26 CFR § 53.4960-2 - Determination of remuneration paid for a taxable year.

§ 53.4960-2 Determination of remuneration paid for a taxable year.

(a) Remuneration -

(1) In general. For purposes of section 4960, remuneration means any amount that is wages as defined in section 3401(a), excluding any designated Roth contribution (as defined in section 402A(c)) and including any amount required to be included in gross income under section 457(f). Remuneration includes amounts includible in gross income as compensation for services as an employee pursuant to a below-market loan described in section 7872(c)(1)(B)(i) (compensation-related loans) but does not include amounts excepted by section 7872(c)(3) ($10,000 de minimis exception). For example, see § 1.7872-15(e)(1)(i). Director's fees paid by a corporation to a director of the corporation are not remuneration, provided that if the director is also an employee of the corporation, the director's fees are excluded from remuneration only to the extent that they do not exceed fees paid to a director who is not an employee of the corporation or any related organization or, if there is no such director, they do not exceed reasonable director's fees. Remuneration does not include any amount that vested or was paid by a taxpayer before the start of the taxpayer's first taxable year that began on or after January 1, 2018.

(2) Exclusion of remuneration for medical services -

(i) In general. Remuneration does not include the portion of any remuneration paid to a licensed medical professional that is for the performance of medical services by such professional.

(ii) Allocation of remuneration for medical services and non-medical services. If, during an applicable year, an employer pays a covered employee remuneration for providing both medical services and non-medical services, the employer must make a reasonable, good faith allocation between the remuneration for medical services and the remuneration for non-medical services. For example, if a medical doctor receives current remuneration (or vests in remuneration under a deferred compensation plan) for providing medical services and administrative or management services, the employer must make a reasonable, good faith allocation between the remuneration for the medical services and the remuneration for the administrative or management services. For this purpose, if an employment agreement or similar written arrangement sets forth the remuneration to be paid for particular services, that allocation of remuneration applies unless the facts and circumstances demonstrate that the amount allocated to medical services is unreasonable for those services or that the allocation was established for purposes of avoiding application of the excise tax under section 4960. If some or all of the remuneration is not reasonably allocated in an employment agreement or similar arrangement, an employer may use any reasonable allocation method. For example, an employer may use a representative sample of records, such as patient, insurance, and Medicare/Medicaid billing records or internal time reporting mechanisms to determine the time spent providing medical services, and then allocate remuneration to medical services in the proportion such time bears to the total hours the employee worked for the employer (and any related employer) for purposes of making a reasonable allocation of remuneration. Similarly, if some or all of the remuneration is not reasonably allocated in an employment agreement or other similar arrangement, an employer may use salaries or other remuneration paid by the employer or similarly situated employers for duties comparable to those the employee performs (for example, hospital administrator and physician) for purposes of making a reasonable allocation between remuneration for providing medical services and for providing non-medical services.

(iii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (a)(2). For purposes of these examples, assume any entity referred to as “ATEO” is an ATEO.

(A) Example 1 (Allocation based on employment agreement) -

(1) Facts. Employee A is a covered employee of ATEO 1. Employee A is a licensed medical professional who provides patient care services for ATEO 1 and also provides management and administrative services to ATEO 1 as the manager of a medical practice group within ATEO 1. The employment agreement between ATEO 1 and Employee A specifies that of Employee A's salary, 30 percent is allocable to Employee A's services as manager of the medical practice group and 70 percent is allocable to Employee A's services as a medical professional providing patient care services. The facts regarding Employee A's employment indicate the employment agreement provides a reasonable allocation and that the allocation was not established for purposes of avoiding application of the excise tax.

(2) Conclusion. Consistent with Employee A's employment agreement, ATEO 1 must allocate 30 percent of Employee A's salary to the provision of non-medical services and 70 percent of Employee A's salary to the provision of medical services. Accordingly, only the 30 percent portion of Employee A's salary allocated to the other, non-medical services is remuneration for purposes of paragraph (a) of this section.

(B) Example 2 (Allocation based on billing records) -

(1) Facts. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(A) of this section (Example 1), except that the employment agreement does not allocate Employee A's salary between medical and non-medical services performed by Employee A. Based on a representative sample of insurance and Medicare billing records, as well as time reports that Employee A submits to ATEO 1, ATEO 1 determines that Employee A spends 50 percent of her work hours providing patient care and 50 percent of her work hours performing administrative and management services. ATEO 1 allocates 50 percent of Employee A's remuneration to medical services.

(2) Conclusion. ATEO 1's allocation of Employee A's salary is a reasonable, good faith allocation. Accordingly, only the 50 percent portion of Employee A's remuneration allocated to the non-medical services is remuneration for purposes of paragraph (a) of this section.

(b) Source of payment. For purposes of this section, the determination of the source of a payment of remuneration may involve the application of one or both of two separate rules described in this paragraph (b). Paragraph (b)(1) of this section addresses payments by a third party for services performed as an employee of a separate employer entity, while paragraph (b)(2) of this section addresses the application of section 4960(c)(4)(A) to treat certain remuneration paid by a related organization (after application of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if applicable) as paid by the ATEO.

(1) Remuneration paid by a third party for employment by an employer. Remuneration paid (or a grant of a legally binding right to nonvested remuneration) by a third-party payor (whether a related organization, payroll agent, agent designated under section 3504, certified professional employer organization under section 7705, or other entity) during an applicable year for services performed as an employee of an employer is remuneration paid (or payable) by the employer, except as otherwise provided in § 53.4960-1(d)(2)(ii) and (iii).

(2) Remuneration paid by a related organization for employment by the related organization. Pursuant to section 4960(c)(4)(A), remuneration paid (or a grant of a legally binding right to nonvested remuneration) by a related organization to an ATEO's employee during an applicable year for services performed as an employee of the related organization is treated as remuneration paid (or payable) by the ATEO, except as otherwise provided in § 53.4960-1(d)(2)(ii) and (iii).

(c) Applicable year in which remuneration is treated as paid -

(1) In general. Remuneration that is a regular wage within the meaning of § 31.3402(g)-1(a)(1)(ii) is treated as paid on the date it is actually or constructively paid and all other remuneration is treated as paid on the first date on which the remuneration is vested.

(2) Vested remuneration. Remuneration is vested if it is not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture within the meaning of section 457(f)(3)(B) (regardless of whether the arrangement under which the remuneration is to be paid is deferred compensation described in section 457(f) or 409A). In general, an amount is subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture if entitlement to the amount is conditioned on the future performance of substantial services or upon the occurrence of a condition that is related to a purpose of the remuneration if the possibility of forfeiture is substantial. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, remuneration that is never subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture is considered paid on the first date the service provider has a legally binding right to the payment. For purposes of this section, a plan means a plan within the meaning of § 1.409A-1(c), an account balance plan means an account balance plan within the meaning of § 1.409A-1(c)(2)(i)(A), and a nonaccount balance plan means a nonaccount balance plan within the meaning of § 1.409A-1(c)(2)(i)(C). Net earnings on previously paid remuneration (described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section) that are not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture are vested (and, thus, treated as paid) at the earlier of the date actually or constructively paid to the employee or the close of the applicable year in which they accrue. For example, the present value of a principal amount accrued to an employee's account under an account balance plan (under which the earnings and losses attributed to the account are based solely on a predetermined actual investment as determined under § 31.3121(v)(2)-1(d)(2)(i)(B) or a reasonable market interest rate) is treated as paid on the date vested, but the present value of any net earnings subsequently accrued on that amount (the increase in value due to the predetermined actual investment or a reasonable market interest rate) is treated as paid at the close of the applicable year in which they accrue. Similarly, while the present value of an amount accrued under a nonaccount balance (including earnings that accrued while the amount was nonvested) is treated as paid on the date it is first vested, the present value of the net earnings on that amount (the increase in the present value) is treated as paid at the close of the applicable year in which they accrue.

(3) Change in related status during the year. If a taxpayer becomes or ceases to be a related organization with respect to an ATEO during an applicable year, then only the remuneration paid by the taxpayer to an employee with respect to services performed as an employee of the related organization during the portion of the applicable year during which the employer is a related organization is treated as paid by the ATEO. If an amount is treated as paid due to vesting in the year the taxpayer becomes or ceases to be a related organization with respect to the ATEO, then the amount is treated as paid by the ATEO only if the amount becomes vested during the portion of the applicable year that the taxpayer is a related organization with respect to the ATEO.

