29 CFR § 1910.308 - Special systems.
(a) Systems over 600 volts, nominal. This paragraph covers the general requirements for all circuits and equipment operated at over 600 volts.
(1) Aboveground wiring methods.
(i) Aboveground conductors shall be installed in rigid metal conduit, in intermediate metal conduit, in electrical metallic tubing, in rigid nonmetallic conduit, in cable trays, as busways, as cablebus, in other identified raceways, or as open runs of metal-clad cable suitable for the use and purpose. In locations accessible to qualified persons only, open runs of Type MV cables, bare conductors, and bare busbars are also permitted. Busbars shall be either copper or aluminum. Open runs of insulated wires and cables having a bare lead sheath or a braided outer covering shall be supported in a manner designed to prevent physical damage to the braid or sheath.
(ii) Conductors emerging from the ground shall be enclosed in approved raceways.
(2) Braid-covered insulated conductors—open installations. The braid on open runs of braid-covered insulated conductors shall be flame retardant or shall have a flame-retardant saturant applied after installation. This treated braid covering shall be stripped back a safe distance at conductor terminals, according to the operating voltage.
(3) Insulation shielding.
(i) Metallic and semiconductor insulation shielding components of shielded cables shall be removed for a distance dependent on the circuit voltage and insulation. Stress reduction means shall be provided at all terminations of factory-applied shielding.
(ii) Metallic shielding components such as tapes, wires, or braids, or combinations thereof, and their associated conducting and semiconducting components shall be grounded.
(4) Moisture or mechanical protection for metal-sheathed cables. Where cable conductors emerge from a metal sheath and where protection against moisture or physical damage is necessary, the insulation of the conductors shall be protected by a cable sheath terminating device.
(5) Interrupting and isolating devices.
(i) Circuit breaker installations located indoors shall consist of metal-enclosed units or fire-resistant cell-mounted units. In locations accessible only to qualified employees, open mounting of circuit breakers is permitted. A means of indicating the open and closed position of circuit breakers shall be provided.
(ii) Where fuses are used to protect conductors and equipment, a fuse shall be placed in each ungrounded conductor. Two power fuses may be used in parallel to protect the same load, if both fuses have identical ratings, and if both fuses are installed in an identified common mounting with electrical connections that will divide the current equally. Power fuses of the vented type may not be used indoors, underground, or in metal enclosures unless identified for the use.
(iii) Fused cutouts installed in buildings or transformer vaults shall be of a type identified for the purpose. Distribution cutouts may not be used indoors, underground, or in metal enclosures. They shall be readily accessible for fuse replacement.
(iv) Where fused cutouts are not suitable to interrupt the circuit manually while carrying full load, an approved means shall be installed to interrupt the entire load. Unless the fused cutouts are interlocked with the switch to prevent opening of the cutouts under load, a conspicuous sign shall be placed at such cutouts reading: “WARNING—DO NOT OPERATE UNDER LOAD.”
(v) Suitable barriers or enclosures shall be provided to prevent contact with nonshielded cables or energized parts of oil-filled cutouts.
(vi) Load interrupter switches may be used only if suitable fuses or circuits are used in conjunction with these devices to interrupt fault currents.
(A) Where these devices are used in combination, they shall be coordinated electrically so that they will safely withstand the effects of closing, carrying, or interrupting all possible currents up to the assigned maximum short-circuit rating.
(B) Where more than one switch is installed with interconnected load terminals to provide for alternate connection to different supply conductors, each switch shall be provided with a conspicuous sign reading: “WARNING—SWITCH MAY BE ENERGIZED BY BACKFEED.”
(vii) A means (for example, a fuseholder and fuse designed for the purpose) shall be provided to completely isolate equipment for inspection and repairs. Isolating means that are not designed to interrupt the load current of the circuit shall be either interlocked with an approved circuit interrupter or provided with a sign warning against opening them under load.
(6) Mobile and portable equipment.
(i) A metallic enclosure shall be provided on the mobile machine for enclosing the terminals of the power cable. The enclosure shall include provisions for a solid connection for the grounding terminal to effectively ground the machine frame. The method of cable termination used shall prevent any strain or pull on the cable from stressing the electrical connections. The enclosure shall have provision for locking so only authorized qualified persons may open it and shall be marked with a sign warning of the presence of energized parts.
(ii) All energized switching and control parts shall be enclosed in effectively grounded metal cabinets or enclosures. Circuit breakers and protective equipment shall have the operating means projecting through the metal cabinet or enclosure so these units can be reset without locked doors being opened. Enclosures and metal cabinets shall be locked so that only authorized qualified persons have access and shall be marked with a sign warning of the presence of energized parts. Collector ring assemblies on revolving-type machines (shovels, draglines, etc.) shall be guarded.
(7) Tunnel installations. This paragraph applies to installation and use of high-voltage power distribution and utilization equipment that is portable or mobile, such as substations, trailers, cars, mobile shovels, draglines, hoists, drills, dredges, compressors, pumps, conveyors, and underground excavators.
