40 CFR § 1065.510 - Engine mapping.

§ 1065.510 Engine mapping.

(a) Applicability, scope, and frequency. An engine map is a data set that consists of a series of paired data points that represent the maximum brake torque versus engine speed, measured at the engine's primary output shaft. Map your engine if the standard-setting part requires engine mapping to generate a duty cycle for your engine configuration. Map your engine while it is connected to a dynamometer or other device that can absorb work output from the engine's primary output shaft according to § 1065.110. To establish speed and torque values for mapping, we generally recommend that you stabilize an engine for at least 15 seconds at each setpoint and record the mean feedback speed and torque of the last (4 to 6) seconds. Configure any auxiliary work inputs and outputs such as hybrid, turbo-compounding, or thermoelectric systems to represent their in-use configurations, and use the same configuration for emission testing. See Figure 1 of § 1065.210. This may involve configuring initial states of charge and rates and times of auxiliary-work inputs and outputs. We recommend that you contact the Designated Compliance Officer before testing to determine how you should configure any auxiliary-work inputs and outputs. Use the most recent engine map to transform a normalized duty cycle from the standard-setting part to a reference duty cycle specific to your engine. Normalized duty cycles are specified in the standard-setting part. You may update an engine map at any time by repeating the engine-mapping procedure. You must map or re-map an engine before a test if any of the following apply:

(1) If you have not performed an initial engine map.

(2) If the atmospheric pressure near the engine's air inlet is not within ±5 kPa of the atmospheric pressure recorded at the time of the last engine map.

(3) If the engine or emission-control system has undergone changes that might affect maximum torque performance. This includes changing the configuration of auxiliary work inputs and outputs.

(4) If you capture an incomplete map on your first attempt or you do not complete a map within the specified time tolerance. You may repeat mapping as often as necessary to capture a complete map within the specified time.

(b) Mapping variable-speed engines. Map variable-speed engines as follows:

(1) Record the atmospheric pressure.

(2) Warm up the engine by operating it. We recommend operating the engine at any speed and at approximately 75% of its expected maximum power. Continue the warm-up until the engine coolant, block, or head absolute temperature is within ±2% of its mean value for at least 2 min or until the engine thermostat controls engine temperature.

(3) Operate the engine at its warm idle speed as follows:

(i) For engines with a low-speed governor, set the operator demand to minimum, use the dynamometer or other loading device to target a torque of zero on the engine's primary output shaft, and allow the engine to govern the speed. Measure this warm idle speed; we recommend recording at least 30 values of speed and using the mean of those values.

(ii) For engines without a low-speed governor, operate the engine at warm idle speed and zero torque on the engine's primary output shaft. You may use the dynamometer to target a torque of zero on the engine's primary output shaft, and manipulate the operator demand to control the speed to target the manufacturer-declared value for the lowest engine speed possible with minimum load (also known as manufacturer-declared warm idle speed). You may alternatively use the dynamometer to target the manufacturer-declared warm idle speed and manipulate the operator demand to control the torque on the engine's primary output shaft to zero.

(iii) For variable-speed engines with or without a low-speed governor, if a nonzero idle torque is representative of in-use operation, you may use the dynamometer or operator demand to target the manufacturer-declared idle torque instead of targeting zero torque as specified in paragraphs (b)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section. Control speed as specified in paragraph (b)(3)(i) or (ii) of this section, as applicable. If you use this option for engines with a low-speed governor to measure the warm idle speed with the manufacturer-declared torque at this step, you may use this as the warm-idle speed for cycle generation as specified in paragraph (b)(6) of this section. However, if you identify multiple warm idle torques under paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section, measure the warm idle speed at only one torque level for this paragraph (b)(3).

(4) Set operator demand to maximum and control engine speed at (95 ±1) % of its warm idle speed determined above for at least 15 seconds. For engines with reference duty cycles whose lowest speed is greater than warm idle speed, you may start the map at (95 ±1) % of the lowest reference speed.

(5) Perform one of the following:

(i) For any engine subject only to steady-state duty cycles, you may perform an engine map by using discrete speeds. Select at least 20 evenly spaced setpoints from 95% of warm idle speed to the highest speed above maximum power at which 50% of maximum power occurs. We refer to this 50% speed as the check point speed as described in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section. At each setpoint, stabilize speed and allow torque to stabilize. Record the mean speed and torque at each setpoint. Use linear interpolation to determine intermediate speeds and torques. Use this series of speeds and torques to generate the power map as described in paragraph (e) of this section.

(ii) For any variable-speed engine, you may perform an engine map by using a continuous sweep of speed by continuing to record the mean feedback speed and torque at 1 Hz or more frequently and increasing speed at a constant rate such that it takes (4 to 6) min to sweep from 95% of warm idle speed to the check point speed as described in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section. Use good engineering judgment to determine when to stop recording data to ensure that the sweep is complete. In most cases, this means that you can stop the sweep at any point after the power falls to 50% of the maximum value. From the series of mean speed and maximum torque values, use linear interpolation to determine intermediate values. Use this series of speeds and torques to generate the power map as described in paragraph (e) of this section.

(iii) The check point speed of the map is the highest speed above maximum power at which 50% of maximum power occurs. If this speed is unsafe or unachievable (e.g., for ungoverned engines or engines that do not operate at that point), use good engineering judgment to map up to the maximum safe speed or maximum achievable speed. For discrete mapping, if the engine cannot be mapped to the check point speed, make sure the map includes at least 20 points from 95% of warm idle to the maximum mapped speed. For continuous mapping, if the engine cannot be mapped to the check point speed, verify that the sweep time from 95% of warm idle to the maximum mapped speed is (4 to 6) min.

(iv) Note that under § 1065.10(c)(1) we may allow you to disregard portions of the map when selecting maximum test speed if the specified procedure would result in a duty cycle that does not represent in-use operation.

(6) Use one of the following methods to determine warm high-idle speed for engines with a high-speed governor if they are subject to transient testing with a duty cycle that includes reference speed values above 100%:

(i) You may use a manufacturer-declared warm high-idle speed if the engine is electronically governed. For engines with a high-speed governor that shuts off torque output at a manufacturer-specified speed and reactivates at a lower manufacturer-specified speed (such as engines that use ignition cut-off for governing), declare the middle of the specified speed range as the warm high-idle speed.

(ii) Measure the warm high-idle speed using the following procedure:

(A) Set operator demand to maximum and use the dynamometer to target zero torque on the engine's primary output shaft. If the mean feedback torque is within ±1% of Tmax mapped, you may use the observed mean feedback speed at that point as the measured warm high-idle speed.

(B) If the engine is unstable as a result of in-use production components (such as engines that use ignition cut-off for governing, as opposed to unstable dynamometer operation), you must use the mean feedback speed from paragraph (b)(6)(ii)(A) of this section as the measured warm high-idle speed. The engine is considered unstable if any of the 1 Hz speed feedback values are not within ±2% of the calculated mean feedback speed. We recommend that you determine the mean as the value representing the midpoint between the observed maximum and minimum recorded feedback speed.

(C) If your dynamometer is not capable of achieving a mean feedback torque within ±1% of Tmax mapped, operate the engine at a second point with operator demand set to maximum with the dynamometer set to target a torque equal to the recorded mean feedback torque on the previous point plus 20% of Tmax mapped. Use this data point and the data point from paragraph (b)(6)(ii)(A) of this section to extrapolate the engine speed where torque is equal to zero.

(D) You may use a manufacturer-declared Tmax instead of the measured Tmax mapped. If you do this, or if you are able to determine mean feedback speed as described in paragraphs (b)(6)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section, you may measure the warm high-idle speed before running the speed sweep specified in paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(7) For engines with a low-speed governor, if a nonzero idle torque is representative of in-use operation, operate the engine at warm idle with the manufacturer-declared idle torque. Set the operator demand to minimum, use the dynamometer to target the declared idle torque, and allow the engine to govern the speed. Measure this speed and use it as the warm idle speed for cycle generation in § 1065.512. We recommend recording at least 30 values of speed and using the mean of those values. If you identify multiple warm idle torques under paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section, measure the warm idle speed at each torque. You may map the idle governor at multiple load levels and use this map to determine the measured warm idle speed at the declared idle torque(s).

(c) Negative torque mapping. If your engine is subject to a reference duty cycle that specifies negative torque values (i.e., engine motoring), generate a motoring torque curve by any of the following procedures:

(1) Multiply the positive torques from your map by −40%. Use linear interpolation to determine intermediate values.

(2) Map the amount of negative torque required to motor the engine by repeating paragraph (b) of this section with minimum operator demand. You may start the negative torque map at either the minimum or maximum speed from paragraph (b) of this section.

(3) Determine the amount of negative torque required to motor the engine at the following two points near the ends of the engine's speed range. Operate the engine at these two points at minimum operator demand. Use linear interpolation to determine intermediate values.

(i) Low-speed point. For engines without a low-speed governor, determine the amount of negative torque at warm idle speed. For engines with a low-speed governor, motor the engine above warm idle speed so the governor is inactive and determine the amount of negative torque at that speed.

(ii) High-speed point. For engines without a high-speed governor, determine the amount of negative torque at the maximum safe speed or the maximum representative speed. For engines with a high-speed governor, determine the amount of negative torque at a speed at or above nhi per § 1065.610(c)(2).

(4) For engines with an electric hybrid system, map the negative torque required to motor the engine and absorb any power delivered from the RESS by repeating paragraph (g)(2) of this section with minimum operator demand, stopping the sweep to discharge the RESS when the absolute instantaneous power measured from the RESS drops below the expected maximum absolute power from the RESS by more than 2% of total system maximum power (including engine motoring and RESS power) as determined from mapping the negative torque.

(d) Mapping constant-speed engines. For constant-speed engines, generate a map as follows:

(1) Record the atmospheric pressure.

(2) Warm up the engine by operating it. We recommend operating the engine at approximately 75% of the engine's expected maximum power. Continue the warm-up until the engine coolant, block, or head absolute temperature is within ±2% of its mean value for at least 2 min or until the engine thermostat controls engine temperature.

(3) You may operate the engine with a production constant-speed governor or simulate a constant-speed governor by controlling engine speed with an operator demand control system described in § 1065.110. Use either isochronous or speed-droop governor operation, as appropriate.

(4) With the governor or simulated governor controlling speed using operator demand, operate the engine at no-load governed speed (at high speed, not low idle) for at least 15 seconds.

(5) Record at 1 Hz the mean of feedback speed and torque. Use the dynamometer to increase torque at a constant rate. Unless the standard-setting part specifies otherwise, complete the map such that it takes (2 to 4) min to sweep from no-load governed speed to the speed below maximum mapped power at which the engine develops 90% of maximum mapped power. You may map your engine to lower speeds. Stop recording after you complete the sweep. Use this series of speeds and torques to generate the power map as described in paragraph (e) of this section.

(i) For constant-speed engines subject only to steady-state testing, you may perform an engine map by using a series of discrete torques. Select at least five evenly spaced torque setpoints from no-load to 80% of the manufacturer-declared test torque or to a torque derived from your published maximum power level if the declared test torque is unavailable. Starting at the 80% torque point, select setpoints in 2.5% or smaller intervals, stopping at the endpoint torque. The endpoint torque is defined as the first discrete mapped torque value greater than the torque at maximum observed power where the engine outputs 90% of the maximum observed power; or the torque when engine stall has been determined using good engineering judgment (i.e. sudden deceleration of engine speed while adding torque). You may continue mapping at higher torque setpoints. At each setpoint, allow torque and speed to stabilize. Record the mean feedback speed and torque at each setpoint. From this series of mean feedback speed and torque values, use linear interpolation to determine intermediate values. Use this series of mean feedback speeds and torques to generate the power map as described in paragraph (e) of this section.

(ii) For any constant-speed engine, you may perform an engine map with a continuous torque sweep by continuing to record the mean feedback speed and torque at 1 Hz or more frequently. Use the dynamometer to increase torque. Increase the reference torque at a constant rate from no-load to the endpoint torque as defined in paragraph (d)(5)(i) of this section. You may continue mapping at higher torque setpoints. Unless the standard-setting part specifies otherwise, target a torque sweep rate equal to the manufacturer-declared test torque (or a torque derived from your published power level if the declared test torque is not known) divided by 180 seconds. Stop recording after you complete the sweep. Verify that the average torque sweep rate over the entire map is within ±7% of the target torque sweep rate. Use linear interpolation to determine intermediate values from this series of mean feedback speed and torque values. Use this series of mean feedback speeds and torques to generate the power map as described in paragraph (e) of this section.

(iii) For any isochronous governed (0% speed droop) constant-speed engine, you may map the engine with two points as described in this paragraph (d)(5)(iii). After stabilizing at the no-load governed speed in paragraph (d)(4) of this section, record the mean feedback speed and torque. Continue to operate the engine with the governor or simulated governor controlling engine speed using operator demand, and control the dynamometer to target a speed of 99.5% of the recorded mean no-load governed speed. Allow speed and torque to stabilize. Record the mean feedback speed and torque. Record the target speed. The absolute value of the speed error (the mean feedback speed minus the target speed) must be no greater than 0.1% of the recorded mean no-load governed speed. From this series of two mean feedback speed and torque values, use linear interpolation to determine intermediate values. Use this series of two mean feedback speeds and torques to generate a power map as described in paragraph (e) of this section. Note that the measured maximum test torque as determined in § 1065.610 (b)(1) will be the mean feedback torque recorded on the second point.

