40 CFR 1068.30 - What definitions apply to this part?

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§ 1068.30 What definitions apply to this part?

The following definitions apply to this part. The definitions apply to all subparts unless we note otherwise. All undefined terms have the meaning the Clean Air Act gives to them. The definitions follow:

Aftertreatment means relating to a catalytic converter, particulate filter, or any other system, component, or technology mounted downstream of the exhaust valve (or exhaust port) whose design function is to reduce emissions in the engine exhaust before it is exhausted to the environment. Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) is not aftertreatment.

Aircraft means any vehicle capable of sustained air travel above treetop heights.

Certificate holder means a manufacturer (including importers) with a currently valid certificate of conformity for at least one family in a given model year.

Clean Air Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q.

Date of manufacture means one of the following:

(1) For engines, the date on which the crankshaft is installed in an engine block, with the following exceptions:

(i) For engines produced by secondary engine manufacturers under § 1068.262, date of manufacture means the date the engine is received from the original engine manufacturer. You may assign an earlier date up to 30 days before you received the engine, but not before the crankshaft was installed. You may not assign an earlier date if you cannot demonstrate the date the crankshaft was installed.

(ii) Manufacturers may assign a date of manufacture at a point in the assembly process later than the date otherwise specified under this definition. For example, a manufacturer may use the build date printed on the label or stamped on the engine as the date of manufacture.

(2) For equipment, the date on which the engine is installed, unless otherwise specified in the standard-setting part. Manufacturers may alternatively assign a date of manufacture later in the assembly process.

Days means calendar days, including weekends and holidays.

Defeat device has the meaning given in the standard-setting part.

Designated Compliance Officer means the Manager, Heavy-Duty and Nonroad Engine Group (6405-J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., Washington, DC 20460.

Designated Enforcement Officer means the Director, Air Enforcement Division (2242A), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW.,Washington, DC 20460.

Engine means an engine block with an installed crankshaft, or a gas turbine engine. The term engine does not include engine blocks without an installed crankshaft, nor does it include any assembly of reciprocating engine components that does not include the engine block. (Note: For purposes of this definition, any component that is the primary means of converting an engine's energy into usable work is considered a crankshaft, whether or not it is known commercially as a crankshaft.) This includes complete and partially complete engines as follows:

(1) A complete engine is a fully assembled engine in its final configuration. In the case of equipment-based standards, an engine is not considered complete until it is installed in the equipment, even if the engine itself is fully assembled.

(2) A partially complete engine is an engine that is not fully assembled or is not in its final configuration. Except where we specify otherwise in this part or the standard-setting part, partially complete engines are subject to the same standards and requirements as complete engines. The following would be considered examples of partially complete engines:

(i) An engine that is missing certain emission-related components.

(ii) A new engine that was originally assembled as a motor-vehicle engine that will be recalibrated for use as a nonroad engine.

(iii) A new engine that was originally assembled as a land-based engine that will be modified for use as a marine propulsion engine.

(iv) A short block consisting of a crankshaft and other engine components connected to the engine block, but missing the head assembly.

(v) A long block consisting of all engine components except the fuel system and an intake manifold.

(vi) In the case of equipment-based standards, a fully functioning engine that is not yet installed in the equipment. For example, a fully functioning engine that will be installed in an off-highway motorcycle or a locomotive is considered partially complete until it is installed in the equipment.

Engine-based standard means an emission standard expressed in units of grams of pollutant per kilowatt-hour that applies to the engine. Emission standards are either engine-based or equipment-based. Note that engines may be subject to additional standards such as smoke standards.

Engine-based test means an emission test intended to measure emissions in units of grams of pollutant per kilowatt-hour, without regard to whether the standard applies to the engine or equipment. Note that some products that are subject to engine-based testing are subject to additional test requirements such as for smoke.

Engine configuration means a unique combination of engine hardware and calibration within an engine family. Engines within a single engine configuration differ only with respect to normal production variability or factors unrelated to emissions.

Engine/equipment and engines/equipment mean engine(s) and/or equipment depending on the context. Specifically these terms mean the following:

(1) Engine(s) when only engine-based standards apply.

(2) Engine(s) for testing issues when engine-based testing applies.

(3) Engine(s) and equipment when both engine-based and equipment-based standards apply.

(4) Equipment when only equipment-based standards apply.

(5) Equipment for testing issues when equipment-based testing applies.

Equipment means one of the following things:

(1) Any vehicle, vessel, or other type of equipment that is subject to the requirements of this part or that uses an engine that is subject to the requirements of this part. An installed engine is part of the equipment.

(2) Fuel-system components that are subject to an equipment-based standard under this chapter. Installed fuel-system components are part of the engine.

Equipment-based standard means an emission standard that applies to the equipment in which an engine is used or to fuel-system components associated with an engine, without regard to how the emissions are measured. If equipment-based standards apply, we require that the equipment or fuel-system components be certified rather than just the engine. Emission standards are either engine-based or equipment-based. For example, recreational vehicles we regulate under 40 CFR part 1051 are subject to equipment-based standards even if emission measurements are based on engine operation alone.

Exempted means relating to engines/equipment that are not required to meet otherwise applicable standards. Exempted engines/equipment must conform to regulatory conditions specified for an exemption in this part 1068 or in the standard-setting part. Exempted engines/equipment are deemed to be “subject to” the standards of the standard-setting part even though they are not required to comply with the otherwise applicable requirements. Engines/equipment exempted with respect to a certain tier of standards may be required to comply with an earlier tier of standards as a condition of the exemption; for example, engines exempted with respect to Tier 3 standards may be required to comply with Tier 1 or Tier 2 standards.

Family means engine family or emission family, as applicable under the standard-setting part.

Final deteriorated test result has the meaning given in the standard-setting part. If it is not defined in the standard-setting part, it means the emission level that results from applying all appropriate adjustments (such as deterioration factors) to the measured emission result of the emission-data engine.

Gas turbine engine means anything commercially known as a gas turbine engine or any collection of assembled engine components that is substantially similar to engines commercially known as gas turbine engines. For example, a jet engine is a gas turbine engine. Gas turbine engines may be complete or partially complete. Turbines that rely on external combustion such as steam engines are not gas turbine engines.

Good engineering judgment means judgments made consistent with generally accepted scientific and engineering principles and all available relevant information.

Manufacturer has the meaning given in section 216(1) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7550(1)). In general, this term includes any person who manufactures an engine or piece of equipment for sale in the United States or otherwise introduces a new engine or piece of equipment into U.S. commerce. This includes importers that import new engines or new equipment into the United States for resale. It also includes secondary engine manufacturers.

Model year has the meaning given in the standard-setting part. Unless the standard-setting part specifies otherwise, model year for individual engines/equipment is based on the date of manufacture or a later stage in the assembly process determined by the manufacturer, subject to the limitations described in §§ 1068.103 and 1068.360. The model year of a new engine that is neither certified nor exempt is deemed to be the calendar year in which it is sold, offered for sale, imported, or delivered or otherwise introduced into U.S. commerce.

Motor vehicle has the meaning given in 40 CFR 85.1703(a).

New has the meaning we give it in the standard-setting part.

Nonroad engine means:

(1) Except as discussed in paragraph (2) of this definition, a nonroad engine is an internal combustion engine that meets any of the following criteria:

(i) It is (or will be) used in or on a piece of equipment that is self-propelled or serves a dual purpose by both propelling itself and performing another function (such as garden tractors, off-highway mobile cranes and bulldozers).

(ii) It is (or will be) used in or on a piece of equipment that is intended to be propelled while performing its function (such as lawnmowers and string trimmers).

(iii) By itself or in or on a piece of equipment, it is portable or transportable, meaning designed to be and capable of being carried or moved from one location to another. Indicia of transportability include, but are not limited to, wheels, skids, carrying handles, dolly, trailer, or platform.

(2) An internal combustion engine is not a nonroad engine if it meets any of the following criteria:

(i) The engine is used to propel a motor vehicle, an aircraft, or equipment used solely for competition.

(ii) The engine is regulated under 40 CFR part 60, (or otherwise regulated by a federal New Source Performance Standard promulgated under section 111 of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7411)).

(iii) The engine otherwise included in paragraph (1)(iii) of this definition remains or will remain at a location for more than 12 consecutive months or a shorter period of time for an engine located at a seasonal source. A location is any single site at a building, structure, facility, or installation. Any engine (or engines) that replaces an engine at a location and that is intended to perform the same or similar function as the engine replaced will be included in calculating the consecutive time period. An engine located at a seasonal source is an engine that remains at a seasonal source during the full annual operating period of the seasonal source. A seasonal source is a stationary source that remains in a single location on a permanent basis (i.e., at least two years) and that operates at that single location approximately three months (or more) each year. See § 1068.31 for provisions that apply if the engine is removed from the location.

Operating hours means:

(1) For engine and equipment storage areas or facilities, times during which people other than custodians and security personnel are at work near, and can access, a storage area or facility.

(2) For other areas or facilities, times during which an assembly line operates or any of the following activities occurs:

(i) Testing, maintenance, or service accumulation.

(ii) Production or compilation of records.

(iii) Certification testing.

(iv) Translation of designs from the test stage to the production stage.

(v) Engine or equipment manufacture or assembly.

Piece of equipment means any vehicle, vessel, locomotive, aircraft, or other type of equipment using engines to which this part applies.

Placed into service means used for its intended purpose.

Reasonable technical basis means information that would lead a person familiar with engine design and function to reasonably believe a conclusion related to compliance with the requirements of this part. For example, it would be reasonable to believe that parts performing the same function as the original parts (and to the same degree) would control emissions to the same degree as the original parts.

Relating to as used in this section means relating to something in a specific, direct manner. This expression is used in this section only to define terms as adjectives and not to broaden the meaning of the terms.

Replacement engine means an engine exempted as a replacement engine under § 1068.240.

Revoke means to terminate the certificate or an exemption for a family. If we revoke a certificate or exemption, you must apply for a new certificate or exemption before continuing to introduce the affected engines/equipment into U.S. commerce. This does not apply to engines/equipment you no longer possess.

Secondary engine manufacturer means anyone who produces a new engine by modifying a complete or partially complete engine that was made by a different company. For the purpose of this definition, “modifying” does not include making changes that do not remove an engine from its original certified configuration. Secondary engine manufacturing includes, for example, converting automotive engines for use in industrial applications, or land-based engines for use in marine applications. This applies whether it involves a complete or partially complete engine and whether the engine was previously certified to emission standards or not. Manufacturers controlled by the manufacturer of the base engine (or by an entity that also controls the manufacturer of the base engine) are not secondary engine manufacturers; rather, both entities are considered to be one manufacturer for purposes of this part. This definition applies equally to equipment manufacturers that modify engines. Also, equipment manufacturers that certify to equipment-based standards using engines produced by another company are deemed to be secondary engine manufacturers. Companies importing complete engines into the United States are not secondary engine manufacturers regardless of the procedures and relationships between companies for assembling the engines.

Small business means either of the following:

(1) A company that qualifies under the standard-setting part for special provisions for small businesses or small-volume manufacturers.

(2) A company that qualifies as a small business under the regulations adopted by the Small Business Administration at 13 CFR 121.201 if the standard-setting part does not establish such qualifying criteria.

Standard-setting part means a part in the Code of Federal Regulations that defines emission standards for a particular engine and/or piece of equipment (see § 1068.1(a)). For example, the standard-setting part for marine spark-ignition engines is 40 CFR part 1045. For provisions related to evaporative emissions, the standard-setting part may be 40 CFR part 1060, as specified in 40 CFR 1060.1.

