40 CFR § 1065.365 - Nonmethane cutter penetration fractions.

§ 1065.365 Nonmethane cutter penetration fractions.

(a) Scope and frequency. If you use a FID analyzer and a nonmethane cutter (NMC) to measure methane (CH4), determine the nonmethane cutter's penetration fractions of CH4, PFCH4, and ethane, PFC2H6. As detailed in this section, these penetration fractions may be determined as a combination of NMC penetration fractions and FID analyzer response factors, depending on your particular NMC and FID analyzer configuration. Perform this verification after installing the nonmethane cutter. Repeat this verification within 185 days of testing to verify that the catalytic activity of the cutter has not deteriorated. Note that because nonmethane cutters can deteriorate rapidly and without warning if they are operated outside of certain ranges of gas concentrations and outside of certain temperature ranges, good engineering judgment may dictate that you determine a nonmethane cutter's penetration fractions more frequently.

(b) Measurement principles. A nonmethane cutter is a heated catalyst that removes nonmethane hydrocarbons from an exhaust sample stream before the FID analyzer measures the remaining hydrocarbon concentration. An ideal nonmethane cutter would have a CH4 penetration fraction, PFCH4, of 1.000, and the penetration fraction for all other nonmethane hydrocarbons would be 0.000, as represented by PFC2H6. The emission calculations in § 1065.660 use the measured values from this verification to account for less than ideal NMC performance.

(c) System requirements. We do not limit NMC penetration fractions to a certain range. However, we recommend that you optimize a nonmethane cutter by adjusting its temperature to achieve a PFCH4 >0.85 and a PFC2H6 <0.02, as determined by paragraphs (d), (e), or (f) of this section, as applicable. If we use a nonmethane cutter for testing, it will meet this recommendation. If adjusting NMC temperature does not result in achieving both of these specifications simultaneously, we recommend that you replace the catalyst material. Use the most recently determined penetration values from this section to calculate HC emissions according to § 1065.660 and § 1065.665 as applicable.

(d) Procedure for a FID calibrated with the NMC. The method described in this paragraph (d) is recommended over the procedures specified in paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section. If your FID arrangement is such that a FID is always calibrated to measure CH4 with the NMC, then span that FID with the NMC using a CH4 span gas, set the product of that FID's CH4 response factor and CH4 penetration fraction, RFPFCH4[NMC-FID], equal to 1.0 for all emission calculations, and determine its combined ethane (C2H6) response factor and penetration fraction, RFPFC2H6[NMC-FID] as follows:

(1) Select CH4 and C2H6 analytical gas mixtures and ensure that both mixtures meet the specifications of § 1065.750. Select a CH4 concentration that you would use for spanning the FID during emission testing and select a C2H6 concentration that is typical of the peak NMHC concentration expected at the hydrocarbon standard or equal to the THC analyzer's span value. For CH4 analyzers with multiple ranges, perform this procedure on the highest range used for emission testing.

(2) Start, operate, and optimize the nonmethane cutter according to the manufacturer's instructions, including any temperature optimization.

(3) Confirm that the FID analyzer meets all the specifications of § 1065.360.

(4) Start and operate the FID analyzer according to the manufacturer's instructions.

(5) Zero and span the FID with the nonmethane cutter as you would during emission testing. Span the FID through the cutter by using CH4 span gas.

(6) Introduce the C2H6 analytical gas mixture upstream of the nonmethane cutter. Use good engineering judgment to address the effect of hydrocarbon contamination if your point of introduction is vastly different from the point of zero/span gas introduction.

(7) Allow time for the analyzer response to stabilize. Stabilization time may include time to purge the nonmethane cutter and to account for the analyzer's response.

(8) While the analyzer measures a stable concentration, record 30 seconds of sampled data. Calculate the arithmetic mean of these data points.

(9) Divide the mean C2H6 concentration by the reference concentration of C2H6, converted to a C1 basis. The result is the C2H6 combined response factor and penetration fraction, RFPFC2H6[NMC-FID]. Use this combined response factor and penetration fraction and the product of the CH4 response factor and CH4 penetration fraction, RFPFCH4[NMC-FID], set to 1.0 in emission calculations according to § 1065.660(b)(2)(i), § 1065.660(d)(1)(i), or § 1065.665, as applicable.

(e) Procedure for a FID calibrated with propane, bypassing the NMC. If you use a single FID for THC and CH4 determination with an NMC that is calibrated with propane, C3H8, by bypassing the NMC, determine its penetration fractions, PFC2H6[NMC-FID] and PFCH4[NMC-FID], as follows:

(1) Select CH4 and C2H6 analytical gas mixtures and ensure that both mixtures meet the specifications of § 1065.750. Select a CH4 concentration that you would use for spanning the FID during emission testing and select a C2H6 concentration that is typical of the peak NMHC concentration expected at the hydrocarbon standard and the C2H6 concentration typical of the peak total hydrocarbon (THC) concentration expected at the hydrocarbon standard or equal to the THC analyzer's span value. For CH4 analyzers with multiple ranges, perform this procedure on the highest range used for emission testing.