(i) Conductors in tunnels shall be installed in one or more of the following:
(A) Metal conduit or other metal raceway;
(B) Type MC cable; or
(C) Other approved multiconductor cable.
(ii) Multiconductor portable cable may supply mobile equipment.
(iii) Conductors and cables shall also be so located or guarded as to protect them from physical damage. An equipment grounding conductor shall be run with circuit conductors inside the metal raceway or inside the multiconductor cable jacket. The equipment grounding conductor may be insulated or bare.
(iv) Bare terminals of transformers, switches, motor controllers, and other equipment shall be enclosed to prevent accidental contact with energized parts.
(v) Enclosures for use in tunnels shall be drip-proof, weatherproof, or submersible as required by the environmental conditions.
(vi) Switch or contactor enclosures may not be used as junction boxes or raceways for conductors feeding through or tapping off to other switches, unless special designs are used to provide adequate space for this purpose.
(vii) A disconnecting means that simultaneously opens all ungrounded conductors shall be installed at each transformer or motor location.
(viii) All nonenergized metal parts of electric equipment and metal raceways and cable sheaths shall be effectively grounded and bonded to all metal pipes and rails at the portal and at intervals not exceeding 305 m (1000 ft) throughout the tunnel.
(b) Emergency power systems. This paragraph applies to circuits, systems, and equipment intended to supply power for illumination and special loads in the event of failure of the normal supply.
(1) Wiring methods. Emergency circuit wiring shall be kept entirely independent of all other wiring and equipment and may not enter the same raceway, cable, box, or cabinet or other wiring except either where common circuit elements suitable for the purpose are required, or for transferring power from the normal to the emergency source.
(2) Emergency illumination. Emergency illumination shall include all required means of egress lighting, illuminated exit signs, and all other lights necessary to provide illumination. Where emergency lighting is necessary, the system shall be so arranged that the failure of any individual lighting element, such as the burning out of a light bulb, cannot leave any space in total darkness.
(i) A sign shall be placed at the service entrance equipment indicating the type and location of on-site emergency power sources. However, a sign is not required for individual unit equipment.
(ii) Where the grounded circuit conductor connected to the emergency source is connected to a grounding electrode conductor at a location remote from the emergency source, there shall be a sign at the grounding location that shall identify all emergency and normal sources connected at that location.
(c) Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 remote control, signaling, and power-limited circuits—(1) Classification. Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 remote control, signaling, or power-limited circuits are characterized by their usage and electrical power limitation that differentiates them from light and power circuits. These circuits are classified in accordance with their respective voltage and power limitations as summarized in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) through (c)(1)(iii) of this section.
(i) A Class 1 power-limited circuit shall be supplied from a source having a rated output of not more than 30 volts and 1000 volt-amperes.
(ii) A Class 1 remote control circuit or a Class 1 signaling circuit shall have a voltage not exceeding 600 volts; however, the power output of the source need not be limited.
(iii) The power source for a Class 2 or Class 3 circuit shall be listed equipment marked as a Class 2 or Class 3 power source, except as follows:
(A) Thermocouples do not require listing as a Class 2 power source; and
(B) A dry cell battery is considered an inherently limited Class 2 power source, provided the voltage is 30 volts or less and the capacity is less than or equal to that available from series-connected No. 6 carbon zinc cells.
(2) Marking. A Class 2 or Class 3 power supply unit shall be durably marked where plainly visible to indicate the class of supply and its electrical rating.
(3) Separation from conductors of other circuits. Cables and conductors of Class 2 and Class 3 circuits may not be placed in any cable, cable tray, compartment, enclosure, manhole, outlet box, device box, raceway, or similar fitting with conductors of electric light, power, Class 1, nonpower-limited fire alarm circuits, and medium power network-powered broadband communications cables unless a barrier or other equivalent form of protection against contact is employed.
(d) Fire alarm systems—(1) Classifications. Fire alarm circuits shall be classified either as nonpower limited or power limited.
(2) Power sources. The power sources for use with fire alarm circuits shall be either power limited or nonpower limited as follows:
(i) The power source of nonpower-limited fire alarm (NPLFA) circuits shall have an output voltage of not more than 600 volts, nominal; and
(ii) The power source for a power-limited fire alarm (PLFA) circuit shall be listed equipment marked as a PLFA power source.
(3) Separation from conductors of other circuits.
(i) Nonpower-limited fire alarm circuits and Class 1 circuits may occupy the same enclosure, cable, or raceway provided all conductors are insulated for maximum voltage of any conductor within the enclosure, cable, or raceway. Power supply and fire alarm circuit conductors are permitted in the same enclosure, cable, or raceway only if connected to the same equipment.
(ii) Power-limited circuit cables and conductors may not be placed in any cable, cable tray, compartment, enclosure, outlet box, raceway, or similar fitting with conductors of electric light, power, Class 1, nonpower-limited fire alarm circuit conductors, or medium power network-powered broadband communications circuits.
