40 CFR § 1068.103 - Provisions related to the duration and applicability of certificates of conformity.
(a) Engines/equipment covered by a certificate of conformity are limited to those that are produced during the period specified in the certificate and conform to the specifications described in the certificate and the associated application for certification. For the purposes of this paragraph (a), “specifications” includes the emission control information label and any conditions or limitations identified by the manufacturer or EPA. For example, if the application for certification specifies certain engine configurations, the certificate does not cover any configurations that are not specified. We may ignore any information provided in the application that we determine is not relevant to a demonstration of compliance with applicable regulations, such as your projected production volumes in many cases.
(b) Unless the standard-setting part specifies otherwise, determine the production period corresponding to each certificate of conformity as specified in this paragraph (b). In general, the production period is the manufacturer's annual production period identified as a model year.
(1) For engines/equipment subject to emission standards based on model years, the first day of the annual production period can be no earlier than January 2 of the calendar year preceding the year for which the model year is named, or the earliest date of manufacture for any engine/equipment in the engine family, whichever is later. The last day of the annual production period can be no later than December 31 of the calendar year for which the model year is named or the latest date of manufacture for any engine/equipment in the engine family, whichever is sooner. Note that this approach limits how you can designate a model year for your engines/equipment; however, it does not limit your ability to meet more stringent emission standards early where this is permitted in the regulation.
(2) For fuel-system components certified to evaporative emission standards based on production periods rather than model years, the production period is either the calendar year or a longer period we specify consistent with the manufacturer's normal production practices.
(c) A certificate of conformity will not cover engines/equipment you produce with a date of manufacture earlier than the date you submit the application for certification for the family. You may start to produce engines/equipment after you submit an application for certification and before the effective date of a certificate of conformity, subject to the following conditions:
(1) The engines/equipment must conform in all material respects to the engines/equipment described in your application. Note that if we require you to modify your application, you must ensure that all engines/equipment conform to the specifications of the modified application.
(2) The engines/equipment may not be sold, offered for sale, introduced into U.S. commerce, or delivered for introduction into U.S. commerce before the effective date of the certificate of conformity.
(3) You must notify us in your application for certification that you plan to use the provisions of this paragraph (c) and when you intend to start production. If the standard-setting part specifies mandatory testing for production-line engines, you must start testing as directed in the standard-setting part based on your actual start of production, even if that occurs before we approve your certification. You must also agree to give us full opportunity to inspect and/or test the engines/equipment during and after production. For example, we must have the opportunity to specify selective enforcement audits as allowed by the standard-setting part and the Clean Air Act as if the engines/equipment were produced after the effective date of the certificate.
(d) The prohibition in § 1068.101(a)(1) against offering to sell engines/equipment without a valid certificate of conformity generally does not apply for engines/equipment that have not yet been produced. You may contractually agree to produce engines/equipment before obtaining the required certificate of conformity. This is intended to allow manufacturers of low-volume products to establish a sufficient market for engines/equipment before going through the effort to certify.
(e) Engines/equipment with a date of manufacture after December 31 of the calendar year for which a model year is named are not covered by the certificate of conformity for that model year. You must submit an application for a new certificate of conformity demonstrating compliance with applicable standards even if the engines/equipment are identical to those with a date of manufacture before December 31.
(f) The flexible approach to naming the annual production period described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section is intended to allow you to introduce new products at any point during the year. This is based on the expectation that production periods generally run on consistent schedules from year to year. You may not use this flexibility to arrange your production periods such that you can avoid annual certification.
(g) An engine is generally assigned a model year based on its date of manufacture, which is typically based on the date the crankshaft is installed in the engine (see § 1068.30). You may not circumvent the provisions of § 1068.101(a)(1) by stockpiling engines with a date of manufacture before new or changed emission standards take effect by deviating from your normal production and inventory practices. (For purposes of this paragraph (g), normal production and inventory practices means those practices you typically use for similar families in years in which emission standards do not change. We may require you to provide us routine production and inventory records that document your normal practices for the preceding eight years.) For most engines you should plan to complete the assembly of an engine of a given model year into its certified configuration within the first week after the end of the model year if new emission standards start to apply in that model year. For special circumstances it may be appropriate for your normal business practice to involve more time. For engines with per-cylinder displacement below 2.5 liters, if new emission standards start to apply in a given year, we would consider an engine not to be covered by a certificate of conformity for the preceding model year if the engine is not assembled in a compliant configuration within 30 days after the end of the model year for that engine family. (Note: an engine is considered “in a compliant configuration” without being fully assembled if § 1068.260(a) or (b) authorizes shipment of the engine without certain components.) For example, in the case where new standards apply in the 2010 model year, and your normal production period is based on the calendar year, you must complete the assembly of all your 2009 model year engines before January 31, 2010, or an earlier date consistent with your normal production and inventory practices. For engines with per-cylinder displacement at or above 2.5 liters, this time may not exceed 60 days. Note that for the purposes of this paragraph (g), an engine shipped under § 1068.261 is deemed to be a complete engine. Note also that § 1068.245 allows flexibility for additional time in unusual circumstances. Note finally that disassembly of complete engines and reassembly (such as for shipment) does not affect the determination of model year; the provisions of this paragraph (g) apply based on the date on which initial assembly is complete.
(h) This paragraph (h) describes the effect of suspending, revoking, or voiding a certificate of conformity. See the definitions of “suspend,” “revoke,” and “void” in § 1068.30. Engines/equipment produced at a time when the otherwise applicable certificate of conformity has been suspended or revoked are not covered by a certificate of conformity. Where a certificate of conformity is void, all engines/equipment produced under that certificate of conformity are not and were not covered by a certificate of conformity. In cases of suspension, engines/equipment will be covered by a certificate only if they are produced after the certificate is reinstated or a new certificate is issued. In cases of revocation and voiding, engines/equipment will be covered by a certificate only if they are produced after we issue a new certificate. 42 U.S.C. 7522(a)(1) and § 1068.101(a)(1) prohibit selling, offering for sale, introducing into commerce, delivering for introduction into commerce, and importing engines/equipment that are not covered by a certificate of conformity, and they prohibit anyone from causing another to violate these prohibitions.
(i) You may transfer a certificate to another entity only in the following cases: