26 CFR § 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.

§ 53.4965-7 Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.

(a) Entity-level taxes—(1) In general. Entity-level excise taxes apply to non-plan entities (as defined in § 53.4965–2(b)) that are parties to prohibited tax shelter transactions.

(i) Prohibited tax shelter transactions other than subsequently listed transactions—(A) Amount of tax if the entity did not know and did not have reason to know. If the tax-exempt entity did not know and did not have reason to know that the transaction was a prohibited tax shelter transaction at the time the entity entered into the transaction, the tax is the highest rate of tax under section 11 multiplied by the greater of—

(1) The entity's net income with respect to the prohibited tax shelter transaction (after taking into account any tax imposed by Subtitle D, other than by this section, with respect to such transaction) for the taxable year; or

(2) 75 percent of the proceeds received by the entity for the taxable year that are attributable to such transaction.

(B) Amount of tax if the entity knew or had reason to know. If the tax-exempt entity knew or had reason to know that the transaction was a prohibited tax shelter transaction at the time the entity entered into the transaction, the tax is the greater of—

(1) 100 percent of the entity's net income with respect to the transaction (after taking into account any tax imposed by Subtitle D, other than by this section, with respect to such transaction) for the taxable year; or

(2) 75 percent of the proceeds received by the entity for the taxable year that are attributable to such transaction.

(ii) Subsequently listed transactions—(A) In general. In the case of a subsequently listed transaction (as defined in section 4965(e)(2) and § 53.4965–3(b)), the tax-exempt entity's income and proceeds attributable to the transaction are allocated between the period before the transaction became listed and the period beginning on the date the transaction became listed. See § 53.4965–8 for the standard for allocating net income or proceeds to various periods. The tax for each taxable year is the highest rate of tax under section 11 multiplied by the greater of—

(1) The entity's net income with respect to the subsequently listed transaction (after taking into account any tax imposed by Subtitle D, other than by this section, with respect to such transaction) for the taxable year that is allocable to the period beginning on the later of the date such transaction is identified by the Secretary as a listed transaction or the first day of the taxable year; or

(2) 75 percent of the proceeds received by the entity for the taxable year that are attributable to such transaction and allocable to the period beginning on the later of the date such transaction is identified by the Secretary as a listed transaction or the first day of the taxable year.

(B) No increase in tax. The 100 percent tax under section 4965(b)(1)(B) and § 53.4965–7(a)(1)(i)(B) does not apply to any subsequently listed transaction (as defined in section 4965(e)(2) and § 53.4965–3(b)) entered into by a tax-exempt entity before the date on which the transaction is identified by the Secretary as a listed transaction.

(2) Taxable year. The excise tax imposed under section 4965(a)(1) applies for the taxable year in which the entity becomes a party to the prohibited tax shelter transaction and any subsequent taxable year for which the entity has net income or proceeds attributable to the transaction. A taxable year for tax-exempt entities is the calendar year or fiscal year, as applicable, depending on the basis on which the tax-exempt entity keeps its books for Federal income tax purposes. If a tax-exempt entity has not established a taxable year for Federal income tax purposes, the entity's taxable year for the purpose of determining the amount and timing of net income and proceeds attributable to a prohibited tax shelter transaction will be deemed to be the annual period the entity uses in keeping its books and records.

(b) Manager-level taxes—(1) Amount of tax. If any entity manager approved or otherwise caused the tax-exempt entity to become a party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction and knew or had reason to know that the transaction was a prohibited tax shelter transaction, such entity manager is liable for the $20,000 tax. See § 53.4965–5(d) for the meaning of approved or otherwise caused. See § 53.4965–6 for the meaning of knew or had reason to know.

(2) Timing of the entity manager tax. If a tax-exempt entity enters into a prohibited tax shelter transaction during a taxable year of an entity manager, then the entity manager that approved or otherwise caused the tax-exempt entity to become a party to the transaction is liable for the entity manager tax for that taxable year if the entity manager knew or had reason to know that the transaction was a prohibited tax shelter transaction.

(3) Example. The application of paragraph (b)(2) of this section is illustrated by the following example:

Example.
The entity manager's taxable year is the calendar year. On December 1, 2006, the entity manager approved or otherwise caused the tax-exempt entity to become a party to a transaction that the entity manager knew or had reason to know was a prohibited tax shelter transaction. The tax-exempt entity entered into the transaction on January 31, 2007. The entity manager is liable for the entity manager level tax for the entity manager's 2007 taxable year, during which the tax-exempt entity entered into the prohibited tax shelter transaction.

(4) Separate liability. If more than one entity manager approved or caused a tax-exempt entity to become a party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction while knowing (or having reason to know) that the transaction was a prohibited tax shelter transaction, then each such entity manager is separately (that is, not jointly and severally) liable for the entity manager-level tax with respect to the transaction.

(c) Effective/applicability dates. See § 53.4965–9 for the discussion of the relevant effective and applicability dates.

[T.D. 9492, 75 FR 38702, July 6, 2010]