(e) Power mapping. For all engines, create a power-versus-speed map by transforming torque and speed values to corresponding power values. Use the mean values from the recorded map data. Do not use any interpolated values. Multiply each torque by its corresponding speed and apply the appropriate conversion factors to arrive at units of power (kW). Interpolate intermediate power values between these power values, which were calculated from the recorded map data.

(f) Measured and declared test speeds and torques. You must select test speeds and torques for cycle generation as required in this paragraph (f). “Measured” values are either directly measured during the engine mapping process or they are determined from the engine map. “Declared” values are specified by the manufacturer. When both measured and declared values are available, you may use declared test speeds and torques instead of measured speeds and torques if they meet the criteria in this paragraph (f). Otherwise, you must use measured speeds and torques derived from the engine map.

(1) Measured speeds and torques. Determine the applicable speeds and torques for the duty cycles you will run:

(i) Measured maximum test speed for variable-speed engines according to § 1065.610.

(ii) Measured maximum test torque for constant-speed engines according to § 1065.610.

(iii) Measured “A”, “B”, and “C” speeds for variable-speed engines according to § 1065.610.

(iv) Measured intermediate speed for variable-speed engines according to § 1065.610.

(v) For variable-speed engines with a low-speed governor, measure warm idle speed according to § 1065.510(b) and use this speed for cycle generation in § 1065.512. For engines with no low-speed governor, instead use the manufacturer-declared warm idle speed.

(2) Required declared speeds. You must declare the lowest engine speed possible with minimum load (i.e., manufacturer-declared warm idle speed). This is applicable only to variable-speed engines with no low-speed governor. For engines with no low-speed governor, the declared warm idle speed is used for cycle generation in § 1065.512. Declare this speed in a way that is representative of in-use operation. For example, if your engine is typically connected to an automatic transmission or a hydrostatic transmission, declare this speed at the idle speed at which your engine operates when the transmission is engaged.

(3) Optional declared speeds. You may use declared speeds instead of measured speeds as follows:

(i) You may use a declared value for maximum test speed for variable-speed engines if it is within (97.5 to 102.5) % of the corresponding measured value. You may use a higher declared speed if the length of the “vector” at the declared speed is within 2% of the length of the “vector” at the measured value. The term vector refers to the square root of the sum of normalized engine speed squared and the normalized full-load power (at that speed) squared, consistent with the calculations in § 1065.610.

(ii) You may use a declared value for intermediate, “A”, “B”, or “C” speeds for steady-state tests if the declared value is within (97.5 to 102.5)% of the corresponding measured value.

(iii) For electronically governed engines, you may use a declared warm high-idle speed for calculating the alternate maximum test speed as specified in § 1065.610.

(4) Required declared torques. If a nonzero idle or minimum torque is representative of in-use operation, you must declare the appropriate torque as follows:

(i) For variable-speed engines, declare a warm idle torque that is representative of in-use operation. For example, if your engine is typically connected to an automatic transmission or a hydrostatic transmission, declare the torque that occurs at the idle speed at which your engine operates when the transmission is engaged. Use this value for cycle generation. You may use multiple warm idle torques and associated idle speeds in cycle generation for representative testing. For example, for cycles that start the engine and begin with idle, you may start a cycle in idle with the transmission in neutral with zero torque and later switch to a different idle with the transmission in drive with the Curb-Idle Transmission Torque (CITT). For variable-speed engines intended primarily for propulsion of a vehicle with an automatic transmission where that engine is subject to a transient duty cycle with idle operation, you must declare a CITT. You must specify a CITT based on typical applications at the mean of the range of idle speeds you specify at stabilized temperature conditions.

(ii) For constant-speed engines, declare a warm minimum torque that is representative of in-use operation. For example, if your engine is typically connected to a machine that does not operate below a certain minimum torque, declare this torque and use it for cycle generation.

(5) Optional declared torques.

(i) For variable-speed engines you may declare a maximum torque over the engine operating range. You may use the declared value for measuring warm high-idle speed as specified in this section.

(ii) For constant-speed engines you may declare a maximum test torque. You may use the declared value for cycle generation if it is within (95 to 100) % of the measured value.

(g) Mapping variable-speed engines with an electric hybrid system. Map variable-speed engines that include electric hybrid systems as described in this paragraph (g). You may ask to apply these provisions to other types of hybrid engines, consistent with good engineering judgment. However, do not use this procedure for engines used in hybrid vehicles where the hybrid system is certified as part of the vehicle rather than the engine. Follow the steps for mapping a variable-speed engine as given in paragraph (b)(5) of this section except as noted in this paragraph (g). You must generate one engine map with the hybrid system inactive as described in paragraph (g)(1) of this section, and a separate map with the hybrid system active as described in paragraph (g)(2) of this section. See the standard-setting part to determine how to use these maps. The map with the system inactive is typically used to generate steady-state duty cycles, but may also be used to generate transient cycles, such as those that do not involve engine motoring. This hybrid-inactive map is also used for generating the hybrid-active map. The hybrid-active map is typically used to generate transient duty cycles that involve engine motoring.