(d) Amount of remuneration treated as paid -

(1) In general. For each applicable year, the amount of remuneration treated as paid by the employer to a covered employee is the sum of regular wages within the meaning of § 31.3402(g)-1(a)(1)(ii) actually or constructively paid during the applicable year and the present value (as determined under paragraph (e) of this section) of all other remuneration that vested during the applicable year. The amount of remuneration that vests during an applicable year is determined on an employer-by-employer basis with respect to each covered employee.

(2) Earnings and losses on previously paid remuneration -

(i) In general. The amount of net earnings or losses on previously paid remuneration paid by an employer is determined on an employee-by-employee basis, such that amounts accrued with regard to one employee do not affect amounts accrued with regard to a different employee. Similarly, losses accrued on previously paid remuneration from one employer do not offset earnings accrued on previously paid remuneration from another employer. The amount of net earnings or losses on previously paid remuneration paid by the employer is determined on a net aggregate basis for all plans maintained by the employer in which the employee participates for each applicable year. For example, losses under an account balance plan may offset earnings under a nonaccount balance plan for the same applicable year maintained by the same employer for the same employee.

(ii) Previously paid remuneration -

(A) New covered employee. For an individual who was not a covered employee for any prior applicable year, previously paid remuneration means, for the applicable year for which the individual becomes a covered employee, the present value of vested remuneration that was not actually or constructively paid or otherwise includible in the employee's gross income before the start of the applicable year plus any remuneration that vested during the applicable year but that is not actually or constructively paid or otherwise includible in the employee's gross income before the close of the applicable year.

(B) Existing covered employee. For an individual who was a covered employee for any prior applicable year, previously paid remuneration means, for each applicable year, the amount of remuneration that the employer treated as paid in the applicable year or for a prior applicable year but that is not actually or constructively paid or otherwise includible in the employee's gross income before the close of the applicable year. Actual or constructive payment or another event causing an amount of previously paid remuneration to be includible in the employee's gross income thus reduces the amount of previously paid remuneration.

(iii) Earnings. Earnings means any increase in the vested present value of previously paid remuneration as of the close of the applicable year, regardless of whether the plan denominates the increase as earnings. For example, an increase in the vested account balance of a nonqualified deferred compensation plan based solely on the investment return of a predetermined actual investment (and disregarding any additional contributions) constitutes earnings. Similarly, an increase in the vested present value of a benefit under a nonqualified nonaccount balance plan due solely to the passage of time (and disregarding any additional benefit accruals) constitutes earnings. However, an increase in an account balance of a nonqualified deferred compensation plan due to a salary reduction contribution or an employer contribution does not constitute earnings (and therefore may not be offset with losses). Likewise, an increase in the benefit under a nonaccount balance plan due to an additional year of service or an increase in compensation that is reflected in a benefit formula does not constitute earnings.

(iv) Losses. Losses means any decrease in the vested present value of previously paid remuneration as of the close of the applicable year, regardless of whether the plan denominates that decrease as losses.

(v) Net earnings. Net earnings means, for each applicable year, the amount (if any) by which the earnings accrued for the applicable year on previously paid remuneration exceeds the sum of the losses accrued on previously paid remuneration for the applicable year and any net losses carried forward from a previous taxable year.

(vi) Net losses. Net losses means, for each applicable year, the amount (if any) by which the sum of the losses accrued on previously paid remuneration for the applicable year and any net losses carried forward from a previous taxable year exceed the earnings accrued for the applicable year on previously paid remuneration. Losses may only be used to offset earnings and thus do not reduce the remuneration treated as paid for an applicable year except to the extent of the earnings accrued for that applicable year. However, with regard to a covered employee, an employer may carry net losses forward to the next applicable year and offset vested earnings for purposes of determining net earnings or losses for that subsequent applicable year. For example, if a covered employee who participates in a nonaccount balance plan and an account balance plan vests in an amount of earnings under the nonaccount balance plan and has losses under the account balance plan that exceed the vested earnings treated as remuneration under the nonaccount balance plan, those excess losses are carried forward to the next applicable year and offset vested earnings for purposes of determining net earnings or losses for that applicable year. If, for the next applicable year, there are not sufficient earnings to offset the entire amount of losses carried forward from the previous year (and any additional losses), the offset process repeats for each subsequent applicable year until there are sufficient earnings for the applicable year to offset any remaining losses carried forward.

(3) Remuneration paid for a taxable year before the employee becomes a covered employee -

(i) In general. In accordance with the payment timing rules of paragraph (c) of this section, any remuneration that is vested but is not actually or constructively paid or otherwise includible in an employee's gross income as of the close of the applicable year for the taxable year immediately preceding the taxable year in which the employee first becomes a covered employee of an ATEO is treated as previously paid remuneration for the taxable year in which the employee first becomes a covered employee. Net losses on this previously paid remuneration from any preceding applicable year do not carry forward to subsequent applicable years. However, net earnings and losses that vest on such previously paid remuneration in subsequent applicable years are treated as remuneration paid for a taxable year for which the employee is a covered employee.

(ii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (d)(3). For purposes of these examples, assume any organization described as “ATEO” is an ATEO.

(A) Example 1 (Earnings on pre-covered employee remuneration) -

(1) Facts. ATEO 1 uses a taxable year beginning July 1 and ending June 30. Employee A becomes a covered employee of ATEO 1 for the taxable year beginning July 1, 2023, and ending June 30, 2024. During the 2022 applicable year, Employee A vests in $1 million of nonqualified deferred compensation. As of December 31, 2022, the present value of the amount deferred under the plan is $1.1 million. During the 2023 applicable year, ATEO 1 pays Employee A $1 million in regular wages. The present value as of December 31, 2023, of Employee A's nonqualified deferred compensation is $1.3 million.

(2) Conclusion (Taxable year beginning July 1, 2022, and ending June 30, 2023). ATEO 1 pays Employee A $1.1 million of remuneration in the 2022 applicable year. This is comprised of $1 million of vested nonqualified deferred compensation, and $100,000 of earnings, all of which is treated as paid for the taxable year beginning July 1, 2022, and ending June 30, 2023.

(3) Conclusion (Taxable year beginning July 1, 2023, and ending June 30, 2024). ATEO 1 pays Employee A $1.2 million of remuneration in the 2023 applicable year. This is comprised of $1 million regular wages and $200,000 of earnings ($1.3 million present value as of December 31, 2023, minus $1.1 million previously paid remuneration as of December 31, 2022).

(B) Example 2 (Losses on pre-covered employee remuneration) -

(1) Facts. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(A) of this section (Example 1), except that the present value of the nonqualified deferred compensation as of December 31, 2022, is $900,000.

(2) Conclusion (Taxable year beginning July 1, 2022, and ending June 30, 2023). ATEO 1 pays Employee A $1 million of remuneration in the 2022 applicable year. This is comprised of $1 million of vested nonqualified deferred compensation. The present value of all vested deferred compensation as of December 31 of the 2022 applicable year ($900,000) is treated as previously paid remuneration for the next applicable year (as Employee A is a covered employee for the next taxable year). The $100,000 of losses accrued while Employee A was not a covered employee do not carry forward to the next applicable year.

(3) Conclusion (Taxable year beginning July 1, 2023, and ending June 30, 2024). ATEO 1 pays Employee A $1.4 million of remuneration in the 2023 applicable year. This is comprised of $1 million cash and $400,000 of earnings ($1.3 million present value as of December 31, 2023, minus $900,000 previously paid remuneration).

(e) Calculation of present value -

(1) In general. The employer must determine present value using reasonable actuarial assumptions regarding the amount, time, and probability that a payment will be made. For this purpose, a discount for the probability that an employee will die before commencement of benefit payments is permitted, but only to the extent that benefits will be forfeited upon death. The present value may not be discounted for the probability that payments will not be made (or will be reduced) because of the unfunded status of the plan; the risk associated with any deemed or actual investment of amounts deferred under the plan; the risk that the employer, the trustee, or another party will be unwilling or unable to pay; the possibility of future plan amendments; the possibility of a future change in the law; or similar risks or contingencies. The present value of the right to future payments as of the vesting date includes any earnings that have accrued as of the vesting date that are not previously paid remuneration.

