40 CFR § 1042.901 - Definitions.
The following definitions apply to this part. The definitions apply to all subparts unless we note otherwise. All undefined terms have the meaning the Clean Air Act gives to them. The definitions follow:
Adjustable parameter means any device, system, or element of design that someone can adjust (including those which are difficult to access) and that, if adjusted, may affect emissions or engine performance during emission testing or normal in-use operation. This includes, but is not limited to, parameters related to injection timing and fueling rate. You may ask us to exclude a parameter that is difficult to access if it cannot be adjusted to affect emissions without significantly degrading engine performance, or if you otherwise show us that it will not be adjusted in a way that affects emissions during in-use operation.
Aftertreatment means relating to a catalytic converter, particulate filter, or any other system, component, or technology mounted downstream of the exhaust valve (or exhaust port) whose design function is to decrease emissions in the engine exhaust before it is exhausted to the environment. Exhaust-gas recirculation and turbochargers are not aftertreatment.
Alcohol-fueled engine means an engine that is designed to run using an alcohol fuel. For purposes of this definition, alcohol fuels do not include fuels with a nominal alcohol content below 25 percent by volume.
Amphibious vehicle means a vehicle with wheels or tracks that is designed primarily for operation on land and secondarily for operation in water.
2008 Annex VI means MARPOL Annex VI, which is an annex to the International Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the protocol of 1978 relating thereto (incorporated by reference in § 1042.910).
Applicable emission standard or applicable standard means an emission standard to which an engine is subject; or, where an engine has been or is being certified to another standard or FEL, applicable emission standards means the FEL and other standards to which the engine has been or is being certified. This definition does not apply to subpart H of this part.
Auxiliary emission control device means any element of design that senses temperature, vessel speed, engine RPM, transmission gear, or any other parameter for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying, or deactivating the operation of any part of the emission control system.
Base engine means a land-based engine to be marinized, as configured prior to marinization.
Baseline emissions has the meaning given in § 1042.825.
Calibration means the set of specifications and tolerances specific to a particular design, version, or application of a component or assembly capable of functionally describing its operation over its working range.
Category 1 means relating to a marine engine with specific engine displacement below 7.0 liters per cylinder. See § 1042.670 to determine equivalent per-cylinder displacement for nonreciprocating marine engines (such as gas turbine engines).
Category 2 means relating to a marine engine with a specific engine displacement at or above 7.0 liters per cylinder but less than 30.0 liters per cylinder. See § 1042.670 to determine equivalent per-cylinder displacement for nonreciprocating marine engines (such as gas turbine engines).
Certification means relating to the process of obtaining a certificate of conformity for an engine family that complies with the emission standards and requirements in this part.
Compression-ignition means relating to a type of reciprocating, internal-combustion engine that is not a spark-ignition engine. Note that certain other marine engines (such as those powered by natural gas with maximum engine power at or above 250 kW) are deemed to be compression-ignition engines in § 1042.1.
Constant-speed engine means an engine whose certification is limited to constant-speed operation. Engines whose constant-speed governor function is removed or disabled are no longer constant-speed engines.
Constant-speed operation has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.
Crankcase emissions means airborne substances emitted to the atmosphere from any part of the engine crankcase's ventilation or lubrication systems. The crankcase is the housing for the crankshaft and other related internal parts.
Critical emission-related component means any of the following components:
(1) Electronic control units, aftertreatment devices, fuel-metering components, EGR-system components, crankcase-ventilation valves, all components related to charge-air compression and cooling, and all sensors and actuators associated with any of these components.
(2) Any other component whose primary purpose is to reduce emissions.
Date of manufacture has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.
Designated Compliance Officer means the Director, Diesel Engine Compliance Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000 Traverwood Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48105; firstname.lastname@example.org; epa.gov/otaq/verify.
Designated Enforcement Officer means the Director, Air Enforcement Division (2242A), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460.
Deterioration factor means the relationship between emissions at the end of useful life and emissions at the low-hour test point (see §§ 1042.240 and 1042.245), expressed in one of the following ways:
ECA associated area has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1043.20.
Dual-fuel means relating to an engine designed for operation on two different fuels but not on a continuous mixture of those fuels (see § 1042.601(j)). For purposes of this part, such an engine remains a dual-fuel engine even if it is designed for operation on three or more different fuels. Note that this definition differs from MARPOL Annex VI.
Emission control area (ECA) has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1043.20.
Emission control system means any device, system, or element of design that controls or reduces the emissions of regulated pollutants from an engine.
Emission-related maintenance means maintenance that substantially affects emissions or is likely to substantially affect emission deterioration.
Engine has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. This includes complete and partially complete engines.
Engine configuration means a unique combination of engine hardware and calibration within an engine family. Engines within a single engine configuration differ only with respect to normal production variability or factors unrelated to emissions.
Engine family has the meaning given in § 1042.230.
Engineering analysis means a summary of scientific and/or engineering principles and facts that support a conclusion made by a manufacturer, with respect to compliance with the provisions of this part.
Excluded means relating to an engine that either:
Exempted has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.
Exhaust-gas recirculation means a technology that reduces emissions by routing exhaust gases that had been exhausted from the combustion chamber(s) back into the engine to be mixed with incoming air before or during combustion. The use of valve timing to increase the amount of residual exhaust gas in the combustion chamber(s) that is mixed with incoming air before or during combustion is not considered exhaust-gas recirculation for the purposes of this part.
Family emission limit (FEL) means an emission level declared by the manufacturer to serve in place of an otherwise applicable emission standard under the ABT program in subpart H of this part. The family emission limit must be expressed to the same number of decimal places as the emission standard it replaces. The family emission limit serves as the emission standard for the engine family with respect to all required testing.
Freshly manufactured marine engine means a marine engine that has not been placed into service. An engine becomes freshly manufactured when it is originally manufactured. See the definition of “New marine engine” for provisions that specify that certain other types of new engines are treated as freshly manufactured engines.
Fuel system means all components involved in transporting, metering, and mixing the fuel from the fuel tank to the combustion chamber(s), including the fuel tank, fuel tank cap, fuel pump, fuel filters, fuel lines, carburetor or fuel-injection components, and all fuel-system vents.
Fuel type means a general category of fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel, residual fuel, or natural gas. There can be multiple grades within a single fuel type, such as high-sulfur or low-sulfur diesel fuel.
Green Engine Factor means a factor that is applied to emission measurements from a Category 2 engine that has had little or no service accumulation. The Green Engine Factor adjusts emission measurements to be equivalent to emission measurements from an engine that has had approximately 300 hours of use.
High-sulfur diesel fuel means one of the following:
(1) For in-use fuels, high-sulfur diesel fuel means a diesel fuel with a maximum sulfur concentration above 500 parts per million.
(2) For testing, high-sulfur diesel fuel has the meaning given in 40 CFR part 1065.
Identification number means a unique specification (for example, a model number/serial number combination) that allows someone to distinguish a particular engine from other similar engines.
Light-commercial marine engine means a Category 1 propulsion marine engine at or above 600 kW with power density above 45.0 kW/liter that is certified with a shorter useful life based on its high power density.
Low-hour means relating to an engine that has stabilized emissions and represents the undeteriorated emission level. This would generally involve less than 300 hours of operation for engines with NOX aftertreatment and 125 hours of operation for other engines.
Low-sulfur diesel fuel means one of the following:
(2) For testing, low-sulfur diesel fuel has the meaning given in 40 CFR part 1065.
Manufacture means the physical and engineering process of designing, constructing, and assembling an engine or a vessel, or modifying or operating an engine or vessel in a way that makes it a new marine engine or new marine vessel.
Manufacturer means any person who manufactures (see definition of “manufacture” in this section) a new engine or vessel or imports such engines or vessels for resale. All manufacturing entities under the control of the same person are considered to be a single manufacturer.
(1) This term includes, but is not limited to:
(iii) Post-manufacture marinizers.
Marine engine means a nonroad engine that is installed or intended to be installed on a marine vessel. This includes a portable auxiliary marine engine only if its fueling, cooling, or exhaust system is an integral part of the vessel. A fueling system is considered integral to the vessel only if one or more essential elements are permanently affixed to the vessel. There are two kinds of marine engines:
Marine vessel has the meaning given in 1 U.S.C. 3, except that it does not include amphibious vehicles. The definition in 1 U.S.C. 3 very broadly includes every craft capable of being used as a means of transportation on water.
Maximum engine power has the meaning given in § 1042.140.
Maximum in-use engine speed has the meaning given in § 1042.140.
Maximum test power means the power output observed at the maximum test speed with the maximum fueling rate possible.
Maximum test speed has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.
Maximum test torque has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.
Model year means any of the following:
(i) Calendar year of production.
(ii) Your annual new model production period if it is different than the calendar year. This must include January 1 of the calendar year for which the model year is named. It may not begin before January 2 of the previous calendar year and it must end by December 31 of the named calendar year. For seasonal production periods not including January 1, model year means the calendar year in which the production occurs, unless you choose to certify the applicable engine family with the following model year. For example, if your production period is June 1, 2010 through November 30, 2010, your model year would be 2010 unless you choose to certify the engine family for model year 2011.
(2) For an engine that is converted to a marine engine after being certified and placed into service as a motor vehicle engine, a nonroad engine that is not a marine engine, or a stationary engine, model year means the calendar year in which the engine was originally produced. For an engine that is converted to a marine engine after being placed into service as a motor vehicle engine, a nonroad engine that is not a marine engine, or a stationary engine without having been certified, model year means the calendar year in which the engine becomes a new marine engine. (See definition of “new marine engine,” paragraph (2)).
(3) For an uncertified marine engine excluded under § 1042.5 that is later subject to this part as a result of being installed in a different vessel, model year means the calendar year in which the engine was installed in the non-excluded vessel. For a marine engine excluded under § 1042.5 that is later subject to this part as a result of reflagging the vessel, model year means the calendar year in which the engine was originally manufactured. For a marine engine that becomes new under paragraph (7) of the definition of “new marine engine,” model year means the calendar year in which the engine was originally manufactured. (See definition of “new marine engine,” paragraphs (3) and (7).)
(4) For engines that do not meet the definition of “freshly manufactured” but are installed in new vessels, model year means the calendar year in which the engine is installed in the new vessel (see definition of “new marine engine,” paragraph (4)).
(6) For imported engines:
(iii) For imported engines described in paragraph (6)(iii) of the definition of “new marine engine,” model year means the calendar year in which the engine is first assembled in its imported configuration, unless specified otherwise in this part or in 40 CFR part 1068.
(8) For freshly manufactured vessels, model year means the calendar year in which the keel is laid or the vessel is at a similar stage of construction. For vessels that become new under paragraph (2) or (3) of the definition of “new vessel” (as a result of modifications), model year means the calendar year in which the modifications physically begin.
Motor vehicle has the meaning given in 40 CFR 85.1703(a).
New marine engine means any of the following:
(1) A freshly manufactured marine engine for which the ultimate purchaser has never received the equitable or legal title. This kind of engine might commonly be thought of as “brand new.” In the case of this paragraph (1), the engine is new from the time it is produced until the ultimate purchaser receives the title or the product is placed into service, whichever comes first.
(2) An engine originally manufactured as a motor vehicle engine, a nonroad engine that is not a marine engine, or a stationary engine that is later used or intended to be used as a marine engine. In this case, the engine is no longer a motor vehicle, nonmarine, or stationary engine and becomes a “new marine engine.” The engine is no longer new when it is placed into marine service as a marine engine. This paragraph (2) applies for engines we exclude under § 1042.5, where that engine is later installed as a marine engine in a vessel that is covered by this part 1042. For example, this would apply to an engine that is no longer used in a foreign vessel. An engine converted to a marine engine without having been certified is treated as a freshly manufactured engine under this part 1042.
(3) A marine engine that has been previously placed into service in an application we exclude under § 1042.5, where that engine is installed in a vessel that is covered by this part 1042. The engine is new when it first enters U.S. waters on a vessel covered by this part 1042. For example, this would apply to an engine that is no longer used in a foreign vessel and for engines on a vessel that is reflagged as a U.S. vessel. Note paragraph (7) of this definition may also apply.
(4) An engine not covered by paragraphs (1) through (3) of this definition that is intended to be installed in a new vessel. This generally includes installation of used engines in new vessels. The engine is no longer new when the ultimate purchaser receives a title for the vessel or it is placed into service, whichever comes first. Such an engine is treated as a freshly manufactured engine under this part 1042, whether or not it meets the definition of “freshly manufactured marine engine.”
(6) An imported marine engine, subject to the following provisions:
(i) An imported marine engine covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part that meets the criteria of one or more of paragraphs (1) through (4) of this definition, where the original engine manufacturer holds the certificate, is new as defined by those applicable paragraphs.
(iii) An imported engine that will be covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part, where someone other than the original engine manufacturer holds the certificate (such as when the engine is modified after its initial assembly), is a new marine engine when it is imported. It is no longer new when the ultimate purchaser receives a title for the engine or it is placed into service, whichever comes first.
(iv) An imported marine engine that is not covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part at the time of importation is new, but only if it was produced on or after the dates shown in the following table. This addresses uncertified engines and vessels initially placed into service that someone seeks to import into the United States. Importation of this kind of engine (or vessel containing such an engine) is generally prohibited by 40 CFR part 1068.