Suspend means to temporarily discontinue the certificate or an exemption for a family. If we suspend a certificate, you may not introduce into U.S. commerce engines/equipment from that family unless we reinstate the certificate or approve a new one. If we suspend an exemption, you may not introduce into U.S. commerce engines/equipment that were previously covered by the exemption unless we reinstate the exemption.

Ultimate purchaser means the first person who in good faith purchases a new engine or new piece of equipment for purposes other than resale.

United States means the States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

U.S.-directed production volume means the number of engine/equipment units, subject to the requirements of this part, produced by a manufacturer for which the manufacturer has a reasonable assurance that sale was or will be made to ultimate purchasers in the United States.

Void means to invalidate a certificate or an exemption ab initio. If we void a certificate, all the engines/equipment introduced into U.S. commerce under that family for that model year are considered noncompliant, and you are liable for all engines/equipment introduced into U.S. commerce under the certificate and may face civil or criminal penalties or both. This applies equally to all engines/equipment in the family, including engines/equipment introduced into U.S. commerce before we voided the certificate. If we void an exemption, all the engines/equipment introduced into U.S. commerce under that exemption are considered uncertified (or nonconforming), and you are liable for engines/equipment introduced into U.S. commerce under the exemption and may face civil or criminal penalties or both. You may not introduce into U.S. commerce any additional engines/equipment using the voided exemption.

Voluntary emission recall means a repair, adjustment, or modification program voluntarily initiated and conducted by a manufacturer to remedy any emission-related defect for which engine owners have been notified.

We (us, our) means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and any authorized representatives.

[73 FR 59344, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23059, Apr. 30, 2010]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.

United States Code

§ 7401 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7402 - Cooperative activities

§ 7403 - Research, investigation, training, and other activities

§ 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

§ 7405 - Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

§ 7406 - Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

§ 7407 - Air quality control regions

§ 7408 - Air quality criteria and control techniques

§ 7409 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7417 - Advisory committees

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7427 - Public notification

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

§ 7450 to 7459 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, § 601, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2648

§ 7470 - Congressional declaration of purpose

§ 7471 - Plan requirements

§ 7472 - Initial classifications

§ 7473 - Increments and ceilings

§ 7474 - Area redesignation

§ 7475 - Preconstruction requirements

§ 7476 - Other pollutants

§ 7477 - Enforcement

§ 7478 - Period before plan approval

§ 7479 - Definitions

§ 7491 - Visibility protection for Federal class I areas

§ 7492 - Visibility

§ 7501 - Definitions

§ 7502 - Nonattainment plan provisions in general

§ 7503 - Permit requirements

§ 7504 - Planning procedures

§ 7505 - Environmental Protection Agency grants

§ 7505a - Maintenance plans

§ 7506 - Limitations on certain Federal assistance

§ 7506a - Interstate transport commissions

§ 7507 - New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas

§ 7508 - Guidance documents

§ 7509 - Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain

§ 7509a - International border areas

§ 7511 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7511a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7511b - Federal ozone measures

§ 7511c - Control of interstate ozone air pollution

§ 7511d - Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain

§ 7511e - Transitional areas

§ 7511f - NOx and VOC study

§ 7512 - Classification and attainment dates

§ 7512a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7513 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7513a - Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions

§ 7513b - Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance

§ 7514 - Plan submission deadlines

§ 7514a - Attainment dates

§ 7515 - General savings clause

§ 7521 - Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

§ 7522 - Prohibited acts

§ 7523 - Actions to restrain violations

§ 7524 - Civil penalties

§ 7525 - Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

§ 7541 - Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

§ 7542 - Information collection

§ 7543 - State standards

§ 7544 - State grants

§ 7545 - Regulation of fuels

§ 7546 - Renewable fuel

§ 7547 - Nonroad engines and vehicles

§ 7548 - Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

§ 7549 - High altitude performance adjustments

§ 7550 - Definitions

§ 7551 - Omitted

§ 7552 - Motor vehicle compliance program fees

§ 7553 - Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

§ 7554 - Urban bus standards

§ 7571 - Establishment of standards

§ 7572 - Enforcement of standards

§ 7573 - State standards and controls

§ 7574 - Definitions

§ 7581 - Definitions

§ 7582 - Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7583 - Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7584 - Administration and enforcement as per California standards

