# 26 CFR § 1.985-3 - United States dollar approximate separate transactions method.

§ 1.985-3 United States dollar approximate separate transactions method.

(a) Scope and effective date -

(1) Scope. This section describes the United States dollar (dollar) approximate separate transactions method of accounting (DASTM). For all purposes of subtitle A, this method of accounting must be used to compute the gross income, taxable income or loss, or earnings and profits (or deficit in earnings and profits) of a QBU (as defined in section 989(a)) that has the dollar as its functional currency pursuant to § 1.985-1(b)(2).

(2) Effective date -

(i) In general. This section is effective for taxable years beginning after August 24, 1994.

(ii) DASTM prior-year election. A taxpayer may elect to apply this section to any open taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986 (whether or not DASTM has been previously elected for some or all of those years). In order to make this election, the taxpayer must apply § 1.985-3 to that year and all subsequent years. In addition, each person that is related (within the meaning of § 1.985-3(e)(2)(vi)) to the taxpayer on the last day of any taxable year for which the election is effective and that would have been eligible to elect DASTM must also apply these rules to that year and all subsequent years. A taxpayer that has not previously elected to apply DASTM to its prior taxable years may make the DASTM election for the pertinent years by filing amended returns and complying with the applicable election procedures of § 1.985-2. Form 8819 shall be attached to the return for the first year for which the election is to be effective. A taxpayer that has elected DASTM for prior taxable years and applied the rules under § 1.985-3 (as contained in the April 1, 1994 edition of 26 CFR part 1 (1.908 to 1.1000)) may amend its returns to apply the rules of this § 1.985-3. In either case, the DASTM election for prior taxable years shall be deemed to be made with the consent of the Commissioner.

(b) Statement of method. Under DASTM, income or loss or earnings and profits (or a deficit in earnings and profits) of a QBU for its taxable year shall be determined in dollars by -

(1) Preparing an income or loss statement from the QBU's books and records (within the meaning of § 1.989(a)-1(d)) as recorded in the QBU's hyperinflationary currency (as defined in § 1.985-1(b)(2)(ii)(D));

(2) Making the adjustments necessary to conform such statement to United States generally accepted accounting principles and tax accounting principles (including reversing monetary correction adjustments required by local accounting principles);

(3) Translating the amounts of hyperinflationary currency as shown on such adjusted statement into dollars in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section; and

(4) Adjusting the resulting dollar income or loss or earnings and profits (or deficit in earnings and profits) and, where necessary, particular items of gross income, deductible expense or other amounts, in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section to reflect the amount of DASTM gain or loss as determined under paragraph (d) of this section.

(c) Translation into United States dollars -

(1) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (c), the amounts shown on the income or loss statement, as adjusted under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, shall be translated into dollars at the exchange rate (as defined in paragraph (c)(6) of this section) for the translation period (as defined in paragraph (c)(7) of this section) to which they relate. However, if the QBU previously changed its functional currency to the dollar, and the rules of § 1.985-5 (or, if applicable, § 1.985-5T, as contained in the April 1, 1993 edition of 26 CFR part 1 (1.908 to 1.1000)) applied in translating its balance sheet amounts into dollars, then the spot exchange rate applied under those rules shall be used to translate any amount that would otherwise be translated at a rate determined by reference to a translation period prior to the change in functional currency. For example, depreciation with respect to an asset acquired while the QBU had a nondollar functional currency shall be translated into dollars at the spot rate on the last day of the taxable year before the year of change to a dollar functional currency, rather than at the rate for the period in which the asset was acquired.

(2) Cost of goods sold. The dollar value of cost of goods sold shall equal the sum of the dollar values of beginning inventory and purchases less the dollar value of closing inventory as these amounts are determined under paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(3) Beginning inventory, purchases, and closing inventory -

(i) Beginning inventory. Amounts representing beginning inventory shall be translated so as to obtain the same amount of dollars which represented such items in the closing inventory balance for the preceding taxable year.

(ii) Purchases. Amounts representing items purchased or otherwise first included in inventory during the taxable year shall be translated at the exchange rate for the translation period in which the cost of such items was incurred.

