40 CFR § 141.74 - Analytical and monitoring requirements.

§ 141.74 Analytical and monitoring requirements.

(a) Analytical requirements. Only the analytical method(s) specified in this paragraph, or otherwise approved by EPA, may be used to demonstrate compliance with §§ 141.71, 141.72 and 141.73. Measurements for pH, turbidity, temperature and residual disinfectant concentrations must be conducted by a person approved by the State. Measurement for total coliforms, fecal coliforms and HPC must be conducted by a laboratory certified by the State or EPA to do such analysis. Until laboratory certification criteria are developed for the analysis of fecal coliforms and HPC, any laboratory certified for total coliforms analysis by the State or EPA is deemed certified for fecal coliforms and HPC analysis. The following procedures shall be conducted in accordance with the publications listed in the following section. This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the methods published in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater may be obtained from the American Public Health Association et al., 1015 Fifteenth Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005; copies of the Minimal Medium ONPG-MUG Method as set forth in the article “National Field Evaluation of a Defined Substrate Method for the Simultaneous Enumeration of Total Coliforms and Esherichia coli from Drinking Water: Comparison with the Standard Multiple Tube Fermentation Method” (Edberg et al.), Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 54, pp. 1595-1601, June 1988 (as amended under Erratum, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 54, p. 3197, December, 1988), may be obtained from the American Water Works Association Research Foundation, 6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, Colorado, 80235; and copies of the Indigo Method as set forth in the article “Determination of Ozone in Water by the Indigo Method” (Bader and Hoigne), may be obtained from Ozone Science & Engineering, Pergamon Press Ltd., Fairview Park, Elmsford, New York 10523. Copies may be inspected at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Room EB15, 401 M St., SW., Washington, DC 20460 or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(1) Public water systems must conduct analysis of pH and temperature in accordance with one of the methods listed at § 141.23(k)(1). Public water systems must conduct analysis of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria, and turbidity in accordance with one of the following analytical methods or one of the alternative methods listed in appendix A to subpart C of this part and by using analytical test procedures contained in Technical Notes on Drinking Water Methods, EPA-600/R-94-173, October 1994. This document is available from the National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP), P.O. Box 42419, Cincinnati, OH 45242-0419 or http://www.epa.gov/nscep/.

Organism Methodology Citation 1
Total Coliform 2 Total Coliform Fermentation Technique 3 4 5 9221 A, B, C
Total Coliform Membrane Filter Technique 6 9222 A, B, C
ONPG-MUG Test 7 9223
Fecal Coliforms 2 Fecal Coliform Procedure 8 9221 E
Fecal Coliform Filter Procedure 9222 D
Heterotrophic bacteria 2 Pour Plate Method 9215 B
SimPlate 11
Turbidity 13 Nephelometric Method 2130 B
Nephelometric Method 180.1 9
Great Lakes Instruments Method 2 10
Hach FilterTrak 10133 12

The procedures shall be done in accordance with the documents listed below. The incorporation by reference of the following documents listed in footnotes 1, 6, 7 and 9-12 was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the documents may be obtained from the sources listed below. Information regarding obtaining these documents can be obtained from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 800-426-4791. Documents may be inspected at EPA's Drinking Water Docket, 1301 Constitution Avenue, NW., EPA West, Room B102, Washington DC 20460 (Telephone: 202-566-2426); or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

1 Except where noted, all methods refer to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 18th edition (1992), 19th edition (1995), or 20th edition (1998), American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005. The cited methods published in any of these three editions may be used. In addition, the following online versions may also be used: 2130 B-01, 9215 B-00, 9221 A, B, C, E-99, 9222 A, B, C, D-97, and 9223 B-97. Standard Methods Online are available at http://www.standardmethods.org. The year in which each method was approved by the Standard Methods Committee is designated by the last two digits in the method number. The methods listed are the only Online versions that may be used.

2 The time from sample collection to initiation of analysis may not exceed 8 hours. Systems must hold samples below 10 deg. C during transit.