(1) Prepare the engine for mapping by either deactivating the hybrid system or by operating the engine as specified in paragraph (b)(4) of this section and remaining at this condition until the rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) is depleted. Once the hybrid has been disabled or the RESS is depleted, perform an engine map as specified in paragraph (b)(5) of this section. If the RESS was depleted instead of deactivated, ensure that instantaneous power from the RESS remains less than 2% of the instantaneous measured power from the engine (or engine-hybrid system) at all engine speeds.

(2) The purpose of the mapping procedure in this paragraph (g) is to determine the maximum torque available at each speed, such as what might occur during transient operation with a fully charged RESS. Use one of the following methods to generate a hybrid-active map:

(i) Perform an engine map by using a series of continuous sweeps to cover the engine's full range of operating speeds. Prepare the engine for hybrid-active mapping by ensuring that the RESS state of charge is representative of normal operation. Perform the sweep as specified in paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section, but stop the sweep to charge the RESS when the power measured from the RESS drops below the expected maximum power from the RESS by more than 2% of total system power (including engine and RESS power). Unless good engineering judgment indicates otherwise, assume that the expected maximum power from the RESS is equal to the measured RESS power at the start of the sweep segment. For example, if the 3-second rolling average of total engine-RESS power is 200 kW and the power from the RESS at the beginning of the sweep segment is 50 kW, once the power from the RESS reaches 46 kW, stop the sweep to charge the RESS. Note that this assumption is not valid where the hybrid motor is torque-limited. Calculate total system power as a 3-second rolling average of instantaneous total system power. After each charging event, stabilize the engine for 15 seconds at the speed at which you ended the previous segment with operator demand set to maximum before continuing the sweep from that speed. Repeat the cycle of charging, mapping, and recharging until you have completed the engine map. You may shut down the system or include other operation between segments to be consistent with the intent of this paragraph (g)(2)(i). For example, for systems in which continuous charging and discharging can overheat batteries to an extent that affects performance, you may operate the engine at zero power from the RESS for enough time after the system is recharged to allow the batteries to cool. Use good engineering judgment to smooth the torque curve to eliminate discontinuities between map intervals.

(ii) Perform an engine map by using discrete speeds. Select map setpoints at intervals defined by the ranges of engine speed being mapped. From 95% of warm idle speed to 90% of the expected maximum test speed, select setpoints that result in a minimum of 13 equally spaced speed setpoints. From 90% to 110% of expected maximum test speed, select setpoints in equally spaced intervals that are nominally 2% of expected maximum test speed. Above 110% of expected maximum test speed, select setpoints based on the same speed intervals used for mapping from 95% warm idle speed to 90% maximum test speed. You may stop mapping at the highest speed above maximum power at which 50% of maximum power occurs. We refer to the speed at 50% power as the check point speed as described in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section. Stabilize engine speed at each setpoint, targeting a torque value at 70% of peak torque at that speed without hybrid-assist. Make sure the engine is fully warmed up and the RESS state of charge is within the normal operating range. Snap the operator demand to maximum, operate the engine there for at least 10 seconds, and record the 3-second rolling average feedback speed and torque at 1 Hz or higher. Record the peak 3-second average torque and 3-second average speed at that point. Use linear interpolation to determine intermediate speeds and torques. Follow § 1065.610(a) to calculate the maximum test speed. Verify that the measured maximum test speed falls in the range from 92 to 108% of the estimated maximum test speed. If the measured maximum test speed does not fall in this range, rerun the map using the measured value of maximum test speed.

(h) Other mapping procedures. You may use other mapping procedures if you believe the procedures specified in this section are unsafe or unrepresentative for your engine. Any alternate techniques you use must satisfy the intent of the specified mapping procedures, which is to determine the maximum available torque at all engine speeds that occur during a duty cycle. Identify any deviations from this section's mapping procedures when you submit data to us.

[73 FR 37315, June 30, 2008, as amended at 73 FR 59330, Oct. 8, 2008; 75 FR 23042, Apr. 30, 2010; 76 FR 57448, Sept. 15, 2011; 79 FR 23773, Apr. 28, 2014; 81 FR 74169, Oct. 25, 2016]