§ 7585 - Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

§ 7586 - Centrally fueled fleets

§ 7587 - Vehicle conversions

§ 7588 - Federal agency fleets

§ 7589 - California pilot test program

§ 7590 - General provisions

§ 7601 - Administration

§ 7602 - Definitions

§ 7603 - Emergency powers

§ 7604 - Citizen suits

§ 7605 - Representation in litigation

§ 7606 - Federal procurement

§ 7607 - Administrative proceedings and judicial review

§ 7608 - Mandatory licensing

§ 7609 - Policy review

§ 7610 - Other authority

§ 7611 - Records and audit

§ 7612 - Economic impact analyses

§ 7613 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, § 803, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2689

§ 7614 - Labor standards

§ 7615 - Separability

§ 7616 - Sewage treatment grants

§ 7617 - Economic impact assessment

§ 7618 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 108(q), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2469

§ 7619 - Air quality monitoring

§ 7620 - Standardized air quality modeling

§ 7621 - Employment effects

§ 7622 - Employee protection

§ 7623 - Repealed. Pub. L. 96–300, § 1(c), July 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 831

§ 7624 - Cost of vapor recovery equipment

§ 7625 - Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products

§ 7625-1

§ 7625a - Statutory construction

§ 7626 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7627 - Air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities

§ 7628 - Demonstration grant program for local governments

§ 7641 - Noise abatement

§ 7642 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7651 - Findings and purposes

§ 7651a - Definitions

§ 7651b - Sulfur dioxide allowance program for existing and new units

§ 7651c - Phase I sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651d - Phase II sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651e - Allowances for States with emissions rates at or below 0.80 lbs/mmBtu

§ 7651f - Nitrogen oxides emission reduction program

§ 7651g - Permits and compliance plans

§ 7651h - Repowered sources

§ 7651i - Election for additional sources

§ 7651j - Excess emissions penalty

§ 7651k - Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements

§ 7651l - General compliance with other provisions

§ 7651m - Enforcement

§ 7651n - Clean coal technology regulatory incentives

§ 7651o - Contingency guarantee, auctions, reserve

§ 7661 - Definitions

§ 7661a - Permit programs

§ 7661b - Permit applications

§ 7661c - Permit requirements and conditions

§ 7661d - Notification to Administrator and contiguous States

§ 7661e - Other authorities

§ 7661f - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program

§ 7671 - Definitions

§ 7671a - Listing of class I and class II substances

§ 7671b - Monitoring and reporting requirements

§ 7671c - Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances

§ 7671d - Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances

§ 7671e - Accelerated schedule

§ 7671f - Exchange authority

§ 7671g - National recycling and emission reduction program

§ 7671h - Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners

§ 7671i - Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons

§ 7671j - Labeling

§ 7671k - Safe alternatives policy

§ 7671l - Federal procurement

§ 7671m - Relationship to other laws

§ 7671n - Authority of Administrator

§ 7671o - Transfers among Parties to Montreal Protocol

§ 7671p - International cooperation

§ 7671q - Miscellaneous provisions

Title 40 published on 2015-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR Part 1068 after this date.

  • 2016-10-25; vol. 81 # 206 - Tuesday, October 25, 2016
    1. 81 FR 73881 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles—Phase 2
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      Final rule.
      This final rule is effective on December 27, 2016. The incorporation by reference of certain publications listed in this regulation is approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of December 27, 2016.
      40 CFR Parts 9, 22, 85, 86, 600, 1033, 1036, 1037, 1039, 1042, 1043, 1065, 1066, and 1068