3 Lactose broth, as commercially available, may be used in lieu of lauryl tryptose broth, if the system conducts at least 25 parallel tests between this medium and lauryl tryptose broth using the water normally tested, and this comparison demonstrates that the false-positive rate and false-negative rate for total coliform, using lactose broth, is less than 10 percent.

4 Media should cover inverted tubes at least one-half to two-thirds after the sample is added.

5 No requirement exists to run the completed phase on 10 percent of all total coliform-positive confirmed tubes.

6 MI agar also may be used. Preparation and use of MI agar is set forth in the article, “New medium for the simultaneous detection of total coliform and Escherichia coli in water” by Brenner, K.P., et. al., 1993, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:3534-3544. Also available from the Office of Water Resource Center (RC-4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington DC 20460, EPA/600/J-99/225. Verification of colonies is not required.

7 The ONPG-MUG Test is also known as the Autoanalysis Colilert System.

8 A-1 broth may be held up to 7 days in a tightly closed screw cap tube at 4 °C.

9 “Methods for the Determination of Inorganic Substances in Environmental Samples”, EPA/600/R-93/100, August 1993. Available at NTIS, PB94-121811.

10 GLI Method 2, “Turbidity,” November 2, 1992, Great Lakes Instruments, Inc., 8855 North 55th Street, Milwaukee, WI 53223.

11 A description of the SimPlate method, “IDEXX SimPlate TM HPC Test Method for Heterotrophs in Water,” November 2000, can be obtained from IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., 1 IDEXX Drive, Westbrook, ME 04092, telephone (800) 321-0207.

12 A description of the Hach FilterTrak Method 10133, “Determination of Turbidity by Laser Nephelometry,” January 2000, Revision 2.0, can be obtained from; Hach Co., P.O. Box 389, Loveland, CO 80539-0389, telephone: 800-227-4224.

13 Styrene divinyl benzene beads (e.g., AMCO-AEPA-1 or equivalent) and stabilized formazin (e.g., Hach StablCal TM or equivalent) are acceptable substitutes for formazin.

(2) Public water systems must measure residual disinfectant concentrations with one of the analytical methods in the following table or one of the alternative methods listed in appendix A to subpart C of this part. If approved by the State, residual disinfectant concentrations for free chlorine and combined chlorine also may be measured by using DPD colorimetric test kits. In addition States may approve the use of the ITS free chlorine test strip for the determination of free chlorine. Use of the test strips is described in Method D99-003, “Free Chlorine Species (HOCl and OCl) by Test Strip,” Revision 3.0, November 21, 2003, available from Industrial Test Systems, Inc., 1875 Langston St., Rock Hill, SC 29730. Free and total chlorine residuals may be measured continuously by adapting a specified chlorine residual method for use with a continuous monitoring instrument provided the chemistry, accuracy, and precision remain the same. Instruments used for continuous monitoring must be calibrated with a grab sample measurement at least every five days, or with a protocol approved by the State.

Residual Methodology SM 1 SM Online 2 Other
Free Chlorine Amperometric Titration 4500-Cl D 4500-Cl D-00 D1253-03 3
DPD Ferrous Titrimetric 4500-Cl F 4500-Cl F-00
DPD Colorimetric 4500-Cl G 4500-Cl G-00
Syringaldazine (FACTS) 4500-Cl H 4500-Cl H-00
Total Chlorine Amperometric Titration 4500-Cl D 4500-Cl D-00 D1253-03 3
Amperometric Titration (low level measurement) 4500-Cl E 4500-Cl E-00
DPD Ferrous Titrimetric 4500-Cl F 4500-Cl F-00
DPD Colorimetric 4500-Cl G 4500-Cl G-00
Iodometric Electrode 4500-Cl I 4500-Cl I-00
Chlorine Dioxide Amperometric Titration 4500-ClO2 C 4500-ClO2 C-00
DPD Method 4500-ClO2 D
Amperometric Titration 4500-ClO2 E 4500-ClO2 E-00
Spectrophotometric 327.0, Revision 1.1 4
Ozone Indigo Method 4500-O3 B 4500-O3 B-97

1 All the listed methods are contained in the 18th, 19th, and 20th editions of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1992, 1995, and 1998; the cited methods published in any of these three editions may be used.

2 Standard Methods Online are available at http://www.standardmethods.org. The year in which each method was approved by the Standard Methods Committee is designated by the last two digits in the method number. The methods listed are the only Online versions that may be used.

3Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 11.01, 2004 ; ASTM International; any year containing the cited version of the method may be used. Copies of this method may be obtained from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700 West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

4 EPA Method 327.0, Revision 1.1, “Determination of Chlorine Dioxide and Chlorite Ion in Drinking Water Using Lissamine Green B and Horseradish Peroxidase with Detection by Visible Spectrophotometry,” USEPA, May 2005, EPA 815-R-05-008. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/methods/sourcalt.html.

(b) Monitoring requirements for systems that do not provide filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source and does not provide filtration treatment must begin monitoring, as specified in this paragraph (b), beginning December 31, 1990, unless the State has determined that filtration is required in writing pursuant to § 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii), in which case the State may specify alternative monitoring requirements, as appropriate, until filtration is in place. A public water system that uses a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water and does not provide filtration treatment must begin monitoring as specified in this paragraph (b) beginning December 31, 1990, or 6 months after the State determines that the ground water source is under the direct influence of surface water, whichever is later, unless the State has determined that filtration is required in writing pursuant to § 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii), in which case the State may specify alternative monitoring requirements, as appropriate, until filtration is in place.

(1) Fecal coliform or total coliform density measurements as required by § 141.71(a)(1) must be performed on representative source water samples immediately prior to the first or only point of disinfectant application. The system must sample for fecal or total coliforms at the following minimum frequency each week the system serves water to the public:

System size (persons served) Samples/week 1
≤500 1
501 to 3,300 2
3,301 to 10,000 3
10,001 to 25,000 4
>25,000 5

1 Must be taken on separate days.

Also, one fecal or total coliform density measurement must be made every day the system serves water to the public and the turbidity of the source water exceeds 1 NTU (these samples count towards the weekly coliform sampling requirement) unless the State determines that the system, for logistical reasons outside the system's control, cannot have the sample analyzed within 30 hours of collection.

(2) Turbidity measurements as required by § 141.71(a)(2) must be performed on representative grab samples of source water immediately prior to the first or only point of disinfectant application every four hours (or more frequently) that the system serves water to the public. A public water system may substitute continuous turbidity monitoring for grab sample monitoring if it validates the continuous measurement for accuracy on a regular basis using a protocol approved by the State.

(3) The total inactivation ratio for each day that the system is in operation must be determined based on the CT99.9 values in tables 1.1-1.6, 2.1, and 3.1 of this section, as appropriate. The parameters necessary to determine the total inactivation ratio must be monitored as follows:

(i) The temperature of the disinfected water must be measured at least once per day at each residual disinfectant concentration sampling point.

(ii) If the system uses chlorine, the pH of the disinfected water must be measured at least once per day at each chlorine residual disinfectant concentration sampling point.

(iii) The disinfectant contact time(s) (“T”) must be determined for each day during peak hourly flow.

(iv) The residual disinfectant concentration(s) (“C”) of the water before or at the first customer must be measured each day during peak hourly flow.

(v) If a system uses a disinfectant other than chlorine, the system may demonstrate to the State, through the use of a State-approved protocol for on-site disinfection challenge studies or other information satisfactory to the State, that CT99.9 values other than those specified in tables 2.1 and 3.1 in this section other operational parameters are adequate to demonstrate that the system is achieving the minimum inactivation rates required by § 141.72(a)(1).