Applicability of Emission Standards for Compression-Ignition Marine Engines
|Engine category and type||Power
|Initial model year of emission standards|
|Category 1||P <19||All||2000|
|Category 1||19 ≤P <37||All||1999|
|Category 1, Recreational||P ≥37||disp. <0.9||2007|
|Category 1, Recreational||All||0.9 ≤disp. <2.5||2006|
|Category 1, Recreational||All||disp. ≥2.5||2004|
|Category 1, Commercial||P ≥37||disp. <0.9||2005|
|Category 1, Commercial||All||disp. ≥0.9||2004|
|Category 2 and Category 3||All||disp. ≥5.0||2004|
(7) A marine engine that is not covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part on a U.S.-flag vessel entering U.S. waters is new, but only if it was produced on or after the dates identified in paragraph (6)(iv) of this definition. Such entrance is deemed to be introduction into U.S. commerce.
New vessel means any of the following:
(1) A vessel for which the ultimate purchaser has never received the equitable or legal title. The vessel is no longer new when the ultimate purchaser receives this title or it is placed into service, whichever comes first.
(2) For vessels with no Category 3 engines, a vessel that has been modified such that the value of the modifications exceeds 50 percent of the value of the modified vessel, excluding temporary modifications (as defined in this section). The value of the modification is the difference in the assessed value of the vessel before the modification and the assessed value of the vessel after the modification. The vessel is no longer new when it is placed into service. Use the following equation to determine if the fractional value of the modification exceeds 50 percent:
(3) For vessels with Category 3 engines, a vessel that has undergone a modification that substantially alters the dimensions or carrying capacity of the vessel, changes the type of vessel, or substantially prolongs the vessel's life.
(4) An imported vessel that has already been placed into service, where it has an engine not covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part at the time of importation that was manufactured after the requirements of this part start to apply (see § 1042.1).
Noncompliant engine means an engine that was originally covered by a certificate of conformity but is not in the certified configuration or otherwise does not comply with the conditions of the certificate.
Nonconforming engine means an engine not covered by a certificate of conformity that would otherwise be subject to emission standards.
Nonroad engine has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. In general, this means all internal-combustion engines except motor vehicle engines, stationary engines, engines used solely for competition, or engines used in aircraft.
NOXTechnical Code means the “Technical Code on Control of Emission of Nitrogen Oxides from Marine Diesel Engines” adopted by the International Maritime Organization (incorporated by reference in § 1042.910). The Technical Code is part of 2008 Annex VI.
Official emission result means the measured emission rate for an emission-data engine on a given duty cycle before the application of any deterioration factor, but after the applicability of regeneration adjustment factors.
Operator demand has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.
Owners manual means a document or collection of documents prepared by the engine manufacturer for the owner or operator to describe appropriate engine maintenance, applicable warranties, and any other information related to operating or keeping the engine. The owners manual is typically provided to the ultimate purchaser at the time of sale. The owners manual may be in paper or electronic format.
Oxides of nitrogen has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.
Particulate trap means a filtering device that is designed to physically trap particulate matter above a certain size.
Post-manufacture marinizer means an entity that produces a marine engine by modifying a non-marine engine, whether certified or uncertified, complete or partially complete, where the entity is not controlled by the manufacturer of the base engine or by an entity that also controls the manufacturer of the base engine. In addition, vessel manufacturers that substantially modify marine engines are post-manufacture marinizers. For the purpose of this definition, “substantially modify” means changing an engine in a way that could change engine emission characteristics.
Power density has the meaning given in § 1042.140.
Recreational vessel means a vessel that is intended by the vessel manufacturer to be operated primarily for pleasure or leased, rented or chartered to another for the latter's pleasure. However, this does not include the following vessels:
(1) Vessels below 100 gross tons that carry more than 6 passengers.
(2) Vessels at or above 100 gross tons that carry one or more passengers.
Remanufacture means to replace every cylinder liner in a commercial engine with maximum engine power at or above 600 kW, whether during a single maintenance event or cumulatively within a five-year period. For the purpose of this definition, “replace” includes removing, inspecting, and requalifying a liner. Rebuilding a recreational engine or an engine with maximum engine power below 600 kW is not remanufacturing.
Remanufacture system or remanufacturing system means all components (or specifications for components) and instructions necessary to remanufacture an engine in accordance with applicable requirements of this part 1042.
Remanufacturer has the meaning given to “manufacturer” in section 216(1) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7550(1)) with respect to remanufactured marine engines. This term includes any person that is engaged in the manufacture or assembly of remanufactured engines, such as persons who:
(1) Design or produce the emission-related parts used in remanufacturing.
(3) Own or operate the engine and provide specifications as to how an engine is to be remanufactured (i.e., specifying who will perform the work, when the work is to be performed, what parts are to be used, or how to calibrate the adjustable parameters of the engine).