(iii) Closing inventory -

(A) In general. Amounts representing items included in the closing inventory balance shall be translated at the exchange rate for the translation period in which the cost of such items was incurred. However, if amounts representing items included in the closing inventory balance are either valued at market or written down to market value, they shall be translated at the exchange rate existing on the last day of the taxable year. For purposes of determining lower of cost or market, items of inventory included in the closing inventory balance shall be translated into dollars at the exchange rate for the translation period in which the cost of such items was incurred and compared with market as determined in the QBU's hyperinflationary currency translated into dollars at the exchange rate existing on the last day of the taxable year.

(B) Determination of translation period. The method used to determine the translation period of amounts representing items of closing inventory for purposes of paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(A) of this section may be based upon reasonable approximations and averages, including rates of turnover, provided that the method is used consistently from year to year.

(4) Depreciation, depletion, and amortization. Amounts representing allowances for depreciation, depletion, or amortization shall be translated at the exchange rate for the translation period in which the cost of the underlying asset was incurred, except as provided in paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(5) Prepaid expenses or income. Amounts representing expense or income paid or received in a prior taxable year shall be translated at the exchange rate for the translation period during which they were paid or received.

(6) Exchange rate. The exchange rate for a translation period may be determined under any reasonable method, provided that the method is consistently applied to all translation periods and conforms to the taxpayer's method of financial accounting. Reasonable methods include the average of beginning and ending exchange rates for the translation period and the spot rate on the last day of the translation period. Once chosen, a method for determining an exchange rate can be changed only with the consent of the district director.

(7) Translation period -

(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraphs (c)(3)(iii)(B) and (c)(7)(ii) of this section, a translation period shall be each month within a QBU's taxable year.

(ii) Exception. A taxpayer may divide its taxable year into translation periods of equal length (with not more than one short period annually) that are less than one month. Once such a translation period is established, it may not be changed without the consent of the district director.

(8) Dollar transactions -

(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(8)(ii) of this section, no DASTM gain or loss is realized with respect to dollar transactions since the dollar is the functional currency of the QBU. Thus, the amount of any payment or receipt of dollars shall be reflected in the income or loss statement by the amount of such dollars. Also, the income or loss attributable to any transaction in which the amount that a QBU is entitled to receive (or is required to pay) by reason of such transaction is denominated in terms of the dollar, or is determined by reference to the value of the dollar, must be computed transaction by transaction. For example, if a foreign corporation lends 20 LC when 20 LC = $20 and is entitled to receive the LC equivalent of$20 at maturity plus a market rate of interest in dollars (or its LC equivalent), the loan is a dollar transaction. Similarly, this paragraph applies to any transaction that is determined to be a dollar transaction under section 988.

(ii) Non-dollar functional currency. If pursuant to § 1.985-1(b)(2)(ii)(B)(1), a QBU is required to use a functional currency other than the dollar, then that currency shall be substituted for the dollar in applying paragraph (c)(8)(i) of this section.

(9) Third currency transactions. A taxpayer may use any reasonable method of accounting for transactions described in sections 988(c)(1)(B) and (C) that are denominated in, or determined by reference to, a currency other than the QBU's hyperinflationary currency or the dollar (third currency transactions) so long as such method is consistent with its method of financial accounting.

