26 CFR § 1.7874-4 - Disregard of certain stock related to the domestic entity acquisition.

§ 1.7874-4 Disregard of certain stock related to the domestic entity acquisition.

(a) Scope. This section identifies certain stock of the foreign acquiring corporation that is disregarded in determining the ownership fraction and modifies the scope of section 7874(c)(2)(B). Paragraph (b) of this section sets forth the general rule that certain stock of the foreign acquiring corporation, and only such stock, is treated as stock described in section 7874(c)(2)(B) and therefore is excluded from the denominator of the ownership fraction. Paragraph (c) of this section identifies the stock of the foreign acquiring corporation that is subject to paragraph (b) of this section. Paragraph (d) of this section provides a de minimis exception to the application of the general exclusion rule of paragraph (b) of this section. Paragraph (e) of this section provides rules for transfers of stock of the foreign acquiring corporation in satisfaction of, or in exchange for the assumption of, one or more obligations of the transferor. Paragraph (f) of this section provides rules for certain transfers of stock of the foreign acquiring corporation involving multiple properties or obligations. Paragraph (g) of this section provides rules for the treatment of partnerships, and paragraph (h) of this section provides definitions. Paragraph (h) of this section provides definitions. Paragraph (i) of this section provides examples illustrating the application of the rules of this section. Paragraph (j) of this section provides dates of applicability. See § 1.7874-1(d)(1) for rules addressing the interaction of this section with the expanded affiliated group rules of section 7874(c)(2)(A) and § 1.7874-1.

(b) Exclusion of disqualified stock under section 7874(c)(2)(B). Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, disqualified stock (as determined under paragraph (c) of this section) is treated as stock described in section 7874(c)(2)(B) and therefore is not included in the denominator of the ownership fraction. Section 7874(c)(2)(B) shall not apply to exclude stock from the denominator of the ownership fraction that is not disqualified stock.

(c) Disqualified stock -

(1) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, disqualified stock is stock of the foreign acquiring corporation (other than stock described in § 1.7874-2(f)) that is transferred in an exchange described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section that is related to the domestic entity acquisition. This paragraph (c) applies without regard to whether the stock of the foreign acquiring corporation is publicly traded at the time of the transfer or at any other time.

(i) Exchanged for nonqualified property. The stock is transferred to a person other than the domestic entity in exchange for nonqualified property. See Example 1, Example 2,Example 6, Example 8, and Example 9 of paragraph (i) of this section for illustrations of the application of this paragraph (c)(1)(i).

(ii) Exchanged for property with associated obligations -

(A) General rule. Subject to the limitation provided in in paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(B) of this section, the stock is transferred by a person (transferor) to another person (transferee) in exchange for property (exchanged property) and, pursuant to the same plan (or series of related transactions), the transferee subsequently transfers such stock (or, if the transferee exchanges such stock for other property, such other property) in satisfaction of, or in exchange for the assumption of, one or more obligations of the transferee or a person related (within the meaning of section 267 or 707(b)) to the transferee. See Example 6 and Example 10 of paragraph (i) of this section for illustrations of the application of paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section.

(B) Limitation. The amount of stock treated as transferred in an exchange described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section shall not exceed -

(1) With respect to a transferee that is the domestic entity, the proportionate share of obligations associated with the exchanged property (determined based on the fair market value of the exchanged property relative to the fair market value of all properties with which the obligations are associated) that, pursuant to the same plan (or series of related transactions), is not assumed by the transferor.

(2) With respect to any other transferee, the proportionate share of obligations associated with the exchanged property (determined based on the fair market value of the exchanged property relative to the fair market value of all properties with which the obligations are associated) that, pursuant to the same plan (or series of related transactions), is not assumed by the transferor, multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the amount of exchanged property that is qualified property, and the denominator of which is the total amount of exchanged property.

(C) Associated obligations. For purposes of paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section, an obligation is associated with property if, for example, the obligation arose from the conduct of a trade or business in which the property has been used, regardless of whether the obligation is a non-recourse obligation.

(2) Stock transferred in an exchange that does not increase the fair market value of the assets or decrease the amount of liabilities of the foreign acquiring corporation. Stock is disqualified stock only to the extent that the transfer of the stock in the exchange increases the fair market value of the assets of the foreign acquiring corporation or decreases the amount of its liabilities. This paragraph (c)(2) is applied to an exchange without regard to any other exchange described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section or any other transaction related to the domestic entity acquisition. See Example 4 and Example 7 of paragraph (i) of this section for illustrations of the application of this paragraph (c)(2).