Table 1.1 - CT Values (CT99.9) for 99.9 Percent Inactivation of Giardia Lamblia Cysts by Free Chlorine at 0.5 °C or Lower 1

Residual (mg/l) pH
≤6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 ≤9.0
≤0.4 137 163 195 237 277 329 390
0.6 141 168 200 239 286 342 407
0.8 145 172 205 246 295 354 422
1.0 148 176 210 253 304 365 437
1.2 152 180 215 259 313 376 451
1.4 155 184 221 266 321 387 464
1.6 157 189 226 273 329 397 477
1.8 162 193 231 279 338 407 489
2.0 165 197 236 286 346 417 500
2.2 169 201 242 297 353 426 511
2.4 172 205 247 298 361 435 522
2.6 175 209 252 304 368 444 533
2.8 178 213 257 310 375 452 543
3.0 181 217 261 316 382 460 552

1 These CT values achieve greater than a 99.99 percent inactivation of viruses. CT values between the indicated pH values may be determined by linear interpolation. CT values between the indicated temperatures of different tables may be determined by linear interpolation. If no interpolation is used, use the CT99.9 value at the lower temperature and at the higher pH.

Table 1.2 - CT Values (CT 99.9) for 99.9 Percent Inactivation of Giardia Lamblia Cysts by Free Chlorine at 5.0 °C 1

Free residual (mg/l) pH
≤6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 ≤9.0
≤0.4 97 117 139 166 198 236 279
0.6 100 120 143 171 204 244 291
0.8 103 122 146 175 210 252 301
1.0 105 125 149 179 216 260 312
1.2 107 127 152 183 221 267 320
1.4 109 130 155 187 227 274 329
1.6 111 132 158 192 232 281 337
1.8 114 135 162 196 238 287 345
2.0 116 138 165 200 243 294 353
2.2 118 140 169 204 248 300 361
2.4 120 143 172 209 253 306 368
2.6 122 146 175 213 258 312 375
2.8 124 148 178 217 263 318 382
3.0 126 151 182 221 268 324 389

1 These CT values achieve greater than a 99.99 percent inactivation of viruses. CT values between the indicated pH values may be determined by linear interpolation. CT values between the indicated temperatures of different tables may be determined by linear interpolation. If no interpolation is used, use the CT99.9 value at the lower temperature, and at the higher pH.

Table 1.3 - CT Values (CT 99.9) for 99.9 Percent Inactivation of Giardia Lamblia Cysts by Free Chlorine at 10.0 °C 1

Free residual (mg/l) pH
≤6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 ≤9.0
≤0.4 73 88 104 125 149 177 209
0.6 75 90 107 128 153 183 218
0.8 78 92 110 131 158 189 226
1.0 79 94 112 134 162 195 234
1.2 80 95 114 137 166 200 240
1.4 82 98 116 140 170 206 247
1.6 83 99 119 144 174 211 253
1.8 86 101 122 147 179 215 259
2.0 87 104 124 150 182 221 265
2.2 89 105 127 153 186 225 271
2.4 90 107 129 157 190 230 276
2.6 92 110 131 160 194 234 281
2.8 93 111 134 163 197 239 287
3.0 95 113 137 166 201 243 292

1 These CT values achieve greater than a 99.99 percent inactivation of viruses. CT values between the indicated pH values may be determined by linear interpolation. CT values between the indicated temperatures of different tables may be determined by linear interpolation. If no interpolation is used, use the CT99.9 value at the lower temperature, and at the higher pH.

Table 1.4 - CT Values (CT 99.9) for 99.9 Percent Inactivation of Giardia Lamblia Cysts by Free Chlorine at 15.0 °C 1

Free residual (mg/l) pH
≤6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 ≤9.0
≤0.4 49 59 70 83 99 118 140
0.6 50 60 72 86 102 122 146
0.8 52 61 73 88 105 126 151
1.0 53 63 75 90 108 130 156
1.2 54 64 76 92 111 134 160
1.4 55 65 78 94 114 137 165
1.6 56 66 79 96 116 141 169
1.8 57 68 81 98 119 144 173
2.0 58 69 83 100 122 147 177
2.2 59 70 85 102 124 150 181
2.4 60 72 86 105 127 153 184
2.6 61 73 88 107 129 156 188
2.8 62 74 89 109 132 159 191
3.0 63 76 91 111 134 162 195

1 These CT values achieve greater than a 99.99 percent inactivation of viruses. CT values between the indicated pH values may be determined by linear interpolation. CT values between the indicated temperatures of different tables may be determined by linear interpolation. If no interpolation is used, use the CT99.9 value at the lower temperature, and at the higher pH.