(10) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (c) are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
S is an accrual basis QBU that is required to use the dollar as its functional currency for its first taxable year beginning in 1994. S's hyperinflationary currency is the “h.” During 1994, S accrues 100 dollars attributable to dollar-denominated sales. Because this is a dollar transaction under paragraph (c)(8) of this section, S's income or loss for 1994 shall reflect the 100 dollars (not the hyperinflationary value of such dollars when accrued).
Example 2.
(i) S is an accrual basis QBU that is required to use the dollar as its functional currency for its first taxable year beginning in 1994. S's hyperinflationary currency is the “h.” During 1994, S's sales amounted to 240,000,000h, its currently deductible expenses were 26,000,000h, and its total inventory purchases amounted to 100,000,000h. During January and February of 1994, S purchased depreciable assets for 80,000,000h and was allowed depreciation of 4,000,000h. At the end of 1994, S's closing inventory was 23,000,000h. No election to use a translation period other than the month is made, S had no transactions described in paragraph (c)(8) or (c)(9) of this section, and S's closing inventory was computed on the first-in, first-out inventory method. S's adjusted income or loss statement for 1994 is translated into dollars as follows:
Hyperinflationary currency Exchange rate United States dollars Sales 10,000,000h 1 20:1 $500,000 20,000,000 21:1 952,381 50,000,000 22:1 2,272,727 50,000,000 23:1 2,173,913 20,000,000 26:1 769,231 20,000,000 28:1 714,286 20,000,000 29:1 689,655 20,000,000 30:1 666,667 30,000,000 31:1 967,742 240,000,000h 9,706,602 0 0 15,000,000h 20:1 750,000 10,000,000 21:1 476,190 30,000,000 22:1 1,363,636 20,000,000 23:1 869,565 10,000,000 26:1 384,615 5,000,000 28:1 178,571 5,000,000 29:1 172,414 2,500,000 30:1 83,333 2,500,000 31:1 80,645 (23,000,000) ( 2) (822,655) 77,000,000h 3,536,314 1 Where multiple months are indicated, the exchange rate applies for all months. 2 See paragraph (ii) of this Example. (ii) Since S uses the first-in, first-out inventory method, the closing inventory is assumed to consist of purchases made during the most recent translation period as follows: Hyperinflationary currency Exchange rate United States dollars 2,500,000h 31:1$80,645 2,500,000 30:1 83,333 5,000,000 29:1 172,414 5,000,000 28:1 178,571 8,000,000 26:1 307,692 23,000,000h 822,655 4,000,000h 20:1 200,000 2,500,000 21:1 119,048 2,500,000 22:1 113,636 2,000,000 23:1 86,957 3,000,000 26:1 115,385 3,000,000 28:1 107,143 2,000,000 29:1 68,966 3,000,000 30:1 100,000 4,000,000 31:1 129,032 26,000,000h 1,040,167 4,000,000h 20:1 200,000 107,000,000h 4,776,481 133,000,000h 4,930,121

(d) Computation of DASTM gain or loss -

(1) Rule. DASTM gain or loss of a QBU equals -

(i) The net worth of the QBU (as determined under paragraph (d)(2) of this section) at the end of the taxable year minus the net worth of the QBU at the end of the preceding taxable year; plus

(ii) The dollar amount of the items described in paragraph (d)(3) of this section and minus the dollar amount of the items described in paragraph (d)(4) of this section; minus

(iii) The amount of dollar income or earnings and profits (or plus the amount of any dollar loss or deficit in earnings and profits) as determined for the taxable year pursuant to paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(3) of this section.

(2) Net worth. Net worth of a QBU at the end of any taxable year equals the aggregate dollar amount representing assets on the QBU's balance sheet at the end of the taxable year less the aggregate dollar amount representing liabilities on the balance sheet. Notwithstanding any other provision in this paragraph (d)(2), the district director may adjust the amount of any asset or liability if a purpose for acquiring (or disposing of) the asset or incurring (or discharging) the liability is to manipulate the composition of the balance sheet for any period during the taxable year in order to avoid tax. The taxpayer shall determine net worth by -

(i) Preparing a balance sheet as of the end of the taxable year from the QBU's books and records (within the meaning of § 1.989(a)-1(d)) as recorded in the QBU's hyperinflationary currency;

(ii) Making adjustments necessary to conform such balance sheet to United States generally accepted accounting principles and tax accounting principles (including reversing monetary correction adjustments required by local accounting principles); and

(iii) Translating the asset and liability amounts shown on the balance sheet into United States dollars in accordance with paragraph (d)(5) of this section.

(i) In general. The items described in this paragraph (d)(3) are dividend distributions for the taxable year and any items that decrease net worth for the taxable year but that generally do not affect income or loss or earnings and profits (or a deficit in earnings and profits). Such items include a transfer to the home office of a QBU branch and a return of capital.

(ii) Translation. Except as provided by ruling or administrative pronouncement, items described in paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section shall be translated into dollars as follows:

(A) If the item giving rise to the adjustment would be translated under paragraph (d)(5) of this section at the exchange rate for the last translation period of the taxable year if it were shown on the QBU's year-end balance sheet, such item shall be translated at the exchange rate on the date the item is transferred.

(B) If the item giving rise to the adjustment would be translated under paragraph (d)(5) of this section at the exchange rate for the translation period in which the cost of the item was incurred if it were shown on the QBU's year-end balance sheet, such item shall be translated at the same historical rate.

