26 CFR § 1.958-2 - Constructive ownership of stock.

(a) In general. Section 958(b) provides that, for purposes of sections 951(b), 954(d)(3), 956(b)(2), and 957, the rules of section 318(a) as modified by section 958(b) and this section shall apply to the extent that the effect is to treat a United States person as a United States shareholder within the meaning of section 951(b), to treat a person as a related person within the meaning of section 954(d)(3), to treat the stock of a domestic corporation as owned by a United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation under section 956(b)(2), or to treat a foreign corporation as a controlled foreign corporation under section 957. The rules contained in this section also apply for purposes of other provisions of the Code and regulations which make express reference to section 958(b).

(b) Members of family -

(1) In general. Except as provided in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph, an individual shall be considered as owning the stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for -

(i) His spouse (other than a spouse who is legally separated from the individual under a decree of divorce or separate maintenance); and

(ii) His children, grandchildren, and parents.

(2) Effect of adoption. For purposes of subparagraph (1)(ii) of this paragraph, a legally adopted child of an individual shall be treated as a child of such individual by blood.

(3) Stock owned by nonresident alien individual. For purposes of this paragraph, stock owned by a nonresident alien individual (other than a foreign trust or foreign estate) shall not be considered as owned by a United States citizen or a resident alien individual. However, this limitation does not apply for purposes of determining whether the stock of a domestic corporation is owned or considered as owned by a United States shareholder under section 956(b)(2) and § 1.956-2(b)(1)(viii). See section 958(b)(1).

(c) Attribution from partnerships, estates, trusts, and corporations -

(1) In general. Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph -

(i) From partnerships and estates. Stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for a partnership or estate shall be considered as owned proportionately by its partners or beneficiaries.

(ii) From trusts - (a) To beneficiaries. Stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for a trust (other than an employees' trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a)) shall be considered as owned by its beneficiaries in proportion to the actuarial interest of such beneficiaries in such trust.

(b) To owner. Stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for any portion of a trust of which a person is considered the owner under sections 671 to 679 (relating to grantors and others treated as substantial owners) shall be considered as owned by such person.

(iii) From corporations. If 10 percent or more in value of the stock in a corporation is owned, directly or indirectly, by or for any person, such person shall be considered as owning the stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for such corporation, in that proportion which the value of the stock which such person so owns bears to the value of all the stock in such corporation. See section 958(b)(3).

(2) Rules of application. For purposes of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, if a partnership, estate, trust, or corporation owns, directly or indirectly, more than 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote in a corporation, it shall be considered as owning all the stock entitled to vote. See section 958(b)(2).

(d) Attribution to partnerships, estates, trusts, and corporations.

(1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section and § 1.954-1(f) -

(i) To partnerships and estates. Stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for a partner or a beneficiary of an estate shall be considered as owned by the partnership or estate.

(ii) To trusts - (a) From beneficiaries. Stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for a beneficiary of a trust (other than an employees' trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a)) shall be considered as owned by the trust, unless such beneficiary's interest in the trust is a remote contingent interest. For purposes of the preceding sentence, a contingent interest of a beneficiary in a trust shall be considered remote if, under the maximum exercise of discretion by the trustee in favor of such beneficiary, the value of such interest, computed actuarially, is 5 percent or less of the value of the trust property.

(b) From owner. Stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for a person who is considered the owner of any portion of a trust under sections 671 to 678 (relating to grantors and others treated as substantial owners) shall be considered as owned by the trust.

(iii) To corporations. If 50 percent or more in value of the stock in a corporation is owned, directly or indirectly, by or for any person, such corporation shall be considered as owning the stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for such person. This subdivision shall not be applied so as to consider a corporation as owning its own stock.

(2) [Reserved]

(e) Options. Except as otherwise provided in § 1.954-1(f), if any person has an option to acquire stock, such stock shall be considered as owned by such person. For purposes of the preceding sentence, an option to acquire such an option, and each one of a series of such options, shall be considered as an option to acquire such stock.

(f) Rules of application. For purposes of this section -

(1) Stock treated as actually owned -

(i) In general. Except as provided in subdivisions (ii) and (iii) of this subparagraph, stock constructively owned by a person by reason of the application of paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section shall, for purposes of applying such paragraphs, be considered as actually owned by such person.

(ii) Members of family. Stock constructively owned by an individual by reason of the application of paragraph (b) of this section shall not be considered as owned by him for purposes of again applying such paragraph in order to make another the constructive owner of such stock.

