34 CFR § 685.206 - Borrower responsibilities and defenses.

§ 685.206 Borrower responsibilities and defenses.
Link to an amendment published at 84 FR 49926, Sept. 23, 2019.

(a) The borrower must give the school the following information as part of the origination process for a Direct Subsidized, Direct Unsubsidized, or Direct PLUS Loan:

(1) A statement, as described in 34 CFR part 668, that the loan will be used for the cost of the student's attendance.

(2) Information demonstrating that the borrower is eligible for the loan.

(3) Information concerning the outstanding FFEL Program and Direct Loan Program loans of the borrower and, for a parent borrower, of the student, including any Federal Consolidation Loan or Direct Consolidation Loan.

(4) A statement authorizing the school to release to the Secretary information relevant to the student's eligibility to borrow or to have a parent borrow on the student's behalf (e.g., the student's enrollment status, financial assistance, and employment records).


(1) The borrower must promptly notify the Secretary of any change of name, address, student status to less than half-time, employer, or employer's address; and

(2) The borrower must promptly notify the school of any change in address during enrollment.

(c) Borrower defenses.

(1) For loans first disbursed prior to July 1, 2017, the borrower may assert a borrower defense under this paragraph. A “borrower defense” refers to any act or omission of the school attended by the student that relates to the making of the loan for enrollment at the school or the provision of educational services for which the loan was provided that would give rise to a cause of action against the school under applicable State law, and includes one or both of the following:

(i) A defense to repayment of amounts owed to the Secretary on a Direct Loan, in whole or in part.

(ii) A claim to recover amounts previously collected by the Secretary on the Direct Loan, in whole or in part.

(2) The order of objections for defaulted Direct Loans are as described in § 685.222(a)(6). A borrower defense claim under this section must be asserted, and will be resolved, under the procedures in § 685.222(e) to (k).

(3) For an approved borrower defense under this section, except as provided in paragraph (c)(4) of this section, the Secretary may initiate an appropriate proceeding to collect from the school whose act or omission resulted in the borrower defense the amount of relief arising from the borrower defense, within the later of -

(i) Three years from the end of the last award year in which the student attended the institution; or

(ii) The limitation period that State law would apply to an action by the borrower to recover on the cause of action on which the borrower defense is based.

(4) The Secretary may initiate a proceeding to collect at any time if the institution received notice of the claim before the end of the later of the periods described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section. For purposes of this paragraph, notice includes receipt of -

(i) Actual notice from the borrower, from a representative of the borrower, or from the Department;

(ii) A class action complaint asserting relief for a class that may include the borrower; and

(iii) Written notice, including a civil investigative demand or other written demand for information, from a Federal or State agency that has power to initiate an investigation into conduct of the school relating to specific programs, periods, or practices that may have affected the borrower.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1845-0021)
(Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1087a et seq.)
[59 FR 61690, Dec. 1, 1994, as amended at 60 FR 33345, June 28, 1995; 64 FR 58972, Nov. 1, 1999; 78 FR 65832, Nov. 1, 2013; 81 FR 76080, Nov. 1, 2016]