(iii) Effective date. Paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section is applicable for any transfer, dividend, or distribution that is a return of capital that is made after March 8, 2005, and that gives rise to an adjustment under this paragraph (d)(3).

(4) Negative adjustments. The items described in this paragraph (d)(4) are items that increase net worth for the taxable year but that generally do not affect income or loss or earnings and profits (or a deficit in earnings and profits). Such items include a capital contribution or a transfer from a home office to a QBU branch. Except as otherwise provided by ruling or administrative pronouncement, if the contribution or transfer is not in dollars, the amount of a capital contribution or transfer shall be translated into dollars at the exchange rate on the date made.

(5) Translation of balance sheet. Asset and liability amounts shown on the balance sheet in hyperinflationary currency (adjusted pursuant to paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section) shall be translated into dollars as provided in this paragraph (d)(5). However, if the QBU previously changed its functional currency to the dollar and the rules of § 1.985-5 (or, if applicable, § 1.985-5T, as contained in the April 1, 1993 edition of 26 CFR part 1 (1.908 to 1.1000)) applied in translating its balance sheet amounts into dollars, then the spot exchange rate applied under those rules shall be used to translate any amount that would otherwise be translated at a rate determined by reference to a translation period prior to the change in functional currency. For example, the basis of real property acquired while the QBU had a nondollar functional currency shall be translated into dollars at the spot rate on the last day of the taxable year before the year of change to a dollar functional currency, rather than at the rate for the period in which the cost was incurred.

(i) Closing inventory. Amounts representing items of inventory included in the closing inventory balance shall be translated in accordance with paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section.

(ii) Bad debt reserves. Amounts representing bad debt reserves shall be translated at the exchange rate for the last translation period for the taxable year.

(iii) Prepaid income or expense. Amounts representing expenses or income paid or received in a prior taxable year shall be translated in accordance with paragraph (c)(5) of this section.

(iv) Hyperinflationary currency. Amounts of the hyperinflationary currency and hyperinflationary demand deposit balances shall be translated at the exchange rate for the last translation period of the taxable year.

(v) Certain assets -

(A) In general. Amounts representing plant, real property, equipment, goodwill, and patents and other intangibles shall be translated at the exchange rate for the translation period in which the cost of the asset was incurred.

(B) Adjustment to certain assets. Amounts representing depreciation, depletion, and amortization reserves shall be translated in accordance with paragraph (c)(4) of this section.

(vi) Hyperinflationary debt obligations. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(5)(vii) of this section, amounts representing a hyperinflationary debt obligation (including accounts receivable and payable) shall be translated at the exchange rate for the last translation period for the taxable year.

(vii) Accrued foreign income taxes. Amounts representing an accrued but unpaid foreign income tax shall be translated at the exchange rate on the last day of the last translation period of the taxable year of accrual.

(viii) Certain hyperinflationary financial instruments. Amounts representing any item described in section 988(c)(1)(B)(iii) (relating to forward contracts, futures contracts, options, or similar financial instruments) denominated in or determined by reference to the hyperinflationary currency shall be translated at the exchange rate for the last translation period for the taxable year.

(ix) Other assets and liabilities. Amounts representing assets and liabilities, other than those described in paragraphs (d)(5)(i) through (viii) of this section, shall be translated at the exchange rate for the translation period in which the cost of the asset or the amount of the liability was incurred.

(6) Dollar transactions. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this paragraph (d), where the amount representing an item shown on the balance sheet reflects a dollar transaction (described in paragraph (c)(8) of this section), the transaction shall be taken into account in accordance with that paragraph.

(7) Third currency transactions. A taxpayer may use any reasonable method of accounting for transactions described in section 988(c)(1)(B) and (C) that are denominated in, or determined by reference to, a currency other than the QBU's hyperinflationary currency or the dollar (third currency transactions), so long as such method is consistent with its method of financial accounting.

(8) Character. The amount of DASTM gain or loss determined under paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall be ordinary income or loss.