(iii) Partnerships, estates, trusts, and corporation. Stock constructively owned by a partnership, estate, trust, or corporation by reason of the application of paragraph (d) of this section shall not be considered as owned by it for purposes of applying paragraph (c) of this section in order to make another the constructive owner of such stock.

(iv) Option rule in lieu of family rule. For purposes of this subparagraph, if stock may be considered as owned by an individual under paragraph (b) or (e) of this section, it shall be considered as owned by him under paragraph (e).

(2) Coordination of different attribution rules. For purposes of any one determination, stock which may be owned under more than one of the rules of § 1.958-1 and this section, or by more than one person, shall be owned under that attribution rule which imputes to the person, or persons, concerned the largest total percentage of such stock. The application of this subparagraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
(a) United States persons A and B, and domestic corporation M, own 9 percent, 32 percent, and 10 percent, respectively, of the one class of stock in foreign corporation R. A also owns 10 percent of the one class of stock in M Corporation. For purposes of determining whether A is a United States shareholder with respect to R Corporation, 10 percent of the 10-percent interest of M Corporation in R Corporation is considered as owned by A. See paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section. Thus, A owns 10 percent (9 percent plus 10 percent of 10 percent) of the stock in R Corporation and is a United States shareholder with respect to such corporation. Corporation M and B, by reason of owning 10 percent and 32 percent, respectively, of the stock in R Corporation are United States shareholders with respect to such corporation.

(b) For purposes of determining whether R Corporation is a controlled foreign corporation, the 1 percent of the stock in R Corporation directly owned by M Corporation and considered as owned by A cannot be counted twice. Therefore, the total amount of stock in R Corporation owned by United States shareholders is 51 percent, determined as follows:

Stock Ownership in R Corporation

[percent]

A 9
B 32
M Corporation 10
Total 51
Example 2.
United States person C owns 10 percent of the one class of stock in foreign corporation N, which owns 60 percent of the one class of stock in foreign corporation S. Under paragraph (a)(2) of § 1.958-1, C is considered as owning 6 percent (10 percent of 60 percent) of the stock in S Corporation. Under paragraph (c)(1)(iii) and (2) of this section N Corporation is considered as owning 100 percent of the stock in S Corporation and C is considered as owning 10 percent of such 100 percent, or 10 percent of the stock in S Corporation. Thus, for purposes of determining whether C is a United States shareholder with respect to S Corporation, the attribution rules of paragraph (c)(1)(iii) and (2) of this section are used inasmuch as C owns a larger total percentage of the stock of S Corporation under such rules.

(g) Illustration. The application of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

(1) Example 1. United States persons A and B own 5 percent and 25 percent, respectively, of the one class of stock in foreign corporation M. Corporation M owns 60 percent of the one class of stock in foreign corporation N. Under paragraph (a)(2) of § 1.958-1, A and B are considered as owning 3 percent (5 percent of 60 percent) and 15 percent (25 percent of 60 percent), respectively, of the stock in N Corporation. Under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, M Corporation is treated as owning all the stock in N Corporation, and, under paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, B is considered as owning 25 percent of such 100 percent, or 25 percent of the stock in N Corporation. Inasmuch as A owns less than 10 percent of the stock in M Corporation, he is not considered as owning, under paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, any of the stock in N Corporation owned by M Corporation. Thus, the attribution rules of paragraph (a)(2) of § 1.958-1 are used with respect to A inasmuch as he owns a larger total percentage of the stock of N Corporation under such rules; and the attribution rules of paragraphs (c)(1)(iii) and (c)(2) of this section are used with respect to B inasmuch as he owns a larger total percentage of the stock of N Corporation under such rules.

(2) Example 2. United States person C owns 60 percent of the one class of stock in domestic corporation P; corporation P owns 60 percent of the one class of stock in foreign corporation Q; and corporation Q owns 60 percent of the one class of stock in foreign corporation R. Under paragraph (a)(2) of § 1.958-1, P Corporation is considered as owning 36 percent (60 percent of 60 percent) of the stock in R Corporation, and C is considered as owning none of the stock in R Corporation inasmuch as the chain of ownership stops at the first United States person and P Corporation is such a person. Under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, Q Corporation is treated as owning 100 percent of the stock in R Corporation, and under paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, P Corporation is considered as owning 60 percent of such 100 percent, or 60 percent of the stock in R Corporation. For purposes of determining the amount of stock in R Corporation which C is considered as owning, P Corporation is treated under paragraph (c)(2) of this section as owning 100 percent of the stock in R Corporation; therefore, C is considered as owning 60 percent of the stock in R Corporation. Thus, the attribution rules of paragraphs (c)(1)(iii) and (c)(2) of this section are used with respect to C and P Corporation inasmuch as they each own a larger total percentage of the stock of R Corporation under such rules.

