40 CFR § 1065.345 - Vacuum-side leak verification.

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§ 1065.345 Vacuum-side leak verification.

(a) Scope and frequency. Verify that there are no significant vacuum-side leaks using one of the leak tests described in this section. For laboratory testing, perform the vacuum-side leak verification upon initial sampling system installation, within 8 hours before the start of the first test interval of each duty-cycle sequence, and after maintenance such as pre-filter changes. For field testing, perform the vacuum-side leak verification after each installation of the sampling system on the vehicle, prior to the start of the field test, and after maintenance such as pre-filter changes. This verification does not apply to any full-flow portion of a CVS dilution system.

(b) Measurement principles. A leak may be detected either by measuring a small amount of flow when there should be zero flow, or by detecting the dilution of a known concentration of span gas when it flows through the vacuum side of a sampling system.

(c) Low-flow leak test. Test a sampling system for low-flow leaks as follows:

(1) Seal the probe end of the system by taking one of the following steps:

(i) Cap or plug the end of the sample probe.

(ii) Disconnect the transfer line at the probe and cap or plug the transfer line.

(iii) Close a leak-tight valve located in the sample transfer line within 92 cm of the probe.

(2) Operate all vacuum pumps. After stabilizing, verify that the flow through the vacuum-side of the sampling system is less than 0.5% of the system's normal in-use flow rate. You may estimate typical analyzer and bypass flows as an approximation of the system's normal in-use flow rate.

(d) Dilution-of-span-gas leak test. You may use any gas analyzer for this test. If you use a FID for this test, correct for any HC contamination in the sampling system according to § 1065.660. To avoid misleading results from this test, we recommend using only analyzers that have a repeatability of 0.5% or better at the span gas concentration used for this test. Perform a vacuum-side leak test as follows:

(1) Prepare a gas analyzer as you would for emission testing.

(2) Supply span gas to the analyzer span port and record the measured value.

(3) Route overflow span gas to the inlet of the sample probe or at a tee fitting in the transfer line near the exit of the probe. You may use a valve upstream of the overflow fitting to prevent overflow of span gas out of the inlet of the probe, but you must then provide an overflow vent in the overflow supply line.

(4) Verify that the measured overflow span gas concentration is within ±0.5% of the concentration measured in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. A measured value lower than expected indicates a leak, but a value higher than expected may indicate a problem with the span gas or the analyzer itself. A measured value higher than expected does not indicate a leak.

(e) Vacuum-decay leak test. To perform this test you must apply a vacuum to the vacuum-side volume of your sampling system and then observe the leak rate of your system as a decay in the applied vacuum. To perform this test you must know the vacuum-side volume of your sampling system to within ±10% of its true volume. For this test you must also use measurement instruments that meet the specifications of subpart C of this part and of this subpart D. Perform a vacuum-decay leak test as follows:

(1) Seal the probe end of the system as close to the probe opening as possible by taking one of the following steps:

(i) Cap or plug the end of the sample probe.

(ii) Disconnect the transfer line at the probe and cap or plug the transfer line.

(iii) Close a leak-tight valve located in the sample transfer line within 92 cm of the probe.

(2) Operate all vacuum pumps. Draw a vacuum that is representative of normal operating conditions. In the case of sample bags, we recommend that you repeat your normal sample bag pump-down procedure twice to minimize any trapped volumes.

(3) Turn off the sample pumps and seal the system. Measure and record the absolute pressure of the trapped gas and optionally the system absolute temperature. Wait long enough for any transients to settle and long enough for a leak at 0.5% to have caused a pressure change of at least 10 times the resolution of the pressure transducer, then again record the pressure and optionally temperature.

(4) Calculate the leak flow rate based on an assumed value of zero for pumped-down bag volumes and based on known values for the sample system volume, the initial and final pressures, optional temperatures, and elapsed time. Using the calculations specified in § 1065.644, verify that the vacuum-decay leak flow rate is less than 0.5% of the system's normal in-use flow rate.

[73 FR 37307, June 30, 2008, as amended at 73 FR 59328, Oct. 8, 2008; 75 FR 23040, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74167, Oct. 25, 2016]