(9) Example. The provisions of this paragraph (d) are illustrated by the following example:

Example.
(i) S, an accrual method calendar year foreign corporation, uses DASTM. S's hyperinflationary currency is the “h.” S's net worth at December 31, 1993 was $3,246,495. For 1994, S's operating profit is 81,340,000h, or$2,038,200. S made a 5,000,000h distribution in April and again in December of 1994. S's translation period is the month. None of S's assets or liabilities reflect a dollar or third currency transaction described in paragraph (c)(8) or (c)(9) of this section, respectively. The exchange rate for each month in 1994 is as follows:
January 32h:$1 33:1 34:1 35:1 36:1 37:1 38:1 39:1 40:1 (ii) At the end of 1994, S's assets and liabilities, as adjusted and translated pursuant to paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(5) of this section, are as follows: Hyperin-flationary Exchange rate U.S. dollar 40,000h 40:1$1,000 400,000 40:1 10,000 20,000,000 1 40:1 500,000 25,000,000 40:1 625,000 65,000,000 ( 2) 2,500,000 90,000,000 27:1 3,333,333 190,000,000 ( 3) 6,785,714 (600,000) ( 3) (21,428) 10,000,000 ( 4) 340,000 (400,000) ( 4) (13,333) 500,000 34:1 14,706 400,000 26:1 15,385 1,000,000 32:1 31,250 5,000,000 40:1 125,000 406,340,000 14,246,627 35,000,000 40:1 875,000 150,000,000 40:1 3,750,000 80,000,000 40:1 2,000,000 30,000,000 40:1 750,000 295,000,000h $7,375,000 1 S ages its accounts receivable and groups them into two categories - those outstanding for 30 days and those outstanding for 60 days. 2 Translated the same as closing inventory under paragraph (c)(3)(iii). 3 The cost of S's plant was incurred in several translation periods. Therefore, the dollar cost and dollar depreciation reflect several translation rates. 4 S has a variety of equipment. Therefore, S's dollar basis represents the sum of the hyperinflationary cost of each, translated according to the exchange rate for the translation period incurred. (iii) The DASTM gain of S for 1994 is computed as follows: Net worth - 1994 Less - Net worth - 1993$6,871,627 $3,246,495$149,254 1 126,582 275,836 2,038,200 $1,862,768 1 The exchange rates on the date of the April and December dividends were 33.5h:$1 and 39.5h:$1, respectively. (iv) Thus, total profit =$2,038,200 + $1,862,768 =$3,900,968

(e) Effect of DASTM gain or loss on gross income, taxable income, or earnings and profits -

(1) In general. For all purposes of subtitle A, the amount of DASTM gain or loss of a QBU determined under paragraph (d) of this section is taken into account by the QBU for purposes of determining the amount of its gross income, taxable income or loss, earnings and profits (or deficit in earnings and profits), and, where necessary, particular items of income, expense or other amounts. DASTM gain or loss is allocated under one of two methods. Certain small QBUs may elect the small QBU DASTM allocation described in paragraph (e)(2) of this section. All other QBUs must use the 9-step procedure described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section.

(2) Small QBU DASTM allocation -

(i) Election threshold. A taxpayer may elect to use the small QBU DASTM allocation described in paragraph (e)(2)(iv) of this section with respect to a QBU that has an adjusted basis in assets (translated as provided in paragraph (d)(5) of this section) of $10 million or less at the end of any taxable year. In calculating the$10 million threshold, a QBU shall be treated as owning all of the assets of each related QBU (as defined in paragraph (e)(2)(vi) of this section) having its residence (as defined in section 988(a)(3)(B)) in the QBU's country of residence (related same- country QBU). For this purpose, appropriate adjustment shall be made to eliminate the double counting of assets created in transactions between related QBUs resident in the same country. For example, assume QBU-1, resident in country X, sells inventory to related QBU-2, also resident in country X, in exchange for an account receivable. For purposes of determining the assets of QBU-1 under this paragraph (e)(2)(i), the taxpayer shall take into account either the inventory shown on the books of QBU-2 or QBU-1's receivable from QBU-2 (but not both).