(d) Exception to exclusion of disqualified stock -

(1) De minimis ownership. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, paragraph (b) of this section does not apply if both:

(i) The ownership percentage described in section 7874(a)(2)(B)(ii), determined without regard to the application of paragraph (b) of this section and §§ 1.7874-7(b) and 1.7874-10(b), is less than five (by vote and value); and

(ii) On the completion date, each five percent former domestic entity shareholder or five percent former domestic entity partner, as applicable, owns (applying the attribution rules of section 318(a) with the modifications described in section 304(c)(3)(B)) less than five percent (by vote and value) of the stock of (or a partnership interest in) each member of the expanded affiliated group. For this purpose, a five percent former domestic entity shareholder (or five percent former domestic entity partner) is a former domestic entity shareholder (or former domestic entity partner) that, before the domestic entity acquisition, owned (applying the attribution rules of section 318(a) with the modifications described in section 304(c)(3)(B)) at least five percent (by vote and value) of the stock of (or a partnership interest in) the domestic entity. See Example 5 of this paragraph (i) for an illustration of this paragraph (d).

(2) Stock issued to avoid the purposes of section 7874. The exception in paragraph (d)(1) of this section does not apply to disqualified stock that is transferred in a transaction (or series of transactions) related to the domestic entity acquisition with a principal purpose of avoiding the purposes of section 7874.

(e) Satisfaction or assumption of obligations. Except to the extent stock is treated as disqualified stock as a result of being described in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section, this paragraph (e) applies if, in a transaction related to the domestic entity acquisition, stock of the foreign acquiring corporation is transferred to a person other than the domestic entity in exchange for the satisfaction or the assumption of one or more obligations of the transferor. In such a case, solely for purposes of this section, the stock of the foreign acquiring corporation is treated as if it is transferred in exchange for an amount of cash equal to the fair market value of such stock.

(f) Transactions involving multiple properties. For purposes of this section, if stock and other property are exchanged for qualified property and nonqualified property, the stock is treated as transferred in exchange for the qualified property or nonqualified property, respectively, based on the relative fair market value of the property. See also § 1.7874-2(f)(2) (allocating stock of a foreign acquiring corporation between an interest in the domestic entity and other property).

(g) Treatment of partnerships. For purposes of this section, if one or more members of the expanded affiliated group own, in the aggregate, more than 50 percent (by value) of the interests in a partnership, such partnership is treated as a corporation that is a member of the expanded affiliated group.

(h) Definitions. In addition to the definitions in § 1.7874-12, the following definitions apply for purposes of this section:

(1) Marketable securities has the meaning set forth in section 453(f)(2), except that the term marketable securities does not include stock of a corporation or an interest in a partnership that becomes a member of the expanded affiliated group in a transaction (or series of transactions) related to the domestic entity acquisition. See Example 4 of paragraph (i) of this section for an illustration of this paragraph (h)(1).

(2) Nonqualified property is property described in paragraphs (h)(2)(i) through (iv) of this section. Thus, stock in a corporation or an interest in a partnership is nonqualified property to the extent provided in paragraph (h)(2)(ii) or (iv) of this section. Qualified property is property other than nonqualified property.

(i) Cash or cash equivalents.

(ii) Marketable securities, within the meaning of paragraph (h)(1) of this section.

(iii) An obligation owed by any of the following:

(A) A member of the expanded affiliated group, unless the holder of the obligation immediately before the domestic entity acquisition and any related transaction (or its successor) is a member of the expanded affiliated group after the domestic entity acquisition and all related transactions. See Example 6 of paragraph (i) of this section for an illustration of this paragraph (h)(2)(iii)(A).

(B) A former domestic entity shareholder or former domestic entity partner of the domestic entity that owns (applying the attribution rules of section 318(a) with the modifications described in section 304(c)(3)(B)) at least five percent (by vote or value) of the stock of, or partnership interests in, the domestic entity before the domestic entity acquisition.

(C) A person, other than a member of the expanded affiliated group, that, before or after the domestic entity acquisition, either owns (applying the attribution rules of section 318(a) with the modifications described in section 304(c)(3)(B)) at least five percent (by vote or value) of the stock of (or partnership interests in) or is related (within the meaning of section 267 or 707(b)) to -

(1) A member of the expanded affiliated group; or

(2) A person described in paragraph (h)(2)(iii)(B) of this section.

(iv) Any other property acquired with a principal purpose of avoiding the purposes of section 7874, regardless of whether the transaction involves an indirect transfer of property described in paragraph (h)(2)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section. See Example 2 and Example 3 of paragraph (i) of this section for illustrations of the application of this paragraph (h)(2)(iv).