(iii) Power-limited fire alarm circuit conductors shall be separated at least 50.8 mm (2 in.) from conductors of any electric light, power, Class 1, nonpower-limited fire alarm, or medium power network-powered broadband communications circuits unless a special and equally protective method of conductor separation is employed.
(iv) Conductors of one or more Class 2 circuits are permitted within the same cable, enclosure, or raceway with conductors of power-limited fire alarm circuits provided that the insulation of Class 2 circuit conductors in the cable, enclosure, or raceway is at least that needed for the power-limited fire alarm circuits.
(4) Identification. Fire alarm circuits shall be identified at terminal and junction locations in a manner that will prevent unintentional interference with the signaling circuit during testing and servicing. Power-limited fire alarm circuits shall be durably marked as such where plainly visible at terminations.
(e) Communications systems. This paragraph applies to central-station-connected and non-central-station-connected telephone circuits, radio and television receiving and transmitting equipment, including community antenna television and radio distribution systems, telegraph, district messenger, and outside wiring for fire and burglar alarm, and similar central station systems. These installations need not comply with the provisions of § 1910.303 through § 1910.308(d), except for §§ 1910.304(c)(1) and 1910.307.
(1) Protective devices.
(i) A listed primary protector shall be provided on each circuit run partly or entirely in aerial wire or aerial cable not confined within a block.
(ii) A listed primary protector shall be also provided on each aerial or underground circuit when the location of the circuit within the block containing the building served allows the circuit to be exposed to accidental contact with electric light or power conductors operating at over 300 volts to ground.
(iii) In addition, where there exists a lightning exposure, each interbuilding circuit on premises shall be protected by a listed primary protector at each end of the interbuilding circuit.
(2) Conductor location.
(i) Lead-in or aerial-drop cables from a pole or other support, including the point of initial attachment to a building or structure, shall be kept away from electric light, power, Class 1, or nonpower-limited fire alarm circuit conductors so as to avoid the possibility of accidental contact.
(ii) A separation of at least 1.83 m (6 ft) shall be maintained between communications wires and cables on buildings and lightning conductors.
(iii) Where communications wires and cables and electric light or power conductors are supported by the same pole or run parallel to each other in-span, the following conditions shall be met:
(A) Where practicable, communication wires and cables on poles shall be located below the electric light or power conductors; and
(B) Communications wires and cables may not be attached to a crossarm that carries electric light or power conductors.
(iv) Indoor communications wires and cables shall be separated at least 50.8 mm (2 in.) from conductors of any electric light, power, Class 1, nonpower-limited fire alarm, or medium power network-powered broadband communications circuits, unless a special and equally protective method of conductor separation, identified for the purpose, is employed.
(3) Equipment location. Outdoor metal structures supporting antennas, as well as self-supporting antennas such as vertical rods or dipole structures, shall be located as far away from overhead conductors of electric light and power circuits of over 150 volts to ground as necessary to prevent the antenna or structure from falling into or making accidental contact with such circuits.
(i) If exposed to contact with electric light and power conductors, the metal sheath of aerial cables entering buildings shall be grounded or shall be interrupted close to the entrance to the building by an insulating joint or equivalent device. Where protective devices are used, they shall be grounded in an approved manner.
(ii) Masts and metal structures supporting antennas shall be permanently and effectively grounded without splice or connection in the grounding conductor.
(iii) Transmitters shall be enclosed in a metal frame or grill or separated from the operating space by a barrier, all metallic parts of which are effectively connected to ground. All external metal handles and controls accessible to the operating personnel shall be effectively grounded. Unpowered equipment and enclosures are considered to be grounded where connected to an attached coaxial cable with an effectively grounded metallic shield.
(f) Solar photovoltaic systems. This paragraph covers solar photovoltaic systems that can be interactive with other electric power production sources or can stand alone with or without electrical energy storage such as batteries. These systems may have ac or dc output for utilization.
(1) Conductors of different systems. Photovoltaic source circuits and photovoltaic output circuits may not be contained in the same raceway, cable tray, cable, outlet box, junction box, or similar fitting as feeders or branch circuits of other systems, unless the conductors of the different systems are separated by a partition or are connected together.
(2) Disconnecting means. Means shall be provided to disconnect all current-carrying conductors of a photovoltaic power source from all other conductors in a building or other structure. Where a circuit grounding connection is not designed to be automatically interrupted as part of the ground-fault protection system, a switch or circuit breaker used as disconnecting means may not have a pole in the grounded conductor.
(g) Integrated electrical systems—(1) Scope. Paragraph (g) of this section covers integrated electrical systems, other than unit equipment, in which orderly shutdown is necessary to ensure safe operation. An integrated electrical system as used in this section shall be a unitized segment of an industrial wiring system where all of the following conditions are met:
(i) An orderly shutdown process minimizes employee hazard and equipment damage;
(ii) The conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons will service the system; and
(iii) Effective safeguards are established and maintained.
(2) Location of overcurrent devices in or on premises. Overcurrent devices that are critical to integrated electrical systems need not be readily accessible to employees as required by § 1910.304(f)(1)(iv) if they are located with mounting heights to ensure security from operation by nonqualified persons.