(ii) Consent to election. The election of the small QBU DASTM allocation or subsequent application of the rules of paragraph (e)(3) of this section due to an increase in the adjusted basis of the QBU's assets shall be deemed to have been made with the consent of the Commissioner. Once the election under paragraph (e)(2)(iii) of this section is made, it shall apply for all years in which the adjusted basis of the assets of the QBU (and any related same-country QBU) is $10 million or less, unless revoked with the Commissioner's consent. If the adjusted basis of the assets of the QBU (and any related same- country QBU) exceeds$10 million at the end of any taxable year, the rules of paragraph (e)(3) of this section shall apply to that QBU (and any related same-country QBU) for such year and each subsequent year unless such QBU again qualifies, and applies for and obtains the Commissioner's consent, to use the small QBU DASTM allocation. However, if a QBU acquires assets with a principal purpose of avoiding the application of paragraph (e)(2)(iv) of this section, the Commissioner may disregard the acquisition of such assets.

(iii) Manner of making election -

(A) QBUs that are branches of United States persons. For the first year in which this election is effective, in the case of a QBU branch of a United States person, a statement shall be attached to the United States person's timely filed Federal income tax return (taking extensions into account). The statement shall identify the QBU (or QBUs) for which the election is being made by describing its business and its country of residence, state the adjusted basis of the assets of the QBU (and any related same-country QBUs) to which the election applies, and include a statement that the election is being made pursuant to § 1.985-3(e)(2).

(B) Other QBUs. In the case of a QBU other than one described in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(A) of this section, an election must be made in the manner prescribed in § 1.964-1. The statement filed with the Internal Revenue Service as required under § 1.964-1 must include the information required under paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(A) of this section.

(iv) Effect of election. If a taxpayer elects under this paragraph (e)(2) to use the small QBU DASTM allocation, DASTM gain or loss, as determined under paragraph (d) of this section, of a small QBU shall be allocated ratably to all items of the QBU's gross income (determined prior to adjustment for DASTM gain or loss). Therefore, for purposes of the foreign tax credit, DASTM gain or loss shall be allocated on the basis of the relative amounts of gross income in each separate category as defined in § 1.904-5(a)(4)(v). In the case of a controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 957 or 953(c)(1)(B)), for purposes of section 952, DASTM gain or loss shall be allocated to subpart F income in a separate category in the same ratio that the gross subpart F income in that category for the taxable year bears to its total gross income in that category for the taxable year.

(v) Conformity. If a person (or a QBU of such person) makes an election under this paragraph (e)(2) to use the small QBU DASTM allocation, then each QBU of any related person (as defined in paragraph (e)(2)(vi) of this section) that satisfies the threshold requirement of paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section (after application of the aggregation rule of paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section) shall be deemed to have made the election.

(vi) Related person. The term related person means any person with a relationship to the QBU (or to the United States or foreign person of which the electing QBU is a part) that is defined in section 267(b) or section 707(b).

(3) DASTM 9-step procedure -

(i) Step 1 - prepare balance sheets. The taxpayer shall prepare an opening and a closing balance sheet for the QBU for each balance sheet period during the taxable year. The balance sheet period is the most frequent period for which balance sheet data are reasonably available (but in no event less frequently than quarterly). The balance sheet period may not be changed without the consent of the district director. The balance sheets must be prepared under the principles of paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

(ii) Step 2 - identify certain assets and liabilities. The taxpayer shall identify each item on the balance sheet that is described in section 988(c)(1)(B) or (C) and that would have been translated under paragraph (d)(5) of this section into dollars at the exchange rate for the last translation period for the taxable year (or the exchange rate on the last day of the last translation period of the taxable year in the case of an accrued foreign income tax liability).

(iii) Step 3 - characterize the assets. The taxpayer shall characterize and group the assets identified in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section (Step 2) according to the source and the type of income that they generate, have generated, or may reasonably be expected to generate by applying the principles of § 1.861-9T(g)(3) or its successor regulation (relating to characterization of assets for purposes of interest expense allocation). If a purpose for a taxpayer's business practices is to manipulate asset characterization or groupings, the district director may allocate or apportion DASTM gain or loss attributable to the assets. Thus, if a taxpayer that previously did not separately state interest on accounts receivable begins to impose an interest charge and a purpose for the change was to manipulate tax characterizations or groupings, then the district director may require that none of the DASTM gain or loss attributable to those receivables be allocated or apportioned to interest income.