(2) Treatment of future payment amount as present value for certain amounts. For purposes of determining the present value of remuneration that is scheduled to be actually or constructively paid within 90 days of vesting, the employer may treat the future amount that is to be paid as the present value at vesting.

(f) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this section. For purposes of these examples, assume any entity referred to as “ATEO” is an ATEO, any entity referred to as “CORP” is not an ATEO, and all taxpayers use the calendar year as their taxable year.

(1) Example 1 (Account balance plan) -

(i) Facts. Employee A is a covered employee of ATEO 1. Employee A participates in a nonqualified deferred compensation plan (the NQDC plan) in which the account balance is adjusted based on the investment returns on predetermined actual investments. On January 1, 2022, ATEO 1 credits $100,000 to Employee A's account under the plan, subject to the requirement that Employee A remain employed through June 30, 2024. On June 30, 2024, the vested account balance is $110,000. Due to earnings or losses on the account balance, the closing account balance on each of the following dates is: $115,000 on December 31, 2024, $120,000 on December 31, 2025, $100,000 on December 31, 2026, and $110,000 on December 31, 2027. During 2028, Employee A defers an additional $10,000 under the plan, all of which is vested at the time of deferral. On December 31, 2028, the closing account balance is $125,000. In 2029, ATEO 1 pays $10,000 to Employee A under the plan. On December 31, 2029, the closing account balance is $135,000 due to earnings on the account balance.

(ii) Conclusion (2022 and 2023 applicable years - nonvested amounts). For 2022 and 2023, ATEO 1 is not treated as paying Employee A any remuneration attributable to Employee A's participation in the NQDC plan because the amount deferred under the plan remains subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture within the meaning of section 457(f)(3)(B).

(iii) Conclusion (2024 applicable year - amounts in year of vesting). For 2024, ATEO 1 is treated as paying Employee A $115,000 of remuneration attributable to Employee A's participation in the NQDC plan, including $110,000 of remuneration on June 30, 2024, when the amount becomes vested, and an additional $5,000 of remuneration on December 31, 2024, which is earnings on the previously paid remuneration ($110,000).

(iv) Conclusion (2025 applicable year - earnings). For 2025, ATEO 1 is treated as paying Employee A $5,000 of remuneration attributable to Employee A's participation in the NQDC plan, which is the additional earnings on the previously paid remuneration ($115,000) as of December 31, 2025.

(v) Conclusion (2026 applicable year - losses). For 2026, ATEO 1 is not treated as paying Employee A any remuneration attributable to Employee A's participation in the NQDC plan because the present value of the previously paid remuneration ($120,000) decreased to $100,000 as of December 31, 2026. The $20,000 loss for 2026 does not reduce any amount previously treated as remuneration but is available for carryover to subsequent taxable years to offset earnings.

(vi) Conclusion (2027 applicable year - recovery of losses). For 2027, ATEO 1 is not treated as paying Employee A any remuneration attributable to Employee A's participation in the NQDC plan because the present value of the previously paid remuneration ($120,000) was $110,000 as of December 31, 2027. Due to increases on the account balance, ATEO 1 recovers $10,000 of the $20,000 of losses carried over from 2026. The net losses as of December 31, 2027, are $10,000, and none of the $10,000 in earnings during 2027 is treated as remuneration paid in 2027.

(vii) Conclusion (2028 applicable year - no recovery of losses against additional deferrals of compensation). For 2028, ATEO 1 is treated as paying Employee A $10,000 of remuneration attributable to Employee A's participation in the NQDC plan. The additional $10,000 deferral is vested and thus is treated as remuneration paid on the date credited to Employee A's account. This credit increases the amount of previously paid remuneration from $120,000 to $130,000. Additionally, due to earnings, ATEO 1 recovers $5,000 of the $10,000 loss carried over from 2027, none of which was remuneration paid for 2026, so that as of December 31, 2028, the net loss available for carryover to 2029 is $5,000.

(viii) Conclusion (2029 applicable year - distributions, recovery of remainder of losses through earnings and additional earnings). For 2029, ATEO 1 is treated as paying Employee A $15,000 of remuneration attributable to Employee A's participation in the NQDC plan. The $10,000 payment reduces the amount of previously paid remuneration (from $130,000 to $120,000) and the account balance (from $125,000 to $115,000). The present value of the vested account balance increases by $20,000 (from $115,000 to $135,000) as of December 31, 2029. Therefore, due to earnings, ATEO 1 recovers the remaining $5,000 loss carried over from 2028 (the difference between the $120,000 previously paid remuneration before earnings and the $115,000 account balance before earnings) and is treated as paying Employee A an additional $15,000 of remuneration as earnings (the difference between the $135,000 account balance after earnings and the $120,000 previously paid remuneration after loss recovery).

(2) Example 2 (Nonaccount balance plan with earnings) -

(i) Facts. ATEO 2 and CORP 2 are related organizations. Employee B is a covered employee of ATEO 2 and is also employed by CORP 2. On January 1, 2022, CORP 2 and Employee B enter into an agreement under which CORP 2 will pay Employee B $100,000 on December 31, 2025, if B remains employed by CORP 2 through January 1, 2024. Employee B remains employed by CORP 2 through January 1, 2024. On January 1, 2024, the present value based on reasonable actuarial assumptions of the $100,000 to be paid on December 31, 2025, is $75,000. On December 31, 2024, the present value of the $100,000 future payment increases to $85,000 due solely to the passage of time. On December 31, 2025, CORP 2 pays Employee B $100,000.

(ii) Conclusion (2022 and 2023 applicable years - nonvested amounts). For 2022 and 2023, CORP 2 is not treated as paying Employee B any remuneration attributable to the agreement because the amount deferred under the agreement remains subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture within the meaning of section 457(f)(3)(B).

(iii) Conclusion (2024 applicable year - amounts in year of vesting). For 2024, CORP 2 is treated as paying Employee B $75,000 of remuneration attributable to the agreement on January 1, 2024, which is the present value on that date of the $100,000 payable on December 31, 2025. In addition, CORP 2 is treated as paying Employee B $10,000 of remuneration attributable to the agreement on December 31, 2024, which is earnings based on the increase in the present value of the previously paid remuneration (from $75,000 to $85,000) as of December 31, 2024.

(iv) Conclusion (2025 applicable year - earnings and distribution of previously paid remuneration). For 2025, CORP 2 is treated as paying Employee B $15,000 in remuneration attributable to the agreement on December 31, 2025, which is earnings based on the increase in the present value of the previously paid remuneration (from $85,000 to $100,000) as of December 31, 2025. In addition, the $100,000 payment is treated as reducing the amount of previously paid remuneration ($100,000) to zero.

(3) Example 3 (Treatment of amount payable as present value at vesting) -

(i) Facts. Employee C is a covered employee of ATEO 3. Under an agreement between ATEO 3 and Employee C, ATEO 3 agrees to pay Employee C $100,000 two months after the date Employee C meets a specified performance goal that is a substantial risk of forfeiture within the meaning of section 457(f)(3)(B). Employee C meets the performance goal on November 30, 2022, and ATEO 3 pays Employee C $100,000 on January 31, 2023. In accordance with § 53.4960-2(e)(2), because the payment is to be made within 90 days of vesting, ATEO 3 elects to treat the full payment amount as the amount of remuneration paid at vesting.

(ii) Conclusion (2022 applicable year - election to treat amount payable within 90 days as paid at vesting). For taxable year 2022, ATEO 3 is treated as paying Employee C $100,000 of remuneration attributable to the agreement. Employee C vests in the $100,000 payment in 2022 upon meeting the performance goal. Under the general rule, ATEO 3 would be treated as paying for the taxable year 2022 the present value as of November 30, 2022, of $100,000 payable on January 31, 2023 (two months after the date of vesting), with adjustments to the present value as of the end of the year. However, because ATEO 3 elected to treat the full $100,000 amount payable within 90 days of vesting as the remuneration paid, the $100,000 payable to Employee C in 2023 is treated as remuneration paid in 2022 (and no additional amount related to the $100,000 paid on January 31, 2023, is treated as remuneration paid in 2023).

