31 CFR § 802.901 - Penalties and damages.
(a) Any person who submits a declaration or notice with a material misstatement or omission or makes a false certification under § 802.402, § 802.403, or § 802.502 may be liable to the United States for a civil penalty not to exceed $250,000 per violation. The amount of the penalty imposed for a violation shall be based on the nature of the violation.
(b) Any person who violates a material provision of a mitigation agreement with, a material condition imposed by, or an order issued by, the United States under section 721(l) may be liable to the United States for a civil penalty not to exceed $250,000 per violation or the value of the transaction, whichever is greater. For clarification, under the previous sentence, whichever penalty amount is greater may be imposed per violation, and the amount of the penalty imposed for a violation shall be based on the nature of the violation.
(c) A mitigation agreement entered into or amended under section 721(l) may include a provision providing for liquidated or actual damages for breaches of the agreement. The mitigation agreement shall specify the amount of any liquidated damages that are a reasonable assessment of the harm to the national security that could result from a breach of the agreement. Any mitigation agreement containing a liquidated damages provision shall include a provision specifying that the Committee may consider the severity of the breach in deciding whether to seek a lesser amount than that stipulated in the agreement.
(d) A determination to impose penalties under paragraph (a) or (b) of this section must be made by the Committee. Notice of the penalty, including a written explanation of the conduct to be penalized and the amount of the penalty, shall be sent to the subject person electronically and by U.S. mail or courier service. Notice shall be deemed to have been effected by the earlier of the date of electronic transmission and the date of receipt of U.S. mail or courier service. For the purposes of this section, the term subject person means the person or persons who may be liable to the United States for a civil penalty.
(e) Upon receiving notice of a penalty to be imposed under paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section, the subject person may, within 15 business days of receipt of such notice, submit a petition for reconsideration to the Staff Chairperson, including a defense, justification, or explanation for the conduct to be penalized. The Committee will review the petition and issue any final penalty determination within 15 business days of receipt of the petition. The Staff Chairperson and the subject person may extend either such period through written agreement. The Committee and the subject person may reach an agreement on an appropriate remedy at any time before the Committee issues any final penalty determination.
(f) The penalties and damages authorized in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section may be recovered in a civil action brought by the United States in federal district court.
(g) Section 2 of the False Statements Accountability Act of 1996, as amended (18 U.S.C. 1001), shall apply to all information provided to the Committee under section 721, including by any party to a covered real estate transaction.
(h) The penalties and damages available under this section are without prejudice to other penalties, civil or criminal, available under law.
(i) The imposition of a civil monetary penalty or damages under these regulations creates a debt due to the U.S. Government. The Department of the Treasury may take action to collect the penalty or damages assessed if not paid within the time prescribed by the Committee and notified to the applicable party or parties. In addition or instead, the matter may be referred to the Department of Justice for appropriate action to recover the penalty or damages.