(3) An obligation means any fixed or contingent obligation to make a payment or provide value without regard to whether the obligation is otherwise taken into account for purposes of the Internal Revenue Code. An obligation includes, but is not limited to, a debt obligation, an environmental obligation, a tort obligation, a contract obligation (including an obligation to provide goods or services), a pension obligation, an obligation under a short sale, and an obligation under derivative financial instruments such as options, forward contracts, futures contracts, and swaps. An obligation does not include any obligation treated as stock for purposes of section 7874 (see, for example, § 1.7874-2(i), which treats certain interests, including certain creditor claims, as stock).

(4) A transfer is, with respect to stock of the foreign acquiring corporation, an issuance, sale, distribution, exchange, or any other disposition of such stock.

(i) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of the rules of this section. For purposes of the examples, unless otherwise indicated, assume the following facts in addition to the facts stated in the examples:

(1) FA, FMS, FS, and FT are foreign corporations, all of which have only one class of stock issued and outstanding;

(2) DMS and DT are domestic corporations;

(3) P and R are corporations that may be either domestic or foreign;

(4) PRS is a partnership with individual partners;

(5) The de minimis ownership exception in paragraph (d)(1) of this section does not apply;

(6) None of the shareholders or partners in the entities described in the examples are related persons with respect to each other;

(7) All transactions described in each example occur pursuant to the same plan;

(8) No property is acquired with a principal purpose of avoiding the purposes of section 7874;

(9) FA, FMS, FS, and FT are tax residents in the same foreign country;

(10) For purposes of determining the ownership fraction, no shares of FA stock are excluded from the denominator pursuant to § 1.7874-7(b) (which disregards stock attributable to passive assets); and

(11) For purposes of determining the ownership fraction, no shares of FA stock are treated as received by former shareholders of DT pursuant to § 1.7874-10(b) (which disregards certain distributions).

Example 1.
Stock transferred in exchange for marketable securities -
(i) Facts. Individual A wholly owns DT. PRS transfers marketable securities (within the meaning of paragraph (h)(1) of this section) to FA, a newly formed corporation, in exchange solely for 25 shares of FA stock. Then Individual A transfers all the DT stock to FA in exchange solely for 75 shares of FA stock.

(ii) Analysis. Under paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section, the marketable securities constitute nonqualified property. Accordingly, the 25 shares of FA stock transferred by FA to PRS in exchange for the marketable securities constitute disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. Paragraph (c)(2) of this section does not reduce the amount of disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section because the transfer of FA stock in exchange for the marketable securities increases the fair market value of the assets of FA by the fair market value of the marketable securities transferred. Under paragraph (b) of this section, the 25 shares of FA stock transferred to PRS are not included in the denominator of the ownership fraction. See also section 7874(c)(4). Accordingly, the only FA stock included in the ownership fraction is the FA stock transferred to Individual A in exchange for the DT stock, and that FA stock is included in both the numerator and the denominator of the ownership fraction. Thus, the ownership fraction is 75/75.

Example 2.
Stock transferred in exchange for property acquired with a principal purpose of avoiding the purposes of section 7874 -
(i) Facts. Individual A wholly owns DT. PRS transfers marketable securities (within the meaning of paragraph (h)(1) of this section) to FT, a newly formed corporation, in exchange solely for all the FT stock. Then PRS transfers the FT stock to FA, a newly formed corporation, in exchange solely for 25 shares of FA stock. Finally, Individual A transfers all the DT stock to FA in exchange solely for 75 shares of FA stock. FA acquires the FT stock with a principal purpose of avoiding the purposes of section 7874.

(ii) Analysis. Under paragraph (h)(2)(iv) of this section, the FT stock constitutes nonqualified property because a principal purpose of FA acquiring the FT stock is to avoid the purposes of section 7874. Accordingly, the 25 shares of FA stock transferred by FA to PRS in exchange for the FT stock constitute disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. Paragraph (c)(2) of this section does not reduce the amount of disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section because the transfer of FA stock in exchange for the FT stock increases the fair market value of FA's assets by the fair market value of the FT stock. Under paragraph (b) of this section, the 25 shares of FA stock transferred to PRS are not included in the denominator of the ownership fraction. Furthermore, even in the absence of paragraph (h)(2)(iv) of this section, the transfer of marketable securities to FT would be disregarded pursuant to section 7874(c)(4). Accordingly, the only FA stock included in the ownership fraction is the FA stock transferred to Individual A in exchange for the DT stock, and that FA stock is included in both the numerator and the denominator of the ownership fraction. Thus, the ownership fraction is 75/75.