(4) Example 4 (Aggregation of remuneration from related organizations) -

(i) Facts. Employee D is a covered employee of ATEO 4 and also an employee of CORP 4 and CORP 5. ATEO 4, CORP 4, and CORP 5 are related organizations. ATEO 4, CORP 4, and CORP 5 each pay Employee D $200,000 of salary during 2022 and 2023. On January 1, 2022, ATEO 4 promises to pay Employee D $120,000 on December 31, 2023, under a nonaccount balance plan, the right to which is vested and the present value of which is $100,000 on January 1, 2022. On January 1, 2022, CORP 4 and CORP 5 each contribute $100,000 on Employee D's behalf to account balance plans of CORP 4 and CORP 5, respectively, under which all amounts deferred are vested. On December 31, 2022, the present value of the amounts deferred under the ATEO 4 plan is $110,000, the present value of the amounts deferred under the CORP 4 plan is $120,000, and the present value of the amounts deferred under the CORP 5 plan maintained is $90,000. On December 31, 2023, the present value of the amounts deferred under the ATEO 4 plan is $120,000, the present value of the amounts deferred under the CORP 4 plan is $130,000, and the present value of the amounts deferred under the CORP 5 plan is $110,000.

(ii) Conclusion (2022 applicable year). For 2022, before aggregation of remuneration paid by related organizations, ATEO 4 is treated as paying Employee D $310,000 of remuneration ($200,000 salary + $100,000 upon vesting of deferred amounts + $10,000 net earnings on vested deferred amounts). CORP 4 is treated as paying Employee D $320,000 of remuneration ($200,000 salary + $100,000 upon vesting of deferred amounts + $20,000 net earnings on vested deferred amounts). CORP 5 is treated as paying Employee D $300,000 of remuneration ($200,000 salary + $100,000 upon vesting of deferred amounts) and has $10,000 of net losses on vested deferred amounts, which are carried forward to 2023. Thus, ATEO 4 is treated as paying $930,000 of remuneration to Employee D for the applicable year.

(iii) Conclusion (2023 applicable year). For 2023, before aggregation of remuneration paid by related organizations, ATEO 4 is treated as paying Employee D $210,000 of remuneration ($200,000 salary + $10,000 earnings on previously paid remuneration). CORP 4 is treated as paying Employee D $210,000 of remuneration ($200,000 salary + $10,000 net earnings on previously paid remuneration). CORP 5 is treated as paying Employee D $210,000 of remuneration ($200,000 salary + $10,000 net earnings on previously paid remuneration after taking into account the loss carryforward). Thus, ATEO 4 is treated as paying $630,000 of remuneration to Employee D for the applicable year.

(5) Example 5 (Treatment of regular wages for a pay period spanning applicable years) -

(i) Facts. ATEO 5 pays its employees' salaries in accordance with a two-week payroll period that begins Sunday of the first week and ends Saturday of the second week. Payment occurs the Friday following the end of the payroll period. The last payroll period of 2023 ends on December 31, 2023. For the last payroll period, Employee E earns $8,000 of salary. In addition, ATEO 5 awards Employee E a $10,000 bonus that vests on December 31, 2023. ATEO 5 pays Employee E $18,000 on Friday, January 5, 2024, reflecting Employee E's salary for the last payroll period of 2023 and the bonus, the right to which vested on December 31, 2023.

(ii) Conclusion (Regular wages). The $8,000 of salary is regular wages within the meaning of § 31.3402(g)-1(a)(1)(ii) because it is an amount paid at a periodic rate for the current payroll period. Thus, $8,000 is treated as remuneration paid on January 5, 2024 (when it is actually or constructively paid), and, therefore, is treated as remuneration paid in ATEO 5's 2024 applicable year.

(iii) Conclusion (Amounts other than regular wages). The $10,000 bonus is not regular wages within the meaning of § 31.3402(g)-1(a)(1)(ii) because it is not an amount paid at a periodic rate for the current payroll period. Thus, $10,000 is treated as remuneration paid on December 31, 2023 (when it is vested) and, therefore, is treated as remuneration paid in ATEO 5's 2023 applicable year.

[T.D. 9938, 86 FR 6219, Jan. 19, 2021]