Residual fuel means any fuel with a T90 greater than 700 °F as measured with the distillation test method specified in 40 CFR 1065.1010. This generally includes all RM grades of marine fuel without regard to whether they are known commercially as residual fuel. For example, fuel marketed as intermediate fuel may be residual fuel.
Round has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.
Scheduled maintenance means adjusting, repairing, removing, disassembling, cleaning, or replacing components or systems periodically to keep a part or system from failing, malfunctioning, or wearing prematurely. It also may mean actions you expect are necessary to correct an overt indication of failure or malfunction for which periodic maintenance is not appropriate.
Small-volume boat builder means a boat manufacturer with fewer than 500 employees and with annual worldwide production of fewer than 100 boats. For manufacturers owned by a parent company, these limits apply to the combined production and number of employees of the parent company and all its subsidiaries. Manufacturers that produce vessels with Category 3 engines are not small-volume boat builders.
Small-volume engine manufacturer means a manufacturer of Category 1 and/or Category 2 engines with annual worldwide production of fewer than 1,000 internal combustion engines (marine and nonmarine). For manufacturers owned by a parent company, the limit applies to the production of the parent company and all its subsidiaries. Manufacturers that certify or produce any Category 3 engines are not small-volume engine manufacturers.
Spark-ignition means relating to a gasoline-fueled engine or any other type of engine with a spark plug (or other sparking device) and with operating characteristics significantly similar to the theoretical Otto combustion cycle. Spark-ignition engines usually use a throttle to regulate intake air flow to control power during normal operation.
Specified adjustable range means a range of adjustment for an adjustable parameter that is approved as part of certification. Note that Category 1 engines must comply with emission standards over the full physically adjustable range for any adjustable parameters.
Steady-state has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.
Sulfur-sensitive technology means an emission control technology that experiences a significant drop in emission control performance or emission-system durability when an engine is operated on low-sulfur diesel fuel (i.e., fuel with a sulfur concentration of 300 to 500 ppm) as compared to when it is operated on ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (i.e., fuel with a sulfur concentration less than 15 ppm). Exhaust gas recirculation is not a sulfur-sensitive technology.
Temporary modification means a modification to a vessel based on a written contract for marine services such that the modifications will be removed from the vessel when the contract expires. This provision is intended to address short-term contracts that would generally be less than 12 months in duration. You may ask us to consider modifications that will be in place longer than 12 months as temporary modifications.
Test sample means the collection of engines selected from the population of an engine family for emission testing. This may include testing for certification, production-line testing, or in-use testing.
Tier 1 means relating to the Tier 1 emission standards, as shown in Appendix I.
Tier 2 means relating to the Tier 2 emission standards, as shown in § 1042.104 and Appendix I.
Tier 4 means relating to the Tier 4 emission standards, as shown in § 1042.101.
Total hydrocarbon has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001. This generally means the combined mass of organic compounds measured by the specified procedure for measuring total hydrocarbon, expressed as a hydrocarbon with an atomic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of 1.85:1.
Total hydrocarbon equivalent has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001. This generally means the sum of the carbon mass contributions of non-oxygenated hydrocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes, or other organic compounds that are measured separately as contained in a gas sample, expressed as exhaust hydrocarbon from petroleum-fueled engines. The atomic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of the equivalent hydrocarbon is 1.85:1.
Ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel means one of the following:
(2) For testing, ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel has the meaning given in 40 CFR part 1065.
United States has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.
U.S.-directed production volume means the number of engine units, subject to the requirements of this part, produced by a manufacturer for which the manufacturer has a reasonable assurance that sale was or will be made to ultimate purchasers in the United States.
U.S. waters includes U.S. navigable waters and the U.S. EEZ.
Useful life means the period during which the engine is designed to properly function in terms of reliability and fuel consumption, without being remanufactured, specified as a number of hours of operation or calendar years, whichever comes first. It is the period during which an engine is required to comply with all applicable emission standards. See §§ 1042.101(e) and 1042.104(d).
Vessel means a marine vessel.
Vessel owner means the individual or company that holds legal title to a vessel.
Void has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. In general this means to invalidate a certificate or an exemption both retroactively and prospectively.
Volatile liquid fuel means any fuel other than diesel fuel or biodiesel that is a liquid at atmospheric pressure and has a Reid Vapor Pressure higher than 2.0 pounds per square inch.
Waterline length means the horizontal distance measured between perpendiculars taken at the forwardmost and aftermost points on the waterline corresponding to the deepest operating draft (see “Length between perpendiculars” at 46 CFR 175.400). This applies for a worst-case combination of a fully loaded vessel in freshwater in summer.
We (us, our) means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and any authorized representatives.