Example 3.
Stock transferred in exchange for property acquired with a principal purpose of avoiding the purposes of section 7874 -
(i) Facts. DT is a publicly traded corporation. PRS is a foreign partnership that is unrelated to DT. PRS transfers certain business assets (PRS properties) to FA, a newly formed foreign corporation, in exchange solely for 25 shares of FA stock. The shareholders of DT transfer all of their DT stock to FA in exchange solely for the remaining 75 shares of FA stock (DT acquisition). None of the PRS properties is property described in paragraph (h)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section, but FA acquires the PRS properties with a principal purpose of avoiding the purposes of section 7874.

(ii) Analysis. Under paragraph (h)(2)(iv) of this section, the PRS properties transferred to FA constitute nonqualified property, because FA acquires the PRS properties in a transaction related to the DT acquisition with a principal purpose of avoiding the purposes of section 7874. Accordingly, the 25 shares of FA stock transferred by FA to PRS in exchange for the PRS properties constitute disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. Paragraph (c)(2) of this section does not apply to reduce the amount of disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section because the transfer of FA stock in exchange for the PRS properties increases the fair market value of FA's assets by the fair market value of the PRS properties. Accordingly, pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section, the 25 shares of FA stock transferred to PRS in exchange for the PRS properties are not included in the denominator of the ownership fraction. Furthermore, even in the absence of paragraph (h)(2)(iv) of this section, the transfer of the PRS properties to FA would be disregarded pursuant to section 7874(c)(4). Therefore, the only FA stock included in the ownership fraction is the FA stock transferred to the former domestic entity shareholders of DT in exchange for their DT stock, and that FA stock is included in both the numerator and the denominator of the ownership fraction. Thus, the ownership fraction is 75/75.

Example 4.
Stock transferred in exchange for stock of a foreign corporation that becomes a member of the expanded affiliated group -
(i) Facts. FT, a publicly traded corporation, forms FA, and then FA forms DMS and FMS. FMS merges with and into FT, with FT surviving the merger (FMS-FT merger). Pursuant to the FMS-FT merger, the FT shareholders exchange their FT stock solely for 100 shares of FA stock and FT becomes a wholly owned subsidiary of FA. Following the FMS-FT merger, DMS merges with and into DT, also a publicly traded corporation, with DT surviving the merger (DT acquisition). Pursuant to the DT acquisition, the DT shareholders exchange their DT stock solely for the remaining 100 shares of FA stock, and DT becomes a wholly owned subsidiary of FA. After the completion of the plan, FA wholly owns FT and DT, DMS and FMS cease to exist, and the stock of FA is publicly traded.

(ii) Analysis. Because FT becomes a member of the expanded affiliated group that includes FA in a transaction related to the DT acquisition, the FT stock does not constitute marketable securities (within the meaning of paragraph (h)(1) of this section) and therefore does not constitute nonqualified property pursuant to paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section. Accordingly, no FA stock is disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section and therefore the FA stock transferred in exchange for the FT stock and DT stock is included in the denominator of the ownership fraction. Thus, the ownership fraction is 100/200.

(iii) Alternative facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (i) of this Example 4, except that, instead of undertaking the FMS-FT merger, FT merges with and into FA with FA surviving the merger (FT-FA merger). Pursuant to the FT-FA merger, the FT shareholders exchange their FT stock solely for 100 shares of FA stock. At the time of the FT-FA merger, FT does not hold nonqualified property and has no obligations. Accordingly, FA stock transferred by FA to FT in exchange for the property of FT is not disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. Furthermore, pursuant to paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the 100 shares of FA stock transferred by FT to the shareholders of FT in exchange for their FT stock do not constitute disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. Although the FT stock is nonqualified property (the FT stock constitutes marketable securities within the meaning of paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section because the stock of FT is publicly traded and FT is not a member of the expanded affiliated group that includes FA after the DT acquisition), under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the transfer of FA stock by FT to the shareholders of FT neither increases the fair market value of the assets of FA nor decreases the liabilities of FA. Accordingly, no FA stock is disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section and, therefore, the FA stock transferred in exchange for the assets of FT and the DT stock is included in the denominator of the ownership fraction. Thus, the ownership fraction is 100/200.

Example 5.
De minimis exception -
(i) Facts. Individual A wholly owns DT. The fair market value of the DT stock is $100x. PRS transfers $96x of cash to FA, a newly formed corporation, in exchange solely for 96 shares of FA stock. Then Individual A transfers the DT stock to FA in exchange for $96x of cash and 4 shares of FA stock (DT acquisition).

