29 CFR § 1910.177 - Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim wheels.
(1) This section applies to the servicing of multi-piece and single piece rim wheels used on large vehicles such as trucks, tractors, trailers, b uses and off-road machines. It does not apply to the servicing of rim wheels used on automobiles, or on pickup trucks and vans utilizing automobile tires or truck tires designated “LT”.
(2) This section does not apply to employers and places of employment regulated under the Longshoring Standards, 29 CFR part 1918; Construction Safety Standards, 29 CFR part 1926; or Agriculture Standards, 29 CFR part 1928.
(b) Definitions. Barrier means a fence, wall or other structure or object placed between a single piece rim wheel and an employee during tire inflation, to contain the rim wheel components in the event of the sudden release of the contained air of the single piece rim wheel.
Charts means the U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration publications entitled “Demounting and Mounting Procedures for Tube-Type Truck and Bus Tires,” “Demounting and Mounting Procedures for Tubeless Truck and Bus Tires,” and “Multi-Piece Rim Matching Chart.” These charts may be in manual or poster form. OSHA also will accept any other manual or poster that provides at least the same instructions, safety precautions, and other information contained in these publications, which is applicable to the types of wheels the employer is servicing.
Installing a rim wheel means the transfer and attachment of an assembled rim wheel onto a vehicle axle hub. Removing means the opposite of installing.
Multi-piece rim wheel means the assemblage of a multi-piece wheel with the tire tube and other components.
Multi-piece wheel means a vehicle wheel consisting of two or more parts, one of which is a side or locking ring designed to hold the tire on the wheel by interlocking components when the tire is inflated.
Restraining device means an apparatus such as a cage, rack, assemblage of bars and other components that will constrain all rim wheel components during an explosive separation of a multi-piece rim wheel, or during the sudden release of the contained air of a single piece rim wheel.
Rim manual means a publication containing instructions from the manufacturer or other qualified organization for correct mounting, demounting, maintenance, and safety precautions peculiar to the type of wheel being serviced.
Rim wheel means an assemblage of tire, tube and liner (where appropriate), and wheel components.
Service or servicing means the mounting and demounting of rim wheels, and related activities such as inflating, deflating, installing, removing, and handling.
Single piece rim wheel means the assemblage of single piece rim wheel with the tire and other components.
Trajectory means any potential path or route that a rim wheel component may travel during an explosive separation, or the sudden release of the pressurized air, or an area at which an airblast from a single piece rim wheel may be released. The trajectory may deviate from paths which are perpendicular to the assembled position of the rim wheel at the time of separation or explosion. (See appendix A for examples of trajectories.)
Wheel means that portion of a rim wheel which provides the method of attachment of the assembly to the axle of a vehicle and also provides the means to contain the inflated portion of the assembly (i.e., the tire and/or tube).
(c) Employee training.
(i) The employer shall assure that no employee services any rim wheel unless the employee has been trained and instructed in correct procedures of servicing the type of wheel being serviced, and in the safe operating procedures described in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section.
(iii) Where an employer knows or has reason to believe that any of his employees is unable to read and understand the charts or rim manual, the employer shall assure that the employee is instructed concerning the contents of the charts and rim manual in a manner which the employee is able to understand.
(i) Demounting of tires (including deflation);
(ii) Inspection and identification of the rim wheel components;
(iii) Mounting of tires (including inflation with a restraining device or other safeguard required by this section);
(v) Handling of rim wheels;
(vi) Inflation of the tire when a single piece rim wheel is mounted on a vehicle;
(viii) Installation and removal of rim wheels.
(3) The employer shall evaluate each employee's ability to perform these tasks and to service rim wheels safely, and shall provide additional training as necessary to assure that each employee maintains his or her proficiency.
(d) Tire servicing equipment.
(3) Restraining devices and barriers shall comply with the following requirements:
(i) Each restraining device or barrier shall have the capacity to withstand the maximum force that would be transferred to it during a rim wheel separation occurring at 150 percent of the maximum tire specification pressure for the type of rim wheel being serviced.
(ii) Restraining devices and barriers shall be capable of preventing the rim wheel components from being thrown outside or beyond the device or barrier for any rim wheel positioned within or behind the device;
(iii) Restraining devices and barriers shall be visually inspected prior to each day's use and after any separation of the rim wheel components or sudden release of contained air. Any restraining device or barrier exhibiting damage such as the following defects shall be immediately removed from service:
(A) Cracks at welds;
(B) Cracked or broken components;
(C) Bent or sprung components caused by mishandling, abuse, tire explosion or rim wheel separation;
(D) Pitting of components due to corrosion; or
(E) Other structural damage which would decrease its effectiveness.
(iv) Restraining devices or barriers removed from service shall not be returned to service until they are repaired and reinspected. Restraining devices or barriers requiring structural repair such as component replacement or rewelding shall not be returned to service until they are certified by either the manufacturer or a Registered Professional Engineer as meeting the strength requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section.
(i) A clip-on chuck;
(ii) An in-line valve with a pressure gauge or a presettable regulator; and
(e) Wheel component acceptability.
(2) Multi-piece wheel components and single piece wheels shall be inspected prior to assembly. Any wheel or wheel component which is bent out of shape, pitted from corrosion, broken, or cracked shall not be used and shall be marked or tagged unserviceable and removed from the service area. Damaged or leaky valves shall be replaced.
(3) Rim flanges, rim gutters, rings, bead seating surfaces and the bead areas of tires shall be free of any dirt, surface rust, scale or loose or flaked rubber build-up prior to mounting and inflation.
(f) Safe operating procedure - multi-piece rim wheels. The employer shall establish a safe operating procedure for servicing multi-piece rim wheels and shall assure that employees are instructed in and follow that procedure. The procedure shall include at least the following elements:
(1) Tires shall be completely deflated before demounting by removal of the valve core.
(2) Tires shall be completely deflated by removing the valve core before a rim wheel is removed from the axle in either of the following situations:
(i) When the tire has been driven underinflated at 80% or less of its recommended pressure, or
(ii) When there is obvious or suspected damage to the tire or wheel components.
(4) If a tire on a vehicle is underinflated but has more than 80% of the recommended pressure, the tire may be inflated while the rim wheel is on the vehicle provided remote control inflation equipment is used, and no employees remain in the trajectory during inflation.
(5) Tires shall be inflated outside a restraining device only to a pressure sufficient to force the tire bead onto the rim ledge and create an airtight seal with the tire and bead.
(7) After tire inflation, the tire and wheel components shall be inspected while still within the restraining device to make sure that they are properly seated and locked. If further adjustment to the tire or wheel components is necessary, the tire shall be deflated by removal of the valve core before the adjustment is made.
(8) No attempt shall be made to correct the seating of side and lock rings by hammering, striking or forcing the components while the tire is pressurized.
(9) Cracked, broken, bent or otherwise damaged rim components shall not be reworked, welded, brazed, or otherwise heated.
(10) Whenever multi-piece rim wheels are being handled, employees shall stay out of the trajectory unless the employer can demonstrate that performance of the servicing makes the employee's presence in the trajectory necessary.
(g) Safe operating procedure - single piece rim wheels. The employer shall establish a safe operating procedure for servicing single piece rim wheels and shall assure that employees are instructed in and follow that procedure. The procedure shall include at least the following elements:
(1) Tires shall be completely deflated by removal of the valve core before demounting.
(2) Mounting and demounting of the tire shall be done only from the narrow ledge side of the wheel. Care shall be taken to avoid damaging the tire beads while mounting tires on wheels. Tires shall be mounted only on compatible wheels of matching bead diameter and width.
(3) Nonflammable rubber lubricant shall be applied to bead and wheel mating surfaces before assembly of the rim wheel, unless the tire or wheel manufacturer recommends against the use of any rubber lubricant.
(4) If a tire changing machine is used, the tire shall be inflated only to the minimum pressure necessary to force the tire bead onto the rim ledge while on the tire changing machine.
(5) If a bead expander is used, it shall be removed before the valve core is installed and as soon as the rim wheel becomes airtight (the tire bead slips onto the bead seat).
(6) Tires may be inflated only when contained within a restraining device, positioned behind a barrier or bolted on the vehicle with the lug nuts fully tightened.
(7) Tires shall not be inflated when any flat, solid surface is in the trajectory and within one foot of the sidewall.
(9) Tires shall not be inflated to more than the inflation pressure stamped in the sidewall unless a higher pressure is recommended by the manufacturer.
(10) Tires shall not be inflated above the maximum pressure recommended by the manufacturer to seat the tire bead firmly against the rim flange.
(11) No heat shall be applied to a single piece wheel.
(12) Cracked, broken, bent, or otherwise damaged wheels shall not be reworked, welded, brazed, or otherwise heated.
The information on the OSHA charts is available on three posters, or in a manual containing the three charts, entitled “Demounting and Mounting Procedures for Tubeless Truck and Bus Tires,” “Demounting and Mounting Procedures for Tube-Type Truck and Bus Tires,” and “Multi-piece Rim Matching Chart.” Interested parties can download and print both the manuals and posters from OSHA's Web site at http://www.osha.gov/publications (and type “tire chart” in the search field). However, when used by the employer at a worksite to provide information to employees, the printed posters must be, at a minimum, 2 feet wide and 3 feet long. Copies of the manual also are available from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA Office of Publications, Room N-3101, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20210; telephone: (202) 693-1888; or fax: (202) 693-2498).