(iv) Step 4 - determine DASTM gain or loss attributable to certain assets -

(A) General rule. The taxpayer shall determine the dollar amount of DASTM gain or loss attributable to assets in each group identified in paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section (Step 3) as follows:

$\left[\left(bb+eb\right)÷2\right]×\left[er-br\right]$
where
bb = the hyperinflationary currency adjusted basis of the assets in the group at the beginning of the balance sheet period.
eb = the hyperinflationary currency adjusted basis of the assets in the group at the end of the balance sheet period.
er = one dollar divided by the number of hyperinflationary currency units that equal one dollar at the end of the balance sheet period.
br = one dollar divided by the number of hyperinflationary currency units that equal one dollar at the beginning of the balance sheet period.

(B) Weighting to prevent distortion. If averaging the adjusted basis of assets in a group at the beginning and end of a balance sheet period results in an allocation of DASTM gain or loss that does not clearly reflect income, as might be the case in the event of a purchase or disposition of an asset that is not in the normal course of business, the taxpayer must use a weighting method that reflects the time the assets are held by the QBU during the translation period.

(C) Example. The provisions of this paragraph (e)(3)(iv) are illustrated by the following example:

Example.
S is a foreign corporation that operates in the hyperinflationary currency “h” and computes its income or loss or earnings and profits under DASTM. S's adjusted basis in a group of assets described in section 988(c)(1)(B) or (C) that generate general limitation foreign source income (as characterized under paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section) at the beginning of the balance sheet period is 750,000h. S's basis in such assets at the end of the balance sheet period is 1,250,000h. The exchange rate at the beginning of the balance sheet period is $1 = 200h. The exchange rate at the end of the balance sheet period is$1 = 500h. The DASTM loss attributable to the assets described above is $3,000, determined as follows: [(750,000h + 1,250,000h) ÷ 2] × [($1 ÷ 500h) − ($1 ÷ 200h)] = ($3000)

(v) Step 5 - adjust dollar gross income by DASTM gain or loss from assets. The taxpayer shall adjust the dollar amount of the QBU's gross income (computed under paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(3) of this section) generated by each group of assets characterized in paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section (Step 3) by the amount of DASTM gain or loss attributable to those assets computed under paragraph (e)(3)(iv) of this section (Step 4). Thus, if a group of assets, such as accounts receivable, generates both a category of income described in section 904(d)(1)(I) (relating to general limitation income) that is not foreign base company income as defined in section 954 and a DASTM loss under paragraph (e)(3)(iv) of this section (Step 4), the amount of the DASTM loss would reduce the amount of the QBU's gross income in that category. Similarly, if a group of assets, such as short-term bank deposits, generates both foreign personal holding company income that is passive income (described in sections 954(c)(1)(A) and 904(d)(1)(A)) and a DASTM loss under paragraph (e)(3)(iv) of this section (Step 4), the amount of the DASTM loss would reduce the amount of the QBU's foreign personal holding company income and passive income. See section 904(f) and the regulations thereunder in the case where that section would apply and DASTM loss attributable to a group of assets exceeds the income generated by such assets.

(vi) Step 6 - determine DASTM gain or loss attributable to liabilities -

(A) General rule. The taxpayer shall determine the dollar amount of DASTM gain or loss attributable to liabilities identified in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section (Step 2), and described in paragraph (e)(3)(vi)(B) of this section as follows:

$\left[\left(bl+el\right)÷2\right]×\left[br-er\right]$
where
bl = the hyperinflationary currency amount of liabilities at the beginning of the balance sheet period.
el = the hyperinflationary currency amount of liabilities at the end of the balance sheet translation period.
br = one dollar divided by the number of hyperinflationary currency units that equal one dollar at the beginning of the balance sheet period.
er = one dollar divided by the number of hyperinflationary currency units that equal one dollar at the end of the balance sheet period.

(B) Separate calculation. The calculation shall be made separately for interest-bearing liabilities described in paragraph (e)(3)(vii) of this section (Step 7) and for each of the classes of non-interest-bearing liabilities described in paragraph (e)(3)(viii) of this section (Step 8).

(C) Weighting to prevent distortion. Where a distortion would result from averaging the amount of liabilities at the beginning and end of a balance sheet period, as might be the case where a taxpayer incurs or retires a substantial liability, the taxpayer must use a different method that more clearly reflects the average amount of liabilities weighted to reflect the time the liability was outstanding during the balance sheet period.