(ii) Analysis. Under paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section, cash constitutes nonqualified property. Accordingly, the 96 shares of FA stock transferred by FA to PRS in exchange for $96x of cash constitute disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. Furthermore, paragraph (c)(2) of this section does not reduce the amount of disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section because the transfer of FA stock in exchange for $96x of cash increases the fair market value of the assets of FA by $96x. However, without regard to the application of paragraph (b) of this section and §§ 1.7874-7(b) and 1.7874-10(b), the ownership percentage described in section 7874(a)(2)(B)(ii) would be less than 5 (by vote and value), or 4 (4/100, or 4 shares of FA stock held by Individual A by reason of owning the DT stock, determined under § 1.7874-2(f)(2), over 100 shares of FA stock outstanding after the DT acquisition). Furthermore, after the DT acquisition and all related transactions, Individual A owns less than 5% (by vote and value, applying the attribution rules of section 318(a) with the modifications described in section 304(c)(3)(B)) of the stock of FA and DT (the members of the expanded affiliated group that includes FA). Accordingly, the de minimis exception in paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies and therefore paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to exclude the FA stock transferred to PRS from the denominator of the ownership fraction. Therefore, the FA stock transferred to Individual A and PRS is included in the denominator of the ownership fraction. Thus, the ownership fraction is 4/100.

Example 6.
Obligation of the expanded affiliated group satisfied with stock -
(i) Facts. Individual A wholly owns DT. The stock of DT held by Individual A has a fair market value of $75x. Individual A also holds an obligation of DT with a value and face amount of $25x. DT holds property with a value of $100x, and the $25x obligation is associated with the property. FA, a newly formed corporation, transfers 100 shares of FA stock to Individual A in exchange for all the DT stock and the $25x obligation of DT.

(ii) Analysis. Under paragraph (h)(2)(iii)(A) of this section, the $25x obligation of DT constitutes nonqualified property because DT is a member of the expanded affiliated group that includes FA, and Individual A (the holder of the obligation immediately before the domestic entity acquisition and any related transaction) is not a member of the EAG after the domestic entity acquisition and all related transactions. Thus, the shares of FA stock transferred by FA to Individual A in exchange for the obligation of DT constitute disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. Under § 1.7874-2(f)(2), Individual A is treated as receiving 75 shares of FA stock in exchange for the DT stock (100 x $75x/$100x) and 25 shares of FA stock in exchange for the obligation of DT (100 x $25x/$100x). Thus, 25 shares of FA stock constitute disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. Paragraph (c)(2) of this section does not reduce the amount of disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section because the transfer of FA stock for the $25x obligation increases the fair market value of FA's assets by $25x. Therefore, under paragraph (b) of this section, the 25 shares of FA stock transferred to Individual A in exchange for the obligation of DT are not included in the denominator of the ownership fraction. Accordingly, the only FA stock included in the ownership fraction is the 75 shares of FA stock transferred to Individual A in exchange for the DT stock, and that FA stock is included in both the numerator and the denominator of the ownership fraction. Thus, the ownership fraction is 75/75.

(iii) Alternative facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (i) of this Example 6, except that instead of acquiring the stock of DT and the $25x obligation of DT, FA acquires the $100x of property from DT in exchange solely for 100 shares of FA stock. DT distributes 75 shares of FA stock to Individual A in exchange for Individual A's DT stock and transfers 25 shares of FA stock to Individual A in satisfaction of DT's obligation to Individual A, and liquidates. The 25 shares of FA stock transferred by FA to DT in exchange for the property of DT and then transferred by DT in satisfaction of DT's obligation to Individual A constitute disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. Paragraph (c)(2) of this section does not reduce the amount of disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section because the transfer of FA stock in exchange for the property of DT increases the fair market value of FA's assets by $100x (although the amount of disqualified stock is limited to 25 shares of FA stock in this case). Therefore, under paragraph (b) of this section, the 25 shares of FA stock that constitute disqualified stock are not included in the denominator of the ownership fraction. Accordingly, only 75 shares of FA stock are included in the ownership fraction, and that FA stock is included in both the numerator and the denominator of the ownership fraction. Thus, the ownership fraction is 75/75.

Example 7.
“Over-the-top” stock transfer -
(i) Facts. Individual A wholly owns DT. Individual B holds all 100 outstanding shares of FA stock. Individual C acquires 20 shares of FA stock from Individual B for cash, and then FA acquires all of the stock of DT from Individual A in exchange solely for 100 shares of FA stock.

(ii) Analysis. Under paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section, cash constitutes nonqualified property. Accordingly, absent the application of paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the 20 shares of FA stock transferred by Individual B to Individual C in exchange for cash would constitute disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. Nevertheless, because Individual B's sale of FA stock neither increases the assets of FA nor decreases the liabilities of FA, such FA stock is not disqualified stock by reason of paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Accordingly, paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to exclude the 20 shares of FA stock sold by Individual B to Individual C, and that FA stock is included in the denominator of the ownership fraction. The 100 shares of FA stock received by Individual A are the only shares included in the numerator of the ownership fraction. Thus, the ownership fraction is 100/200.

Example 8.
Interaction with internal group restructuring rule -
(i) Facts. P holds 85 shares of DT stock. The remaining 15 shares of DT stock are held by Individual A. P and Individual A transfer their shares of DT stock to FA, a newly formed corporation, in exchange for 85 and 15 shares of FA stock, respectively (DT acquisition), and PRS transfers $75x of cash to FA in exchange for the remaining 75 shares of FA stock.

(ii) Analysis. Under paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section, cash constitutes nonqualified property. Accordingly, the 75 shares of FA stock transferred by FA to PRS in exchange for $75x of cash constitute disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. Furthermore, paragraph (c)(2) of this section does not reduce the amount of disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section because the transfer of FA stock in exchange for $75x of cash increases the fair market value of the assets of FA by $75x. Therefore, under paragraph (b) of this section, the 75 shares of FA stock transferred to PRS are not included in the denominator of the ownership fraction. Although PRS's shares of FA stock are excluded from the denominator of the ownership fraction under paragraph (b) of this section, under 1.7874-1(d)(1), such shares of FA stock nonetheless are taken into account for purposes of determining whether P is a member of the expanded affiliated group that includes FA and for purposes of determining whether the DT acquisition qualifies as an internal group restructuring. Because P holds 48.6% of the FA stock (85/175) after the DT acquisition and all transactions related to the DT acquisition, it is not a member of the expanded affiliated group that includes FA. In addition, the DT acquisition does not qualify as an internal group restructuring described in § 1.7874-1(c)(2) because P does not hold, directly or indirectly, 80% or more of the shares of FA stock (by vote and value) after the DT acquisition and all transactions related to the DT acquisition. Therefore, the FA stock held by P (along with the FA stock held by Individual A) is included in the numerator and the denominator of the ownership fraction. Thus, the ownership fraction is 100/100.

Example 9.
Interaction with loss of control rule -
(i) Facts. P wholly owns DT. P transfers all of its shares of DT stock to FA, a newly formed corporation, in exchange for 49 shares of FA stock (DT acquisition), and R transfers marketable securities (within the meaning of paragraph (h)(1) of this section) to FA in exchange for the remaining 51 shares of FA stock.

(ii) Analysis. Under paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section, the marketable securities constitute nonqualified property. Accordingly, the shares of FA stock transferred by FA to R in exchange for the marketable securities constitute disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. Paragraph (c)(2) of this section does not reduce the amount of disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section because the transfer of FA stock in exchange for the marketable securities increases the fair market value of the assets of FA by the fair market value of the marketable securities transferred. Therefore, under paragraph (b) of this section, the shares of FA stock transferred to R are not included in the denominator of the ownership fraction. Although under paragraph (b) of this section R's shares of FA stock are excluded from the denominator of the ownership fraction, under 1.7874-1(d)(1), such stock is taken into account for purposes of determining whether P or R is a member of the expanded affiliated group that includes FA. Because P holds 49% of the shares of FA stock (49/100), P is not a member of the expanded affiliated group that includes FA, and P's FA stock is included in both the numerator and the denominator of the ownership fraction. Because R holds 51% of the shares of FA stock (51/100), R is a member of the expanded affiliated group that includes FA and, before taking into account § 1.7874-1(c), R's FA stock would be excluded from the numerator and denominator of the ownership fraction under section 7874(c)(2)(A) and § 1.7874-1(b). However, the DT acquisition results in a loss of control described in § 1.7874-1(c)(3) because P does not hold, in the aggregate, directly or indirectly, more than 50% of the shares of stock (by vote or value) of R, FA, or DT after the acquisition. Accordingly, the FA stock held by R would be included in the denominator of the ownership fraction under § 1.7874-1(c)(1). Nevertheless, the FA stock held by R is excluded from the denominator of the ownership fraction under paragraph (b) of this section and § 1.7874-1(d)(1). Thus, the ownership fraction is 49/49.