(2) Start and operate the nonmethane cutter according to the manufacturer's instructions, including any temperature optimization.

(3) Confirm that the FID analyzer meets all the specifications of § 1065.360.

(4) Start and operate the FID analyzer according to the manufacturer's instructions.

(5) Zero and span the FID as you would during emission testing. Span the FID by bypassing the cutter and by using C3H8 span gas.

(6) Introduce the C2H6 analytical gas mixture upstream of the nonmethane cutter. Use good engineering judgment to address the effect of hydrocarbon contamination if your point of introduction is vastly different from the point of zero/span gas introduction.

(7) Allow time for the analyzer response to stabilize. Stabilization time may include time to purge the nonmethane cutter and to account for the analyzer's response.

(8) While the analyzer measures a stable concentration, record 30 seconds of sampled data. Calculate the arithmetic mean of these data points.

(9) Reroute the flow path to bypass the nonmethane cutter, introduce the C2H6 analytical gas mixture, and repeat the steps in paragraph (e)(7) through (e)(8) of this section.

(10) Divide the mean C2H6 concentration measured through the nonmethane cutter by the mean C2H6 concentration measured after bypassing the nonmethane cutter. The result is the C2H6 penetration fraction, PFC2H6[NMC-FID]. Use this penetration fraction according to § 1065.660(b)(2)(ii), § 1065.660(d)(1)(ii), or § 1065.665, as applicable.

(11) Repeat the steps in paragraphs (e)(6) through (e)(10) of this section, but with the CH4 analytical gas mixture instead of C2H6. The result will be the CH4 penetration fraction, PFCH4[NMC-FID]. Use this penetration fraction according to § 1065.660(b)(2)(ii), § 1065.660(c)(1)(ii), or § 1065.665, as applicable.

(f) Procedure for a FID calibrated with CH4, bypassing the NMC. If you use a FID with an NMC that is calibrated with CH4, by bypassing the NMC, determine its combined ethane (C2H6) response factor and penetration fraction, RFPFC2H6[NMC-FID], as well as its CH4 penetration fraction, PFCH4[NMC-FID], as follows:

(1) Select CH4 and C2H6 analytical gas mixtures and ensure that both mixtures meet the specifications of § 1065.750. Select a CH4 concentration that you would use for spanning the FID during emission testing and select a C2H6 concentration that is typical of the peak NMHC concentration expected at the hydrocarbon standard or equal to the THC analyzer's span value. For CH4 analyzers with multiple ranges, perform this procedure on the highest range used for emission testing.

(2) Start and operate the nonmethane cutter according to the manufacturer's instructions, including any temperature optimization.

(3) Confirm that the FID analyzer meets all the specifications of § 1065.360.

(4) Start and operate the FID analyzer according to the manufacturer's instructions.

(5) Zero and span the FID as you would during emission testing. Span the FID by bypassing the cutter and by using CH4 span gas. Note that you must span the FID on a C1 basis. For example, if your span gas has a methane reference value of 100 µmol/mol, the correct FID response to that span gas is 100 µmol/mol because there is one carbon atom per CH4 molecule.

(6) Introduce the C2H6 analytical gas mixture upstream of the nonmethane cutter. Use good engineering judgment to address the effect of hydrocarbon contamination if your point of introduction is vastly different from the point of zero/span gas introduction.

(7) Allow time for the analyzer response to stabilize. Stabilization time may include time to purge the nonmethane cutter and to account for the analyzer's response.

(8) While the analyzer measures a stable concentration, record 30 seconds of sampled data. Calculate the arithmetic mean of these data points.

(9) Divide the mean C2H6 concentration by the reference concentration of C2H6, converted to a C1 basis. The result is the C2H6 combined response factor and penetration fraction, RFPFC2H6[NMC-FID]. Use this combined response factor and penetration fraction according to § 1065.660(b)(2)(iii), § 1065.660(d)(1)(iii), or § 1065.665, as applicable.

(10) Introduce the CH4 analytical gas mixture upstream of the nonmethane cutter. Use good engineering judgment to address the effect of hydrocarbon contamination if your point of introduction is vastly different from the point of zero/span gas introduction.

(11) Allow time for the analyzer response to stabilize. Stabilization time may include time to purge the nonmethane cutter and to account for the analyzer's response.

(12) While the analyzer measures a stable concentration, record 30 seconds of sampled data. Calculate the arithmetic mean of these data points.

(13) Reroute the flow path to bypass the nonmethane cutter, introduce the CH4 analytical gas mixture, and repeat the steps in paragraphs (e)(11) and (12) of this section.

(14) Divide the mean CH4 concentration measured through the nonmethane cutter by the mean CH4 concentration measured after bypassing the nonmethane cutter. The result is the CH4 penetration fraction, PFCH4[NMC-FID]. Use this penetration fraction according to § 1065.660(b)(2)(iii), § 1065.660(d)(1)(iii), or § 1065.665, as applicable.

[73 FR 37310, June 30, 2008, as amended at 74 FR 56513, Oct. 30, 2009; 79 FR 23770, Apr. 28, 2014; 81 FR 74168, Oct. 25, 2016]