32 CFR § 22.105 - Definitions.
Other than the terms defined in this section, terms used in this part are defined in 32 CFR part 21, subpart F.
Administrative offset. An action whereby money payable by the United States Government to, or held by the Government for, a recipient is withheld to satisfy a delinquent debt the recipient owes the Government.
Advanced research. Advanced technology development that creates new technology or demonstrates the viability of applying existing technology to new products and processes in a general way. Advanced research is most closely analogous to precompetitive technology development in the commercial sector (i.e., early phases of research and development on which commercial competitors are willing to collaborate, because the work is not so coupled to specific products and processes that the results of the work must be proprietary). It does not include development of military systems and hardware where specific requirements have been defined. It is typically funded in Advanced Technology Development (Budget Activity 3 and Research Category 6.3A) programs within Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E).
Applied research. Efforts that attempt to determine and exploit the potential of scientific discoveries or improvements in technology such as new materials, devices, methods and processes. It typically is funded in Applied Research (Budget Activity 2 and Research Category 6.2) programs within Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E). Applied research normally follows basic research but may not be fully distinguishable from the related basic research. The term does not include efforts whose principal aim is the design, development, or testing of specific products, systems or processes to be considered for sale or acquisition; these efforts are within the definition of “development.”
Basic research. Efforts directed toward increasing knowledge and understanding in science and engineering, rather than the practical application of that knowledge and understanding. It typically is funded within Basic Research (Budget Activity 1 and Research Category 6.1) programs within Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E). For the purposes of this part, basic research includes:
Claim. A written demand or written assertion by one of the parties to a grant or cooperative agreement seeking as a matter of right, the payment of money in a sum certain, the adjustment or interpretation of award terms, or other relief arising under or relating to a grant or cooperative agreement. A routine request for payment that is not in dispute when submitted is not a claim. The submission may be converted to a claim by written notice to the grants officer if it is disputed either as to liability or amount, or is not acted upon in a reasonable time.
Debt. Any amount of money or any property owed to a Federal Agency by any person, organization, or entity except another United States Federal Agency. Debts include any amounts due from insured or guaranteed loans, fees, leases, rents, royalties, services, sales of real or personal property, or overpayments, penalties, damages, interest, fines and forfeitures, and all other claims and similar sources. Amounts due a nonappropriated fund instrumentality are not debts owed the United States, for the purposes of this subchapter.
Delinquent debt. A debt:
(1) That the debtor fails to pay by the date specified in the initial written notice from the agency owed the debt, normally within 30 calendar days, unless the debtor makes satisfactory payment arrangements with the agency by that date; and
(2) With respect to which the debtor has elected not to exercise any available appeals or has exhausted all agency appeal processes.
Development. The systematic use of scientific and technical knowledge in the design, development, testing, or evaluation of potential new products, processes, or services to meet specific performance requirements or objectives. It includes the functions of design engineering, prototyping, and engineering testing.
Electronic commerce. The conduct of business through the use of automation and electronic media, in lieu of paper transactions, direct personal contact, telephone, or other means. For grants and cooperative agreements, electronic commerce can include the use of electronic data interchange, electronic mail, electronic bulletin board systems, and electronic funds transfer for: program announcements or solicitations; applications or proposals; award documents; recipients' requests for payment; payment authorizations; and payments.
Electronic data interchange. The exchange of standardized information communicated electronically between business partners, typically between computers. It is DoD policy that DoD Component EDI applications conform to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) X-12 standard. 1
1 Available from Accredited Standards Committee, X-12 Secretariat, Data Interchange Standards Association, 1800 Diagonal Road, Suite 355, Alexandria, VA 22314-2852; Attention: Manager Maintenance and Publications.
Electronic funds transfer. A system that provides the authority to debit or credit accounts in financial institutions by electronic means rather than source documents (e.g., paper checks). Processing typically occurs through the Federal Reserve System and/or the Automated Clearing House (ACH) computer network. It is DoD policy that DoD Component EFT transmissions conform to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) X-12 standard.
Historically Black colleges and universities. Institutions of higher education determined by the Secretary of Education to meet the requirements of 34 CFR 608.2. Each DoD Component's contracting activities and grants officers may obtain a list of historically Black colleges and universities from that DoD Component's Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization office.
Institution of higher education. An educational institution that meets the criteria in section 1201(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1141(a)). Note, however, that institution of higher education has a different meaning in § 22.520, as given at § 22.520(b)(2).
Minority institutions. Institutions of higher education that meet the criteria for minority institutions specified in 10 U.S.C. 2323. Each DoD Component's contracting activities and grants officers may obtain copies of a current list of institutions that qualify as minority institutions under 10 U.S.C. 2323 from that DoD Component's Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization office (the list of minority institutions changes periodically, based on Department of Education data on institutions' enrollments of minority students).
Research. Basic, applied, and advanced research, as defined in this section.
Subaward. An award of financial assistance in the form of money, or property in lieu of money, made under a DoD grant or cooperative agreement by a recipient to an eligible subrecipient. The term includes financial assistance for substantive program performance by the subrecipient of a portion of the program for which the DoD grant or cooperative agreement was made. It does not include the recipient's procurement of goods and services needed to carry out the program.