(iii) Alternative facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (i) of this Example 9, except that, in exchange for 51 shares of FA stock, R transfers marketable securities (within the meaning of paragraph (h)(1) of this section) with a value equal to that of 16 shares of FA stock and qualified property (within the meaning of paragraph (h)(2) of this section) with a value equal to that of 35 shares of FA stock. Accordingly, 16 of the 51 shares of FA stock transferred to R constitute disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, and 35 of such shares do not constitute disqualified stock. Paragraph (c)(2) of this section does not reduce the amount of disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section because the transfer of FA stock in exchange for the marketable securities increases the fair market value of the assets of FA by the fair market value of the marketable securities transferred. Therefore, under paragraph (b) of this section, 16 of the 51 shares of FA stock transferred to R are not included in the denominator of the ownership fraction. Although 16 of the 51 shares of FA stock that are transferred to R are excluded from the denominator of the ownership fraction, under§ 1.7874-1(d)(1), all 51 of R's shares of FA stock are taken into account for purposes of determining whether P or R is a member of the expanded affiliated group that includes FA. Because P holds 49% of the shares of FA stock (49/100), it is not a member of the expanded affiliated group that includes FA, and its FA stock is included in both the numerator and the denominator of the ownership fraction. Because R holds 51% of the shares of FA stock (51/100), it is a member of the expanded affiliated group that includes FA and, before taking into account § 1.7874-1(c), its FA stock is excluded from the numerator and denominator of the ownership fraction under section 7874(c)(2)(A) and § 1.7874-1(b). However, the DT acquisition results in a loss of control described in § 1.7874-1(c)(3) because P does not hold, in the aggregate, directly or indirectly, more than 50% of the shares of stock (by vote or value) of R, FA, or DT after the acquisition. Accordingly, the 51 shares of FA stock held by R would be included in the denominator of the ownership fraction under § 1.7874-1(c)(1). Nevertheless, the 16 shares of FA stock that constitute disqualified stock are excluded from the denominator of the ownership fraction under paragraph (b) of this section and § 1.7874-1(d)(1). In addition, the 35 shares of FA stock received by R that do not constitute disqualified stock are included in the denominator. Thus, the ownership fraction is 49/84.

Example 10.
Stock issued in lieu of assuming associated obligation -
(i) Facts. Individual A wholly owns DT. The stock of DT has a fair market value of $100x. Individual B wholly owns FT, a foreign corporation, which conducts two businesses, Business C and Business D. Business C comprises property with a gross fair market value of $70x and $20x of associated obligations. Business D comprises property with a gross fair market value of $45x and $35x of associated obligations. Individual A transfers all of the shares of DT stock to FA, a newly formed corporation, in exchange for $100x of FA stock (DT acquisition). In transactions related to the DT acquisition, FA acquires all of the Business C property from FT in exchange for $70x of FA stock and then FT transfers $30x of the FA stock to its creditors in satisfaction of $30x of its obligations. None of the Business C property is nonqualified property.

(ii) Analysis. Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section, the $30x of FA stock transferred to FT (the transferee) in exchange for the Business C property (the exchanged property) and then transferred by FT in satisfaction of $30x of its obligations is disqualified stock, except to the extent limited by paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(B) of this section. Under paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(B)(1) of this section, the proportionate share of obligations associated with the exchanged property that is not assumed by FA must be determined. The proportionate share of obligations associated with the exchanged property is $20x, calculated as $20x (the obligations associated with the Business C properties) multiplied by $70x/$70x (the fair market value of the exchanged property, $70x, relative to the fair market value of all the Business C property, $70x). The proportionate share of obligations associated with the exchanged property that is not assumed by FA is $20x, calculated as the proportionate share of obligations associated with the exchanged property ($20x) less the obligations assumed by FA ($0x). Under paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(B)(2) of this section, the amount of disqualified stock is limited to the proportionate share of obligations associated with the exchanged property that is not assumed ($20x) multiplied by a fraction, which in this case is $70x/$70x (the amount of exchanged property that is qualified property, $70x, divided by the total amount of exchanged property, $70x). Accordingly, $20x of FA stock is disqualified stock under paragraph (c)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. Paragraph (c)(2) of this section does not reduce the amount of disqualified stock described in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section because the transfer of the FA stock in exchange for the exchanged property increases the fair market value of FA's assets by $70x (although the amount of disqualified stock is limited to $20x of FA stock in this case). Therefore, under paragraph (b) of this section, the $20x of FA stock that constitutes disqualified stock is not included in the denominator of the ownership fraction. Accordingly, only $150x of FA stock is included in the denominator of the ownership fraction, calculated as the $100x of FA stock received by Individual A plus the $70x of FA stock received by FT less the $20x of FA stock that is disqualified stock. Thus, the ownership fraction is $100x/$150x. The result would be the same if, in transactions related to the DT acquisition, FT instead sold the $30x of FA stock for $30x cash and then transferred the cash in satisfaction of $30x of its obligations.

(iii) Alternative facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (i) of this Example 10, except that FA acquires only $42x of the Business C property in exchange for $30x of FA stock and the assumption of $12x of the obligations associated with the Business C property. Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section, the $30x of FA stock transferred to FT (the transferee) in exchange for the Business C property (the exchanged property) and then transferred by FT in satisfaction of $30x of its obligations is disqualified stock, except to the extent limited by paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(B) of this section. Under paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(B)(1) of this section, the proportionate share of obligations associated with the exchanged property that is not assumed by FA must be determined. The proportionate share of obligations associated with the exchanged property is $12x, calculated as $20x (the obligations associated with the Business C property) multiplied by $42x/$70x (the fair market value of the exchanged property, $42x, relative to the fair market value of all the Business C property, $70x). The proportionate share of obligations associated with the exchanged property that is not assumed by FA is $0, calculated as the proportionate share of obligations associated with the exchanged property ($12x) less the obligations assumed by FA ($12x). Accordingly, as a result of the application of paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(B)(2) of this section, no FA stock is disqualified stock under paragraph (c)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. As a result, $130x of FA stock is included in the denominator of the ownership fraction, calculated as the $100x of FA stock received by Individual A plus the $30x of FA stock received by FT. Thus, the ownership fraction is $100x/$130x.

(j) Applicability dates -

(1) General rule. Except to the extent otherwise provided in paragraph (j) of this section, this section applies to domestic entity acquisitions completed on or after September 17, 2009. Paragraphs (h)(1) and (h)(2)(iv) of this section apply to domestic entity acquisitions completed on or after November 19, 2015. Paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section applies to domestic entity acquisitions completed on or after April 4, 2016. Paragraphs (c)(1)(ii), (h)(2)(iii), and (h)(3) of this section apply to domestic entity acquisitions completed on or after January 13, 2017. For domestic entity acquisitions completed before November 19, 2015, see § 1.7874-4T(i)(6) and (i)(7)(iv) (the predecessors of paragraphs (h)(1) and (h)(2)(iv) of this section) as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2016. For domestic entity acquisitions completed on or after September 22, 2014, and before April 4, 2016, see § 1.7874-4T(d)(1)(i) as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2016. For domestic entity acquisitions completed before January 13, 2017, see § 1.7874-4T(c)(1)(ii), (i)(7)(iii) (the predecessor of paragraph (h)(2)(iii) of this section), and (i)(8) (the predecessor of paragraph (h)(3) of this section) as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2016. Paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section applies to domestic entity acquisitions completed on or after July 12, 2018, though taxpayers may elect to consistently apply paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section to domestic entity acquisitions completed before July 12, 2018. For domestic entity acquisitions completed before July 12, 2018, see § 1.7874-4(d)(1)(ii) as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2017.

(2) Transitional rules for domestic entity acquisitions completed on or after September 17, 2009, but before January 16, 2014. For domestic entity acquisitions completed on or after September 17, 2009, but before January 16, 2014, except as provided in paragraph (j)(3) of this section, this section shall be applied with the following modifications:

(i) Nonqualified property does not include property described in paragraph (h)(2)(iii) of this section.

(ii) A transfer is limited to an issuance of stock of the foreign acquiring corporation.

(iii) The determination of whether stock of the foreign acquiring corporation is described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section is made without regard to paragraphs (c)(1)(ii), (c)(2), and (e) of this section.

(iv) Paragraph (d) of this section and § 1.7874-1(d)(1)do not apply.

(3) Election for domestic entity acquisitions completed on or after September 17, 2009, and before January 13, 2017. If, pursuant to paragraph (j)(1) or (2) of this section, a paragraph of this section would not otherwise apply to a domestic entity acquisition completed on or after September 17, 2009, and before January 13, 2017 (transition period), a taxpayer may elect to apply the paragraph if the taxpayer applies the paragraph consistently to all acquisitions completed during the transition period. The election is made by applying the paragraph to all such acquisitions on a timely filed original return (including extensions) or an amended return filed no later than six months after January 13, 2017. A separate statement or form evidencing the election need not be filed.

[T.D. 9812, 82 FR 5394, Jan. 18, 2017; 82 FR 42233, Sept. 7, 2017; T.D. 9834, 83 FR 32547, July 12, 2018]