Table 1.5 - CT Values (CT99.9) for 99.9 Percent Inactivation of Giardia Lamblia Cysts by Free Chlorine at 20 °C 1

Free residual (mg/l) pH
≤6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 ≤9.0
≤0.4 36 44 52 62 74 89 105
0.6 38 45 54 64 77 92 109
0.8 39 46 55 66 79 95 113
1.0 39 47 56 67 81 98 117
1.2 40 48 57 69 83 100 120
1.4 41 49 58 70 85 103 123
1.6 42 50 59 72 87 105 126
1.8 43 51 61 74 89 108 129
2.0 44 52 62 75 91 110 132
2.2 44 53 63 77 93 113 135
2.4 45 54 65 78 95 115 138
2.6 46 55 66 80 97 117 141
2.8 47 56 67 81 99 119 143
3.0 47 57 68 83 101 122 146

1 These CT values achieve greater than a 99.99 percent inactivation of viruses. CT values between the indicated pH values may be determined by linear interpolation. CT values between the indicated temperatures of different tables may be determined by linear interpolation. If no interpolation is used, use the CT99.9 value at the lower temperature, and at the higher pH.

Table 1.6 - CT Values (CT99.9) for 99.9 Percent Inactivation of Giardia Lamblia Cysts by Free Chlorine at 25 °C 1 and Higher

Free residual (mg/l) pH
≤6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 ≤9.0
≤0.4 24 29 35 42 50 59 70
0.6 25 30 36 43 51 61 73
0.8 26 31 37 44 53 63 75
1.0 26 31 37 45 54 65 78
1.2 27 32 38 46 55 67 80
1.4 27 33 39 47 57 69 82
1.6 28 33 40 48 58 70 84
1.8 29 34 41 49 60 72 86
2.0 29 35 41 50 61 74 88
2.2 30 35 42 51 62 75 90
2.4 30 36 43 52 63 77 92
2.6 31 37 44 53 65 78 94
2.8 31 37 45 54 66 80 96
3.0 32 38 46 55 67 81 97

1 These CT values achieve greater than a 99.99 percent inactivation of viruses. CT values between the indicated pH values may be determined by linear interpolation. CT values between the indicated temperatures of different tables may be determined by linear interpolation. If no interpolation is used, use the CT99.9 value at the lower temperature, and at the higher pH.

Table 2.1 - CT Values (CT99.9) for 99.9 Percent Inactivation of Giardia Lamblia Cysts by Chlorine Dioxide and Ozone 1

Temperature <1 °C 5 °C 10 °C 15 °C 20 °C 63 26 23 19 15 11 2.9 1.9 1.4 0.95 0.72 0.48

1 These CT values achieve greater than 99.99 percent inactivation of viruses. CT values between the indicated temperatures may be determined by linear interpolation. If no interpolation is used, use the CT99.9 value at the lower temperature for determining CT99.9 values between indicated temperatures.

Table 3.1 - CT Values (CT 99.9) for 99.9 Percent Inactivation of Giardia Lamblia Cysts By Chloramines 1

Temperature
<1 °C 5 °C 10 °C 15 °C 20 °C 25 °C
3,800 2,200 1,850 1,500 1,100 750

1 These values are for pH values of 6 to 9. These CT values may be assumed to achieve greater than 99.99 percent inactivation of viruses only if chlorine is added and mixed in the water prior to the addition of ammonia. If this condition is not met, the system must demonstrate, based on on-site studies or other information, as approved by the State, that the system is achieving at least 99.99 percent inactivation of viruses. CT values between the indicated temperatures may be determined by linear interpolation. If no interpolation is used, use the CT99.9 value at the lower temperature for determining CT99.9 values between indicated temperatures.

(4) The total inactivation ratio must be calculated as follows:

(i) If the system uses only one point of disinfectant application, the system may determine the total inactivation ratio based on either of the following two methods:

(A) One inactivation ratio (CTcalc/CT99.9) is determined before or at the first customer during peak hourly flow and if the CTcalc/CT99.9 ≥1.0, the 99.9 percent Giardia lamblia inactivation requirement has been achieved; or

(B) Successive CTcalc/CT99.9 values, representing sequential inactivation ratios, are determined between the point of disinfectant application and a point before or at the first customer during peak hourly flow. Under this alternative, the following method must be used to calculate the total inactivation ratio:

$\begin{array}{c}\text{(1)}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{Determine}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\frac{\mathrm{CTcalc}}{{\mathrm{CT}}_{99.9}}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{for each sequence.}\\ \text{(2)}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{Add the}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\frac{\mathrm{CTcalc}}{{\mathrm{CT}}_{99.9}}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{values together}\left(\sum \phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\frac{\left(\mathrm{CTcalc}\right)}{{\mathrm{CT}}_{99.9}}\right)\\ \text{(3)}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\mathrm{If}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\sum \phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\left(\frac{\mathrm{CTcalc}}{{\mathrm{CT}}_{99.9}}\right)\ge 1.0,\mathrm{the}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}99.9\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{percent}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{Giardia}\end{array}$

lamblia inactivation requirement has been achieved.

(ii) If the system uses more than one point of disinfectant application before or at the first customer, the system must determine the CT value of each disinfection sequence immediately prior to the next point of disinfectant application during peak hourly flow. The CTcalc/CT99.9 value of each sequence and

$\sum \frac{CT\text{calc}}{C{T}_{99\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}9}}$

must be calculated using the method in paragraph (b)(4)(i)(B) of this section to determine if the system is in compliance with § 141.72(a).

(iii) Although not required, the total percent inactivation for a system with one or more points of residual disinfectant concentration monitoring may be calculated by solving the following equation:

$\begin{array}{c}\text{Percent inactivation}=100-\frac{100}{{10}^{z}}\\ \text{where}z=3×\sum \left(\frac{\mathrm{CTcalc}}{{\mathrm{CT}}_{99.9}}\right)\end{array}$

(5) The residual disinfectant concentration of the water entering the distribution system must be monitored continuously, and the lowest value must be recorded each day, except that if there is a failure in the continuous monitoring equipment, grab sampling every 4 hours may be conducted in lieu of continuous monitoring, but for no more than 5 working days following the failure of the equipment, and systems serving 3,300 or fewer persons may take grab samples in lieu of providing continuous monitoring on an ongoing basis at the frequencies prescribed below:

System size by population Samples/day 1
<500 1
501 to 1,000 2
1,001 to 2,500 3
2,501 to 3,300 4

1 The day's samples cannot be taken at the same time. The sampling intervals are subject to State review and approval.

If at any time the residual disinfectant concentration falls below 0.2 mg/l in a system using grab sampling in lieu of continuous monitoring, the system must take a grab sample every 4 hours until the residual concentration is equal to or greater than 0.2 mg/l.

(6)

(i) Until March 31, 2016, the residual disinfectant concentration must be measured at least at the same points in the distribution system and at the same time as total coliforms are sampled, as specified in § 141.21. Beginning April 1, 2016, the residual disinfectant concentration must be measured at least at the same points in the distribution system and at the same time as total coliforms are sampled, as specified in §§ 141.854 through 141.858. The State may allow a public water system which uses both a surface water source or a ground water source under direct influence of surface water, and a ground water source, to take disinfectant residual samples at points other than the total coliform sampling points if the State determines that such points are more representative of treated (disinfected) water quality within the distribution system. Heterotrophic bacteria, measured as heterotrophic plate count (HPC) as specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, may be measured in lieu of residual disinfectant concentration.

(ii) If the State determines, based on site-specific considerations, that a system has no means for having a sample transported and analyzed for HPC by a certified laboratory under the requisite time and temperature conditions specified by paragraph (a)(1) of this section and that the system is providing adequate disinfection in the distribution system, the requirements of paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section do not apply to that system.

(c) Monitoring requirements for systems using filtration treatment. A public water system that uses a surface water source or a ground water source under the influence of surface water and provides filtration treatment must monitor in accordance with this paragraph (c) beginning June 29, 1993, or when filtration is installed, whichever is later.

(1) Turbidity measurements as required by § 141.73 must be performed on representative samples of the system's filtered water every four hours (or more frequently) that the system serves water to the public. A public water system may substitute continuous turbidity monitoring for grab sample monitoring if it validates the continuous measurement for accuracy on a regular basis using a protocol approved by the State. For any systems using slow sand filtration or filtration treatment other than conventional treatment, direct filtration, or diatomaceous earth filtration, the State may reduce the sampling frequency to once per day if it determines that less frequent monitoring is sufficient to indicate effective filtration performance. For systems serving 500 or fewer persons, the State may reduce the turbidity sampling frequency to once per day, regardless of the type of filtration treatment used, if the State determines that less frequent monitoring is sufficient to indicate effective filtration performance.

(2) The residual disinfectant concentration of the water entering the distribution system must be monitored continuously, and the lowest value must be recorded each day, except that if there is a failure in the continuous monitoring equipment, grab sampling every 4 hours may be conducted in lieu of continuous monitoring, but for no more than 5 working days following the failure of the equipment, and systems serving 3,300 or fewer persons may take grab samples in lieu of providing continuous monitoring on an ongoing basis at the frequencies each day prescribed below:

System size by population Samples/day 1
±500 1
501 to 1,000 2
1,001 to 2,500 3
2,501 to 3,300 4

1 The day's samples cannot be taken at the same time. The sampling intervals are subject to State review and approval.

If at any time the residual disinfectant concentration falls below 0.2 mg/l in a system using grab sampling in lieu of continuous monitoring, the system must take a grab sample every 4 hours until the residual disinfectant concentration is equal to or greater than 0.2 mg/l.

(3)

(i) Until March 31, 2016, the residual disinfectant concentration must be measured at least at the same points in the distribution system and at the same time as total coliforms are sampled, as specified in § 141.21. Beginning April 1, 2016, the residual disinfectant concentration must be measured at least at the same points in the distribution system and at the same time as total coliforms are sampled, as specified in §§ 141.854 through 141.858. The State may allow a public water system which uses both a surface water source or a ground water source under direct influence of surface water, and a ground water source, to take disinfectant residual samples at points other than the total coliform sampling points if the State determines that such points are more representative of treated (disinfected) water quality within the distribution system. Heterotrophic bacteria, measured as heterotrophic plate count (HPC) as specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, may be measured in lieu of residual disinfectant concentration.

(ii) If the State determines, based on site-specific considerations, that a system has no means for having a sample transported and analyzed for HPC by a certified laboratory under the requisite time and temperature conditions specified by paragraph (a)(1) of this section and that the system is providing adequate disinfection in the distribution system, the requirements of paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section do not apply to that system.

[54 FR 27527, June 29, 1989, as amended at 59 FR 62470, Dec. 5, 1994; 60 FR 34086, June 29, 1995; 64 FR 67465, Dec. 1, 1999; 67 FR 65252, Oct. 23, 2002; 67 FR 65901, Oct. 29, 2002; 69 FR 38856, June 29, 2004; 72 FR 11247, Mar. 12, 2007; 74 FR 30958, June 29, 2009; 78 FR 10347, Feb. 13, 2013]