(3) Example 3. United States person D owns 25 percent of the one class of stock in foreign corporation S. D is also a 40-percent partner in domestic partnership X, which owns 50 percent of the one class of stock in domestic corporation T. Under paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, the 25 percent of the stock in S Corporation owned by D is considered as being owned by partnership X; since such stock is treated as actually owned by partnership X under paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section, such stock is in turn considered as being owned by T Corporation under paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section. Thus, under paragraphs (d)(1) and (f)(1)(i) of this section, T Corporation is considered as owning 25 percent of the stock in S Corporation.

(4) Example 4. Foreign corporation U owns 100 percent of the one class of stock in domestic corporation V and also 100 percent of the one class of stock in foreign corporation W. Because more than 50 percent in value of the stock of V Corporation is owned by its sole shareholder, U Corporation, V Corporation is considered under paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section as owning the stock owned by U Corporation in W Corporation, and accordingly is a United States shareholder of W Corporation.

(5) Example 5. United States citizen E owns 15 percent of the one class of stock in foreign corporation Y, and United States citizen F, E's spouse, owns 5 percent of such stock. E and F's four nonresident alien grandchildren each own 20 percent of the stock in Y Corporation. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, E is considered as owning the stock owned by F in Y Corporation; however, by virtue of paragraph (b)(3) of this section, E may not be considered under paragraph (b)(1) of this section as owning any of the stock in Y Corporation owned by such grandchildren.

(6) Example 6. United States person F owns 10 percent of the one class of stock in foreign corporation Z; corporation Z owns 10 percent of the one class of stock in foreign corporation K; and corporation K owns 100 percent of the one class of stock in foreign corporation L. United States person G, F's spouse, owns 9 percent of the stock in K Corporation. Under paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section or paragraph (a)(2) of § 1.958-1, F is considered as owning 1 percent (10 percent of 10 percent of 100 percent) of the stock in L Corporation by reason of his ownership of stock in Z Corporation, and, under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, G is considered as owning such 1 percent of the stock in L Corporation. Under paragraph (a)(2) of § 1.958-1, G is considered as owning 9 percent (9 percent of 100 percent) of the stock in L Corporation by reason of her ownership of stock in K Corporation, and, under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, F is considered as owning such 9 percent of the stock in L Corporation. Thus, for the purpose of determining whether F or G is a United States shareholder with respect to L Corporation, each of F and G is considered as owning a total of 10 percent of the stock in L Corporation by applying the rules of paragraph (a)(2) of § 1.958-1 and paragraphs (b)(1) and (c)(1)(iii) of this section.

(h) Applicability date. Paragraphs (d)(1) and (e) of this section apply for taxable years of controlled foreign corporations ending on or after November 19, 2019, and for the taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years end. Paragraphs (d)(2) and (g)(4) of this section apply to taxable years of foreign corporations ending on or after October 1, 2019, and taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years of foreign corporations end. For taxable years of foreign corporations ending before October 1, 2019, and taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, a taxpayer may apply such provisions to the last taxable year of a foreign corporation beginning before January 1, 2018, and each subsequent taxable year of the foreign corporation, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years of the foreign corporation end, provided that the taxpayer and United States persons that are related (within the meaning of section 267 or 707) to the taxpayer consistently apply such provisions with respect to all foreign corporations. For taxable years of foreign corporations ending before October 1, 2019, and taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, where the taxpayer does not apply the provisions of paragraphs (d)(2) and (g)(4) of this section, see paragraph (d)(2) and (g)(4) of this section as in effect and contained in 26 CFR part 1, as revised April 1, 2020.

[T.D. 6889, 31 FR 9455, July 12, 1966, as amended by T.D. 7712, 45 FR 52375, Aug. 7, 1980; T.D. 8955, 66 FR 37897, July 20, 2001; T.D. 9883, 84 FR 63804, Nov. 19, 2019; T.D. 9908, 85 FR 59435, Sept. 22, 2020]