(vii) Step 7 - adjust dollar income and expense by DASTM gain or loss from interest-bearing liabilities -

(A) In general. The taxpayer shall apply the amount of DASTM gain on interest-bearing liabilities computed under paragraph (e)(3)(vi) of this section (Step 6) to reduce interest expense generated by such liabilities (e.g., prior to the application of § 1.861-9T or its successor regulation). To the extent DASTM gain on such liabilities exceeds interest expense, it shall be sourced or otherwise classified in the same manner that interest expense is allocated and apportioned under § 1.861-9T or its successor regulation. The amount of DASTM loss on interest-bearing liabilities computed under paragraph (e)(3)(vi) of this section (Step 6) shall be allocated and apportioned in the same manner that interest expense is allocated and apportioned under § 1.861-9T or its successor regulation (without regard to the exceptions to fungibility in § 1.861-10T or its successor regulation). For purposes of this section, an interest-bearing liability is a liability that requires payment of periodic interest (whether fixed or variable), has original issue discount, or would have interest imputed under subtitle A.

(B) Allocation of DASTM gain or loss from interest-bearing liabilities that generate related person interest expense. DASTM gain or loss from interest-bearing liabilities that generate related person interest expense (as provided in section 954(b)(5)) shall be allocated for purposes of subtitle A (including sections 904 and 952) in the same manner that the related person interest expense of that debt is required to be allocated under the rules of section 954(b)(5) and § 1.904-5(c)(2).

(C) Modified gross income method. In applying the modified gross income method described in § 1.861-9T(j) or its successor regulation, gross income shall be adjusted for any DASTM gain or loss from assets as provided in paragraph (e)(3)(v) of this section (Step 5) and any DASTM gain or loss with respect to short-term, non-interest-bearing trade payables as provided in paragraph (e)(3)(viii)(A) of this section.

(viii) Step 8 - adjust dollar income and expense by DASTM gain or loss from non-interest bearing liabilities -

(A) Short-term, non-interest-bearing trade payables. The taxpayer shall allocate DASTM gain or loss on short-term non-interest-bearing trade payables for purposes of subtitle A (including sections 904 and 952) to the same category or type of gross income as the cost or expense to which the trade payable relates. For this purpose, a short-term, non-interest-bearing trade payable is a non-interest-bearing liability with a term of 183 days or less that is incurred to purchase property or services to be used by the obligor in an active trade or business.

(B) Excise tax payables. The taxpayer shall allocate DASTM gain or loss on excise tax payables for purposes of subtitle A (including sections 904 and 952) to the same category or type of gross income as would be derived from the activity to which the excise tax relates.

(C) Other non-interest-bearing liabilities -

(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraphs (e)(3)(viii)(A), (e)(3)(viii)(B), and (e)(3)(viii)(C)(2) of this section, DASTM gain or loss on non-interest-bearing liabilities shall be allocated under paragraph (e)(3)(ix) of this section (Step 9).

(2) Tracing if substantial distortion of income. DASTM gains and losses on liabilities described in paragraph (e)(3)(viii)(C)(1) of this section may be attributed to the same section 904(d) separate category or subpart F category as the transaction to which the liability relates if the taxpayer demonstrates to the satisfaction of the district director, or it is determined by the district director, that application of paragraph (e)(3)(viii)(C)(1) of this section results in a substantial distortion of income.

(ix) Step 9 - allocate residual DASTM gain or loss. If there is a difference between the net DASTM gain or loss determined under paragraphs (e)(3)(i) through (viii) of this section (Steps 1 through 8) and the DASTM gain or loss determined under paragraph (d) of this section, the amount of the difference must be allocated for purposes of subtitle A (including sections 904 and 952) to the QBU's gross income (computed under paragraphs (b)(1) through (3) of this section, as adjusted under paragraphs (e)(3)(i) through (viii) of this section (Steps 1 through 8)) on the basis of the relative amounts of each category or type of gross income.

[T.D. 8556, 59 FR 37673, July 25, 1994, as amended by T.D. 9320, 72 FR 15044, Mar. 30, 2007; T.D. 9882, 84 FR 69120, Dec. 17, 2019]