40 CFR § 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.
(a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow meter to determine instantaneous diluted exhaust flow rates or total diluted exhaust flow over a test interval. You may use the difference between a diluted exhaust flow meter and a dilution air meter to calculate raw exhaust flow rates or total raw exhaust flow over a test interval.
(b) Component requirements. We recommend that you use a diluted exhaust flow meter that meets the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. Note that your overall system for measuring diluted exhaust flow must meet the linearity verification in § 1065.307 and the calibration and verifications in § 1065.340 and § 1065.341. You may use the following meters:
(1) For constant-volume sampling (CVS) of the total flow of diluted exhaust, you may use a critical-flow venturi (CFV) or multiple critical-flow venturis arranged in parallel, a positive-displacement pump (PDP), a subsonic venturi (SSV), or an ultrasonic flow meter (UFM). Combined with an upstream heat exchanger, either a CFV or a PDP will also function as a passive flow controller in a CVS system. However, you may also combine any flow meter with any active flow control system to maintain proportional sampling of exhaust constituents. You may control the total flow of diluted exhaust, or one or more sample flows, or a combination of these flow controls to maintain proportional sampling.
(2) For any other dilution system, you may use a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, a critical-flow venturi or multiple critical-flow venturis arranged in parallel, a positive-displacement meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer.
(c) Flow conditioning. For any type of diluted exhaust flow meter, condition the flow as needed to prevent wakes, eddies, circulating flows, or flow pulsations from affecting the accuracy or repeatability of the meter. For some meters, you may accomplish this by using a sufficient length of straight tubing (such as a length equal to at least 10 pipe diameters) or by using specially designed tubing bends, orifice plates or straightening fins to establish a predictable velocity profile upstream of the meter.
(d) Exhaust cooling. You may cool diluted exhaust upstream of a dilute-exhaust flow meter, as long as you observe all the following provisions:
(1) Do not sample PM downstream of the cooling.
(2) If cooling causes exhaust temperatures above 202 °C to decrease to below 180 °C, do not sample NMHC downstream of the cooling for compression-ignition engines, two-stroke spark-ignition engines, or four-stroke spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW.