the rehabilitation, the necessity of acquiring a lease (of additional portions of the building), and unforeseen delays shall be taken into account. Other factors that are relevant in determining whether rehabilitation is a single rehabilitation include the length of time between each phase of rehabilitation activities and the extent of rehabilitation activity in each phase.
(7) Special rule for adjoining buildings that are combined. For purposes of this paragraph (b), if as part of a rehabilitation process two or more adjoining buildings are combined and placed in service as a single building after the rehabilitation process, then all of the requirements of a qualified rehabilitated building in section 48(g)(1) and this section may be applied to the constituent adjoining buildings in the aggregate. Any party walls or abutting walls between the constitutent buildings that would otherwise be treated as external walls (within the meaning of paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section) would not be treated as external walls of the building; the substantial rehabilitation test in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section would be applied to the aggregate rehabilitation work with respect to all of the constitutent buildings.
(c) Definition of qualified rehabilitation expenditures -
(1) In general. Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, the term “qualified rehabilitation expenditure” means any amount -
(i) Properly chargeable to capital account (as described in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph),
(iii) Made in connection with the rehabilitation of a qualified rehabilitated building.
(2) Chargeable to capital account. For purposes of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, amounts paid or incurred are chargeable to capital account if under the taxpayer's method of accounting they are property includible in computing basis under § 1.46-3. Amounts treated as an expense and deducted in the year they are paid or incurred are not chargeable to capital account.
(3) Incurred by the taxpayer -
(i) In general. Generally, to qualify for a credit under section 48 (a)(1)(E), qualified rehabilitation expenditures must be incurred by the taxpayer after October 31, 1978. An expenditure is incurred for purposes of this paragraph on the date such expenditure would be considered incurred under the accrual method of accounting, regardless of the method of accounting used by the taxpayer with respect to other items of income and expense. If qualified rehabilitation expenditures are treated as having been incurred by a taxpayer under paragraph (c)(3)(ii)) of this section, the taxpayer shall be treated as having incurred the expenditures on the date such expenditures were incurred by the transferor.
(ii) Qualified rehabilitation expenditures treated as incurred by the taxpayer.
(A) Where rehabilitation expenditures are incurred with respect to a building by a person (or persons) other than the taxpayer and the taxpayer acquires the building, or a portion of the building to which the expenditures are allocable, the taxpayer acquiring such property will be treated as having incurred the rehabilitation expenditures actually incurred by the transferor (or treated as incurred by the transferor under this paragraph (c)(3)(ii)) with respect to the acquired property, provided that -
(2) That portion of the taxpayer's cost or other basis for the property which is attributable to the qualified rehabilitation expenditures described in paragraph (c)(3)(B)(1) of this section incurred before such date.
(iii) Examples. The provisions of this subparagraph may be illustrated by the following examples:
(4) Incurred for 5-year property. An expenditure is incurred for depreciable or amortizable property if the amount of the expenditure is added to the basis of property which is depreciable or amortizable under section 167. The determination of whether property has a useful life of five years or more is made by applying the principles of § 1.46-3(e). In the case of expenditures for property made by a lessee, see sections 167 and 178 and the regulations thereunder for rules relating to whether improvements made to leased property are depreciable or amortizable.
(5) Made in connection with the rehabilitation of a qualified rehabilitated building. Expenditures attributable to work done to facilities related to a building (e.g., sidewalk, parking lot, landscaping) are not considered made in connection with a rehabilitation of a qualified rehabilitated building.
(6) Certain expenditures excluded from qualified rehabilitation expenditures. The term “qualified rehabilitation expenditures” does not include the following expenditures:
(iv) An expenditure attributable to rehabilitation of a certified historic structure (as defined in section 191(d)(1) and the regulations thereunder), unless the rehabilitation is a certified rehabilitation (as defined in paragraph (c)(8) of this section).
(7) Expenditures for enlargement distinguished -
(i) In general. Expenditures attributable to an enlargement of an existing building do not qualify as qualified rehabilitated expenditures. A building is enlarged to the extent that the total volume of the building is increased. An increase in floor space resulting from interior remodeling is not considred an enlargement. Generally, the total volume of a building is equal to the product of the floor area of the base of the building and the height from the underside of the lowest floor (including the basement) to the average height of the finished roof (as it exists or existed). For this purpose, floor area is measured from the exterior faces of external walls (other than shared walls that are external walls) and from the centerline of shared walls that are external walls. In addition, a building is enlarged to the extent of any construction outside the exterior faces of the existing external wall of the building.
(ii) Rehabilitation which includes enlargement. If expenditures for property only partially qualify as qualified rehabilitation expenditures because some of the expenditures are also attributable to the enlargement of the building, the expenditures must be apportioned between the original portion of the building and the enlargement. This allocation should be made using the principles contained in paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section.
(8) Certified rehabilitation -
(i) In general. For the purpose of this paragraph (c) of this section, the term “certified rehabilitation” means any rehabilitation of a certified historic building in a registered historic district which the Secretary of the Interior has certified to the Secretary as being consistent with the historic character of such building or the district in which such building is located.
(ii) Revoked or invalidated certifications. If the Department of Interior revokes or otherwise invalidates a certification after it has been provided to a taxpayer, the decertified property will cease to be section 38 property described in section 48(a)(1)(e). Such cessation shall be effective as of the date the activity giving rise to the revocation or invalidation occurred. See section 47 for the rules applicable to property that ceases to be section 38 property.
(d) Coordination with other provisions of the Code -
(1) Credit by lessees -
(i) Rehabilitation performed by lessor. A lessee may take the credit for rehabilitation performed by the lessor if the requirements of this section and section 48(d) are satisfied. For purposes of applying section 48(d), the fair market value of section 38 property described in section 48(a)(1)(E) shall be equal to that portion of the lessor's basis in a qualified rehabilitated building that is attributable to qualified rehabilitation expenditures.
(ii) Rehabilitation performed by lessee. A lessee may take the credit for rehabilitation performed by the lessee, provided that the property (or improvements or additions to property) for which the rehabilitation expenditures are made is depreciable (or amortizable) by the lessee (see sections 167 and 178, and the regulations thereunder) and the requirements of this section are satisfied.
(2) When credit may be claimed. The investment credit for qualified rehabilitation expenditures is allowed generally in the taxable year in which the property to which the rehabilitation expenditures is attributable is placed in service, provided the building is a qualified rehabilitated building for the taxable year. See § 1.46-3(d). Under certain circumstances, however, the credit may be available prior to the date the property is placed in service. See section 46(d) and § 1.46-5 (relating to qualified progress expenditures).
(3) Recapture. If property described in section 48(a)(1)(E) is disposed of by the taxpayer, or otherwise ceases to be “section 38 property,” recapture may result under section 47. Property will cease to be section 38 property, and therefore recapture may occur under section 47, in any case where the Department of Interior revokes or otherwise invalidates a certification of rehabilitation (see section 48(g)(2)(C)) after the property is placed in service because, for example, the taxpayer made modifications to the building inconsistent with Department of Interior standards.
(e) Effective date -
(1) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, this § 1.48-11 shall not apply to expenditures incurred after December 31, 1981.
(i) The physical work on the rehabilitation began before January 1, 1982, and